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feast of ingathering-feast of tabernacles, Solomon,--feast of Purim in commemoration people dwelling in booths, beginning on fif. of national deliverance through Esther,teenth day of seventh month and lasting seven these feasts not binding upon Christians, but days; -- feast of dedication, instituted by are beggarly elements,--shadow of things to come.





the rest,-sin-offering and trespass-offerings Often offered in patriarchal times, instances particularized, - instances of great sacrifices in Cain and Abel, Noah, Abraham, Balaam, at Gilgal, at carrying up the ark, in time of etc.

Solomon, llezekiah and Ezra.

PERIODS AND OCCASIONS OF SACRIFICE. Offered on an altar, and by Aaron and his Daily at morning or evening, double sacrifice sons, very rarely in other places as at Sinai, on Sabbath, --at new moon, at the passover, Gilgal, the token of devotion, acceptable to

on the first, tenth and fifteenth of seventh God, -sacrifice of a broken spirit, of believers, month, -ceremony of scape-goat bearing inia living sacrifice, also of praise, --sacrifice quities into a land not inhabited, -sacrifices at uever a substitute for obedience;' instanced child-birth,—for sins of ignorance on part of in Saul and the Hebrew nation, as described people and rulers,- for priests, and at cleans by the psalmist, the prophets Isaiah, Jere-ing of lepers,--at dedication of sanctuary, with miah and Hosea,-a right spirit essential to the consecrating of its altar and priesthood. acceptance, sacritice of wicked an abomination; the discontinuance of sacrifice threatened as a great calamity to the Jewish people.

Victim to be taken and slain, its blood poured

out, its carcase tiayed, and fat, kidneys, etc. DIFFERENT MATERIALS OF SACRIFICE.

removed, its inw:trus and legs to be washed Quadrupeds from flock and herd, and birds in water,--hinds laid on it, -and confession their qualitications, that they were without made over it,-its breast and right shoulder blemish, and of a certain age.

waived toward the four quarters of heaven,

carcase of beasts whose blood is carried with MEAT-OFFERING.

the vail, to be burnt wilhout the camp,-no For priests and people,--prepared in different stranger to eat of holy things, but these to be ways,-frankıucense,-drink offering of wine, eaten by Aaron and his sons in the holy place. - sali necessary to every meat-offering, but neither leaven nor honey to be employed.


To secure pardon,--the priest shall make on DIFFERENT KINDS OF SACRIFICE.

atonement; seasons of sacritice, therefore joy, Burnt-offering, wholly consumed by fire, without power in themselves,—but simply peace-offering in which only certain parts were types --not possible that blood of bulls and consumed, the priest and worshippers eating goats should take away sins.



ABOVE TRADITION, Its source in divine revelation,-given by inspir. Pharisaical error,-tradition of the Apostles ation of God, the Lord spake, as to Noahı, Muses to be held,—the possession of scripture a Aaron, Eleazar, Joshua, Jub, see under great privilege,-famine of hearing the word PROPHETS.)

of the Lord, an awful menace,-advantage of

Israel, in the possession of the oracles of God. TRUTII OF SCRIPTURE, Evinced by many statements, - tried words,

MODE OF RECORD. upright, true, faithful, not to be superseded, of great power, converting the soul, ingrasted Principally by writing as enjoined and word able to save.

practised by Moses and the prophets,-by

Evangelists and Apostles,-urile the vision, etc., THE SOURCE OF INSTRUCTION AND BLESSING,

-the Decalogue written by Jehovah on two Patience and comfort of the scripture.

tables of stone, -received by Moses on mount Sinai, first tables broken, and others prepared Times of Uzziah, written by Isaiah,-acts of and inscribed by the divine finger.

Hezekiah, also written by him,- Book of the

kings of Israel and Judah,-Lamentation for THE BIBLE,

Josiah by Jeremiah; Books of the Chronicles In early times the copy of the law was laid up of the kings of Judah and Israel often referred in the side of the ark, and was found by Hil. to,--profane Authors sometimes referred to, kiah,--read by Ezra,-Books of the old Testa- as in Esther, and by Paul. ment,--the law, the prophets and the psalms,books in New Testament, Gospels, Acts, Epis


Neither to be diminished nor added to,—to

be read in public, as it was often in early BOOKS QUOTED NOT IN THE CANON,

Jewish history, and latterly in the Synagogues, Book of wars of the Lord, quoted in Numbers, -obligation to hear it, — give ear, who hath --Jasher quoted in Joshua, and 2nd. Samuel ears let him hear,-also to obey — neglect of book of Nathan the prophet, and Gad the this duty resulting in ignorance,-exposition Beer,-prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and of the Scripture as by Ezra and Philip, Israel's visions of Iddo,-book of Shemaiah the pro- happinesss dependant on obedience, desire phet, and Iddo the seer, story of the prophet and benefit of understanding and searchİddo in 2nd. Chronicles, — also referred to in ing scripture-obligation at the same time to same place, the book of Jehu, - Life and remember it, and to meditate upon it.

