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DUTIES, With little limitation, extending to the power Arising from the compact, real or implied, of life and death, the making of peace or the between the king and the subject-devolving declaration of war, the levying of armies, and upon both parties-he that ruleth over men must the collection of taxes, rulers often surrounded be just. Honour the king. by flatterers, as the young men who gave counsel to Rehoboam.


Were levied uron the people as by Pharaoh, CHARACTERS OF KINGS.

the kings of Israel and Judah, the Roman Emperor, etc.,-royal revenues and lands as in

days of Solomon-gathered by tax-collectors as Their throne being established by righteousness, the publicans who collected the Roman tribute scattering wicked men, examples in David, from the Jews. Asa, Jehoshaphat, Amaziah, Azariah, Jotham, Hezekiah, Josiah, Rehoboam (for a time), and


Under the king, executed the offices of governBAD KINGS,

ment, described as being over the host-over the Causing the people to mourn–examples in Solo- tributeover the house, etc.

, as being recorders, mon, in some things, Abijam, Nadab, Bansha, scribes, wise men, counsellors, companions of the Omri, Ahab, Ahaziah,Jehu,Jehoahaz, Jehoash, king, etc. Zechariah, Á haz, Jehoram, Jehoiachim, Manasseh, Jeroboam, Pekah, and Pekehiah.


Rebellion forbidden and loyalty enjoined and KINGLY VICES,

enforced-repeated instances of rebellions, teLuxury, pride, flattery, falsehood, avarice, ty- volts, revolutions, regicide, and even the extirpa. ranny, and idolatry as in Jeroboam.

tion of a royal family.




see through a glass darkly-earnest efforts to See under FAMILY-APPETITES AND ORGANS, obtain it-seek for her as silver. Wisdom per. see under Body-F'RAILTY AND MORTALITY, see sonified in Book of Proverbs. under DISEASE AND DEATH.


Its mischief-contrasted often in Proverbs His first estate holy, made in God's image and with Wisdom. his first abode in Eden-subsequent allusions to Eden's beauty by the sacred writers.


Counsel-questioning, many instances of it in THE FALL

Scripture. Adam's sin and exile from Eden; therefore

MAN'S MORAL NATURE. he drove out the man-labour and mortality The pursuit of happiness—vanity of vanities, in the curse-bread to be eaten in sweat oj etc. browby one man sin came-human depravity

SECULAR DUTIES. declared to be great, universal, hereditary, early Industry, diligent in business, idleness and its manifested— seen in sins of every class, wilful violation of God's law, and in spite of all his baneful results-vineyard of sluggard-lion in warning-the Apostle's account of the inner waywealth, God's gift

, but not to be coveted; combat what I would, that I do not.

treasure in heaven, earthly riches often ill-acquired, of small value in many cases, and

very precarious--riches fly away as an eagleDELIVERANCE FROM THIS FALLEN STATE, See under REDEMPTION,

dangers of wealth ostentation-pride-one

thing thou lackest. MAN INTELLECTUAL. The evil of ignorance great-blessing of wis- Sorrow, patience, pride and its ruin, humidom and its responsibility-a wise man is strong-instances in Solomon and Daniel—the lity, contentment, joy, hope, anxiety, murwisdom of the world crafty-of no avail before

muring. God-wisdom God's gift as seen in Solomon's

RELATIVE EMOTIONS, dream--yet imperfectly possessed by man, wc ! Anger, revenge and its sinfulness, envy, sin.



cerity of dealing and speech, hypocrisy, strife, vision, deafness, want of heat-old and gray meekness-equity,, gratitude and ingrati- headed (see under Body) weariness of life tade, love-first and great commandment-second and peculiar instances of it-suicide in Samson, Like unto it-sympathy, forgiveness of injuries Saul, Zimri, Ahithophel, and Judas. until seventy times seven-duty of setting a good example-bad example to be avoided.


(See under Disease and Death). Original equality-rich and poor test together;

RESURRECTION. solitude in various forms, neighbourhood, A prominent doctrine of Scripture—the work friendship—David andJonathan-false friends -evil company to be shunned—influence of Sadducean objection and its refutation by

of God-special proof in Christ's resurrection piety and of sin upon others.


