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the first Article, "AGRICULTURE,” the reader will ascertain under it what is said in Scripture as to the Land and Farms of Canaan, the processes of Husbandry, such as Ploughing, Sowing and Reaping, etc., and the allusions to them contained in the Prophets and in the Parables of our Lord, with much more of similar import. Talbot and West only use a verse once, and therefore some of their Sections are brief and scanty; on the other hand we have repeated many verses twice, thrice, and oftener-our only limit being the fear of too large a Volume. Great care has been taken to secure accuracy of reference, and every verse has been turned up, and verified by young eyes and fingers in the retirement of a rural Manse. The technical labour of preparing Copy has been performed by One, whose relationship to the Editor gave her a filial interest in the daily and protracted task. The Work is enriched with a very full Index prepared with characteristic accuracy by a friend, whose labours in a similar field we have elsewhere acknowledged. Another peculiar advantage will be found in the prefixed Synopsis, which is so constructed that it may be read continuously, and it will be found to exhibit a bird's eye view of Biblical Antiquities and Theology. By the employment of Synopsis and Index, every subject of Scripture may be easily turned up, and full information speedily obtained. In fine, while our Book will save time and trouble to the inquirer, yet we counsel the continuous consultation of the Scriptures themselves, and of the verses in their original connection. For there is a living unity in the Bible amidst all its diversity, and it is with it as with the minerals of the globe, which present a more glorious order in the respective positions in which nature has placed them, than when artificially arranged on the shelves of a cabinet. With all the imperfections of this volume, and they belong more or less to every compilation of the kind, we hope that it may be found to be really useful, that the Divine blessing may accompany it, and that it may meet with that cordial and extended welcome which has been, and still is so kindly vouchsafed to its two predecessors.


December, 1856,

The Dash-80 often introduced, is designed to point out some differences in the Verses following it, such as Allusions and Examples, or Instances and Statements adduced as contrasts to the Verses of the Topic or Section printed above it.




THRASHING, Divided by lot according to the number of Done on floor, thrashing.floor, barn-floor, cornfamilies, as commanded by Moses, and per- floor, by a rod, or hoofs of unmuzzied cattle, formed by Joshua at Shiloh.

cart-wheels or teethed instruments; straw and

grain separated by removing with a fan or TENURE OF LAND,

fanners;-chaff driven by the wind: symbol of Held from God in perpetual entail on con- judgment, etc. dition of military service, -returning,if aliena. ted, to its original owner at the year of jubilee, or redeemable on certain conditions, in- For cattle, green and abundant, refreshed by

GRASS, stances in Naomi, Naboth, etc.

rain, on house-tops short-lived, soon withered TRANSFER OF LAND,

and used as fuel-cust into the oven : emblem Bought in patriarchal times, and made over of life, of prosperity, of the wicked, etc. by charter also in Jewish times.


Beans, bulrushes, flags, flax, gourds, heath,
Rich, fertile, and well watered,—with hills, lentiles, mandrakes, mallows, millet, reeds,
and valleys, and minerals underneath. rushes, rye, tares.

FAILURE OF CROPS, Wilful fire-raising punished by restitution, as of grass,-a terrible visitation, as in days of also devastations of animals,-landmarks not Ahab;-of grain, -caused by inclement seato be removed, -growing crops might be son, by drought and wet,-by locusts,—by plucked by the traveller, but not cut with a predatory enemies,—often very severe;-hunger sickle.

or cleanness of tecth, urging to various repulsive CULTIVATION OF SOIL,

elements of food, even during a siege to candiAsigned to Adam and to man, as the means balism, and producing blackness of skin, ema. of sustenance.

nation, fainting, and death : the symbol of METHODS OF CULTIVATION,

spiritual destitution,-instances in the days Ploughing, performed by oxen, and in winter, David, Ahab, Elisha, siege of Samaria, of seven

of Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, of the Judges, of -breaking up the clods and fallow ground; the years, foretold

by Elisha, during siege of Jerusymbol

of reformation, of spiritual industry, salem, after the captivity, in reign of Claudius and of ruin.


GOD'S CARE OF HIS PEOPLE Divers seeds not to be used,often trodden into the soil by feet of animals; a work of During famine, as in case of Elijah, often hope; and the emblem of increase and spirit- promised. un instruction,

MEANS AGAINST FAMINE, PLENTY, Often experienced to an hundred fold: the gift Granaries of Egypt filled by Joseph, and corn of God.

imported from other countries. REAPING, Corn cut with a sickle by shearers or harvest

UNRECLAIMED LAND, men, and gathered into sheuves, tares into bund- Dry, desolate, waste, and howling, not sown, marshes les - season of joy and of industry: the often wood or forest, filled with wild beasts, symbol of retribution generally in mercy and and haunted by robbers;—noxious vegetation judgment.

in it, thorns, thistles, ncttles, briars, brambles, GLEANING,

these also on scenes of ruin: symbols of spi. Corners of fields not to be reaped;—forgotten ritual sterility and desolation. For names of sheais not to be fetched, but left for poor, deserts and forests in Scripture, see uuder instanced in Ruth.


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