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OATII, Primeval tongue-naming of animals by An appeal to God--the Lord liveth-oath to Adam-confusion of tongues at Babel-a peo- be scrupulously kept-instances of oathsple of unknown tongue often meaning a dis- in Old Testament -of Abraham to the tant and tierce people-various languages king of Sodom, and to Abimelech--of Abramentioned in Scripture, and a dialective ham's servant to his master-of Jacob to variety-Sibboleth-names of persons and Laban-of Joseph to his father, of Joshua to places significant of old, usually explained and Rahab-of Joshua to the Gibeonites of Moses often referred to.

to Joshua-oath of Gideon-Saul's adjuration

to the people-in the intercourse of David THE ORGAN OF SPEECH,

and Jonathan-in the history of David and Tongue-government of it difficult, but essen:

Solomon-of Elijah---Nehemiah-Gedaliahtial-word spoken in seasonslow to speak, Jeremiah; in New Testament of Herodbridling the tongue, --soft answer, etc.-Loqua- Peter-forms of adjuration used by Paul; selfcity-prating fool-uitering all his mind silence imprecation on the part of David, Job and --I vis dumb and opened not my mouth.

the Psalmist.


Based on many qualities—principally valour Often used in challenge or address, and reply the good often evil spoken of-contemned

in Hebrew times a good name to be valued -numerous instances in Scripture and in Job.

and maligned.


Falsehood in various forms-equivocationA duty specially referred to often in Pro- dissembling-instances in Abraham, Sarah, verbs.

Jacob, David, Peter, Ananias-fattery, taleGOOD WISHES,

bearing, -vain-boasting-boasting of Paula Expressed by the Jews and by individuals. record of facts, mockery, reproach, censorious

judiments, calumny-hard names not always VOWS,

injust-Herod, that fux-swearing forbidden Of Jacob, Israel, Absalom--the Psalmist-of in the form of profanity and perjury. Paul-vows to be kept, or paid with punctuality-rash vows of Jepthah, and of the Jews Satire in song of Deborah, etc -- Irony--Elijah's against Paul—-special and kind, Levitical law speech to the worshippers of Baal, etc., climat, in case of a woman vowing.

hyperlolo-comparison, metaphor-striking say.

ings of Solomon-personification-various in. BENEDICTION,

stances of it-gifts of tongues at Pentecost, not Sacerdotal and private-instances often re. to be used for an idle display, acording to corded,

Paul's advice to the Church in Corinth.






wrestled-appearing in the burning bushAngels—as to nature, spirits, as to number, and to Joshua, and to Manoah and his wifevast—twelve legions; distributed into various the God of the temple-even Jesus Christ orders-Gabriel, Michael, of great power, ex. angels to be venerated, not worshippedcelling in strength-standing in the presence of worshipping of angels reprobated—not acGod.

cepted on any account by them-see thou do it THEIR OFFICE, Instructors, descending with oracles-law re

DEVILS, ceived by the disposition of angels; guardians, Malignant and fallen–their head, Satan, ministering spirits--sometimes inflicting vengeance—as seen by David in the angel with Abaddon, Apollyon, god and prince of this the drawn sword over Jerusalem, in the de- world—lying-evil in character-synagogue of struction of Sennacherib's army, and in the Satannumerous-name Legion-of mysteriApocalypse.

ous power, and influence-scene in Job-Apo.

calyptic imagery-final doom of fallen spirits VISITATIONS OF ANGELS,

-Satan bruisedworship paid to them in the Often in the form of men with bright ap. customs of idolatrous countries-cup of devils arel-strange symbols in the book of Ezekiel -apocalyptic dragon, or old erpent. -the angel of the covenant-prominent in patriarchal history-with whom Jacob (DEMONS, see under MIRACLES.)






daily burnt-offerings - having on it a fire of divine origin—made according to pattern which was never to go outlaver of brass. shown in mounta quadrangular structure