THE JUDGMENT, Places of residence-farewell—with a kiss, Solemn, certain, universul, and impartial--throne journeying singly and with flocks and herds set and books opened-allusion to its awful --mans of travel-scrip and staff-meetings, phenomena—earih burnt up, and heaven pas. refreshments, hospitality, feet washed, and salu- sing away. tation of peace-provender for the assesstay, abide with usfrequent injunctions that stran. gers be well treated—God's tender care over

A state of happiness and glory-fulness of joy strangers and travellers-the return to home -of immortaliły-eternal life, enjoyment of the and its joy, David returned to bless his house.

divine presence—its special occupation being

praise. MAX'S DESTINY,

HELL, Old age-gray hairs--length of days a blessing Place of finally wicked-of intense anguish-instances of longevity before the flood and fire, pit, trimstone, darkness its misery without among the patriarchs--the aged to be treated end-solemn lessons—the terror of the Lord with great respect-signs of age-dimness of l awful imagery and allusion.






Merab promised, but Michal given to David; Man and woman-a male and female-personal dowry given for the bride by her husbandbeauty often referred to and furnishing

imagery the kind proposed to our Lord-peculiarities

law about marrying a brother's widow-case of in the book of Canticles—thou art fair my love.

and restrictions of various kinds in Jewish VIRGINITY,

marriage law, Damsels employed in carrying water, and in watering the flock.

Duties of husbands, fidelity and love; of wife, LOVES,

affection and obedience-Sarah, etc. ; good

wives one of them described in Proverbs; Various in Scripture-sick of love; courtship bad wives Jezebel-contentious and brawling in various forms-Rebecca, Dinah, Samson, Adonijah; rape, and its punishment-death by law to the rayisher,


By death-widows often desolate-special ob. Of divine origin in Eden—its continuance an indeed; God himself being the judge of the

jects of sympathy, at least such as are widows ordinance; marriage is honourable, conditions

widow - second marriages — younger widows as to selecting a partner for such a union, refused as office-bearers in the church. both in Old and New Testament-image of the union of Christ and his church: parental authority of old over children in forming ma. trimonial matches apostolic law — the Hebrew law permitting divorce, allowed for nuptial feast-scene of great rejoicing and hardness of heart-bill to be formally written lasting maliy days-procession with lamps to out—the judgment of Jesus on this subject, meet the wedded pair-marriages of policy-land his conclusion, that fornication only war





rants divorce-instances of putting wives law prohibiting the sexes from exchanging away in the book of Ezra-divorce the symbol garments-cautions against lewdnessà coof God's separation from Israel; other kinds venant with the eyes; uncleanness not to be referred to both in Old and New Testament. named; Fornication-associated often with

idolatrous worship -- such whoredom with VIOLATION OF MARRIAGE LAW.

daughters of Moab_spiritual allusion, the Polygamy-Lamech-a commou occurrence

symbol of idolatry-gone a whoring from Godamong the patriarchs and Jews, wherefore one? Babylon, mother of harlo's; Hebrew statute that he might seek a godly seed-a violation of against it, and frequent condemnation of it, the original law of marriage, which united punished often in providence by poverty, loss only one man and one woman-concubines, of health and character,and final ruin-brought or secondary wives, common in Jewish and to a piece of brearl-her steps take hold on hell;

pro. particularly in royal households.

stitution forbidden--she forgetteth the covenont of


BASTARDS. Incest—its punishment to be death-adultery a heinous crime--seventh commandment-image Bastards not admitted to the congregation of of the national infidelities of Israel;- an ordeal the Lord, and not subjected to discipline and of jealousy prescribed in drinking of water of training-bastards and not sons—sins against the curse-chastity and modesty solemnly en nature-sin of Sodom—its terrific punishjoined-flee youthful lusts-leidness condemn- ment=fire and brimstone rained down from ed, aud all practices leading to it, the Hebrew heaven.



IRON Found in Davilah-gold of Parvaim-plentiful Smelted out of stones-formed into tools-nor. in days of Solomon, tried by fire gold of thern iron and steel specially hard—the emblem Ophir, very fine-wedjes und shekels of it. of hardness-brass and iron often connected

as useful metals. SILVER, Made into vessels found in veins, tried in a

OTHER METALS. furnace, and the dross taken away-a com- Copper or bronze-lead and tin. mon medium of exchange. Gold and silver often connected together as a general expres

MINERALS, ETC. sion for money-silver and gold have I none.

Salt-jewels-precious stones-precious stones

mentioned in connection with Aaron's breastBRASS

plate, and the gates of the New JerusalemDug out of mines - employed in making Agate and Carbuncle-Beryl-Coral—Diavessels, doors, and gates the emblem of mond-Emerald and SardineJacinth-Jasstrength

per-Onyx-Pearl--Ruby Sapphire.



ing the pontificate --faithful priests blessed of Under the old dispensation-priests—Melchi- God-law of truth in their mouth. zedlec king and priest, Jewish priests,-holy to God,—their various duties, to teach the people,

SINS OF PRIESTHOOD, --take charge of the sacred things, other sacri- Rebellion as of Korah, -and dissipation as in fice and form a board of health, as inspection sons of Eli,-profanity,--polluted from want of lepers--their services in rotation, --courses in of register,-practising idolatry is pictured by Toation, their services, etc.