ARTISTIC GENIUS, formed of Acacia boards, each ten cubits Of Bezalec) and Aholiab, in constructing the high, and a cubit and a half broad, with two Tabernacle and its furniture – they being tenons fitting into silver sockets-twenty boards on north and south sidesiz for west side, and filled with the Spirit of Goch two for each of its corners-held up by boards of Acacia—with a curtain of blue and purple In wilderness, amidst numerous sacrifices and suspended over eastern side or entrance, have costly offerings, made by the princes of the ing over it three coverings of linen-cashmere tribes and the descent of the Shecinahor goat's hair_morocco leather or rams'-skins Tabernacle pitched at various places-Sinai, dyed red-and badger's skin for the outer Gilgal, Shiloh, Nob, and Gibeon-spiritual and

typical meaning of the structure and its

services illustrated in the Epistle to the HeCOURT,

brews. Round about, fenced in by curtains— Taber: nacle-divided by the veil into the holy and David's intention to build it not allowed to most holy place.

be carried into execution-he being a man of

war-materials of all kinds amassed by hiinFURNITURE,

erected by Solomon in the 480th year after the In holy place—the lamp--with seven lights—Exodus-its site—the threshing-floor or Ornan table of show-bread-and golden altarofincense. -Sion. In Holy of Holies—the ark, or sacred chest,

ITS DIMENSIONS, with the mercy-seat and cherubim — the Sixty cubits long, twenty broad, and thirty august dwelling-place of Jehovah, who dwelt high-divided into the Holy of Ilolies, twenty in thick darkness – Ark solemnly guarded cubits square, and into the holy place, forty by when carried from place to place—sometimes

twenty cubits. taken out in war-once taken captive by the Philistines, but soon released, and stationed

ITS PORCH, with solemnity at various places prior to the 120 cubits high, with two brazen pillars beauerection of the temple.

tifully carved, called Jachin and Boaz-its

doors of fir and posts of olive, and ceiling, floors, ALTAR,

and walls panelled with cedar, lighted by In court of Tabernacle-made of brass for narrow windows.






rebuilt under divine promise, uttered by Round about, and of three stories.

Haggai and Zechariah-Obstacles presented by

various adversaries, but at length overcomeFURNITURE,

Dedication—under Ezra-purified by Jesus,

and its ruin foretold by Him-Ezekiel's mysIn holy place, lamps, etc.,-in Holy of Ilolies, tic temple—its measurement and form, etc., ark and cherubim.

detailed at length in the concluding chapters

of his prophecy. COURT ROUND ABOUT, There being in it the lava and molten sea

SYNAGOGUES, the brazen allar—an a-ylum as well as a place | Places for reading of Scriptures, and for prayer of sacrifice

on Sabbath-very numerous-presided over DEDICATION,

by rulers — filled with seats, some chief or Bg Solomon with great splendour.

uppermost seats-offenders punished in them,

expelled from the blind man to whom Jesus SACRILEGE,

had given sight cast out. Asa taking away treasures of the temple—also Jehoash-Ahaz mutilating its furniture- PURPOSE OF TABERNACLE AND TEMPLE, Hezekiah guilty also.

As the dwelling place of Jehovah-access to

him, and oracles from him there—very holyDEPREDATION,

shoes put off in token of reverence, sin and By Joash, king of Israel-Shishak, and Nebu- death of Aäron's sons for profanation-Christ's chadnezzar-temple vessels being used at ban- vindication of its sacredness-strange event quets in palace of Belshazzar.

in apostle Paul's history.


DIVINE PROMISE OF PROTECTION AND BLESSING, Under kings Jehoash and Josiah-purification The promise to hear prayer-command to under Hezekiah and Josiah. Ruin of Temple, worship followed by the blessed experience of foretold by various prophets,and accomplished worshippers-praising and blessing God; the by the Chaldeans.

scene of resort-instanced in Hezekiah-Jeho

shaphat-Jeremiah-Anna-the ApostlesRESTORATION,

Doeg detained before the Lord-Ezra and his Predicted and accomplished under Cyrus pulpit of wood.


TREES, A common and early possession,-one planted Characterized as green, with fruitful boughs, by Noah, vineyards very numerous in Judea, parts of tree, the stock, root, leaves, fruit often planted on hills, sometimes trained on sides serving for illustrations to the poets of Israel, of houses, sometimes let and rent paid in Forests,-thick,-felled with iron, or axe,fruit,-fruit of, not to be eaten for three years, symbol of spiritual sterility,—forests mention. the symbol of Jewish privilege,--parable of ed in Scripture, — Bashan and its oaks,the husbandman, and its reference to Jesus. Haroth,-Ephraim and its wood, Lebanon, Its blossom, sour grapes, - grapes in clusters Carmel, of Arabia and of the south,-king's often heavy as at Eschcol, dwelling under forest and its timber. tine symbol of security,—wood of vine useless save for fuel,-a fruitful source of imagery a scene of greenness.-—planted with trees and

ORCHARD, to the prophets.

shrubs of pleasant shadow, in valleys and by LAW OF PLANTING,

streams,-liable to devastation,--trees known One who had newly planted, exempt from by fruit,--good trees and good fruit. military service.- not to be sown with diverse see 's-dressed by husbandmen with pruning-Fruit for first three years to be reckoned unhooks,-protected by hedges and towers.

circumcised and not to be eaten,-no extortion

to be practised in transfer,—and fruit trees VINTAGE.

not to be cut down and employed in a siege. Grapes gathered into baskets with singing, Flowers and aromatics in song of Solomon. trodden in wine-presses with shouting,--symbol of divine wrath-vine, a figure of Christ,--TREES AND SHRUBS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, its branches, of his people.

Almond,—its flourishing,-Almug for pillars,


Apple, its beauty,-esh,-Bay, its verdure,

HERB AND SHRUB. Box, Cedar, goodly and full of sop, Chesnut, Cypress,-Fig, its fruit very abundant, its Aloes, Calamus, Myrrh, Saffron, Spikenard, leaves indicative of Summer,-Fir,--Juniper, very costly, Anise, Cummin, mint, tithe of them, Lign,-Aloe's, planted by the Lord, Mulberry, Cucumbers, Garlic, Leeks, Melons, Onions Myrtle,--Mustard, seed small, Oak, Oil tree, in Excpt.-Ca-sia, Fitches thrashed or beaten Olive, green, goodly fruit shaken off when ripe, with staff-Gourd, its rapid growth, -Hyssop, -- Palm, straight and tall, the righteous one, Reeds and Flags, by water-course, and slender Bine,– Pomegranate,-- Shittim, - Sycamore, or shaken with the wind, — Mauna, angels common by wayside, -Teil,-Willow by the food. brook.


through multitude of business, also supernatural VISIONS AND DREAMS. One mode of divine revelation to the prophets,

ones from God,-anxiety to interpret them, open vision, false vision, the true vision to be very common, as seen in Pharaoh and Nebu

chadnezzar--true interpretation only from God written, plain upon tables.

as inferred by Joseph and Daniel. VISIONS IN SCRIPTURE. From Jehovah to Abraham, Jacob, Moses in the bush, --Samuel the child, and Nathan,

INSTANCES IN SCRIPTURE. -the gublime description of Eliphaz,--vision Of Abimelech concerning Sarah, Jacob, of Isaiah and symbolic ones to Ezekiel,-tc the Ladder, -Lavan concerning Jacob,Nebuchadnezzar,--to Daniel of empires and Joseph about his future elevation,-Pharaoh's changes,--and to Amos and Zechariah,-(see butler and baker about their own fate,under" PARABLES and EMBLEMS.)-! New Pharaoh himself about the coming famine, Testament of various kinds to Ananias, Cor- -Midianite soldiers about Gideon's victory, nelius, Paul, John, and the disciples.

Solomon, and the gift of wisdom, Nebuchad.

nezzar, the colossal image--and the mystic DREAMS

tree,—Daniel, Joseph about the child Jesus, Night and Sleep-dreams natural coming Pilate's wife and that just man.



SIEGE. & frequent occurrence, and usually the result Proclamation of peace or surrender to be ofsintul passion--whence come wars and figh'ings? made ere the siege commenced, often pro -often exemplified in Jewish history-under- ductive of great misery to the belligerent city taken sometimes for conquest, as under Joshua -parable of the iittle city, besieged by the against the nations of Canaan-sometimes for great king, and delivered by a poor wise man. self-defence, as Israel against Amalek, etc.

Blockade-the raising of a bank, or casting up a mount--the trench-building a fort and setting

an engine-the battering-ram and axes-breach EIOTS,

made, and city taken. Or simultaneous uprisings, as at Jerusalem, against Paul-civil wars and passions, as in SIEGES MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. ancient armies, when every man's sword was Abel, Ai and the ambush, Debir, Eglon, turned against his fellow.

Gibbethon, Hamath-zobah-Hebron, cities in

north of Palestine-Jabesh-Gilead-Jericho, FIGHTING.

the ram's horns and ark–Jerusalem (see A scourge of Providence, severely felt by under JERUSALEM)-cities of Judah, Keilah, many nations--and therefore peace esteemed Lachish, Libeah, Makkedah, Ramah, Rio a great blessing-universal peace predicted- moth - Gilead, Samaria, Shechem, Tirzah, swordsconverted intoploughshares(Strongholds, Thebez, Ziklag. Fenced and Walled Cities, (see under ARCHITECTURE)--passes sometimes watched and guarded

RESULTS OP SIEGE. garrisons put into sirongholds strict watch Overthrow and spoilation--fortress levelled, kept by sentries.

und the city often set on fire, as instanced in

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