Chief of them, -not allowed to mourn or

DRESS OF PRIESTIIOOD), marry a wilowo or a divorced woman,-Aaron Turban and Mitre,--that of high-priest with and his sons in hereditary succession possess. I the inscription on it of HOLINESS TO THE




LORD, -the coat or tunic of fine linen or woven increase of thy seed,-other perquisites belong. work, the robe of the Ephod of blue,—the liuen ing to them, as first-fruits and firstlings, the breeches of fine twined lined,- the girdle, - hides of the victims, and portions of some of bells and pomegranates on hem of garments, the sacrifices,—with fines, redemption-money, the Ephod joined at shoulder by epaulettes poll-tax, sbare of booty, and voluntary giftof onyx stone, - Ephod, the characteristic the treasury-royal gifts during the period of portion of sacerdotal dress.—the breastplate the temple. with its gems-Urim and Thummim.

UNDER THE NEW ECONOMY, LEVITES, Dedicated in room of the first born,—to be Twelve Apostles Chosen by Jesus, Matthias and without corporeal blemish, -- to serve from bind and loose, -witnesses of the resurrection,

Paul added,--having special prerogatives to thirty to fifty years of age, -divided into three --their special claim on the people to hear classes, Gershon, Kobath and Merari,-inferior to the priests and paying tithes to them, itinerant labourers.

them,--the seventy-bishops---elders,-deacons, tbeir general duty,-as a help to the priests, assisting in the national worship, and taking

THE APOSTLE PAUL, charge of the sacred edifice,-wandering Lev. ites, -Micah, etc.

His sudden conversion, -- his trarels and labours,-his exemplary conduct, his preach

ing,-his character in several aspects, Descendants of the Gibeonites,-doing the

him devolving the care of all the churches. menial work of the sanctuary. OTHER SACRED PERSONS,

A divine institute,-duties enjoined, faithful

ness, - studiousness, - consistency, - aptness to The seventy elders, -elders of cities–Naza- teach-preach the word, --sins ascribed to it in rites with their vow of abstinence and pe- the old Testament,-idleness,—the prophet is a culiar restraints.

fool, (see under ANIMALS, FLOCKS,) its punist.

ment severe—under New Testament,--sins SUPPORT OF SACRED MINISTERS,

referred to,-jealousy, contention, pide, heresy, Levites having no inheritance, but only some selfishness: duty of people, obe rience and land round their forty-eight cities, --Tithes | esteem. affection, support, they wh!ch preach paid to them,-thou shalt surely tithe all the should live of the Gospel.


- on




capture of Jericho, sun and moon arrested Their purpose to produce conviction of a as told in Jasher, -in conection with Samdivine interposition,- sometimes failing to son, men killed, Philistines slaughtered, etfect this, both in days of Moses, Christ and efforts of personal strength; in connection his Apostles, a divine work, and beyond the with Samuel, thunderstorm in harvest, power of man, and often causing a great disease, death of Uzziah, men of Beth-shemesh; sensation of marvel and fear.

descent of fire upon the altar in days of David

and Solomon,-Jeroboam's hand withered. MIBACLES IN OLD TESTAMENT, Those in connection with Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Lot, Hagar, Er; Moses,—ten plagues of Miracles of Elijah, drought, widow's meal, proEgypt, water turned'into blood, Frogs, Lice, phet fed, dead child restored, fire upon 'altar Flies, Murrain, Boils and Blains, Hail,

Lo- in contest with priests of Baal, captain and custs, Darkness, Death of First-born,

--Red fifty destroyed—Jordan divided by his mantle. Sea, the Shechinab, – Transfiguration of Moses, Water sweetened, Manna, Quails, Water from Rock, Aaron's rod blossoming, Leprosy of Water healed, young men destroyed, in the Miriam, destruction of Korah, death of Nadab dearth, child restored, Naaman healed, Gebazi and Abibu,,waters in Kadesh, healing- punished, iron swimming, Syrians smitten trazen serpent-plague, fire from God, those with blindness, restored to sight, Syrians miracles often referred to, and forming themes defeated, man revived by touching his corpse. of subsequent meditation and praise.


1. UPON EXTERNAL NATURE. In connection with Joshua, Jordan divided, I Water turned into wine,-draught of fishes -



tempest calmed,-four thousand fed,-Christ Gadara,--dumb demoniac,-blind and dumb walking on the sea,-five thousand fed,- demoniac boy. fish with the money in its mouth,-fig-tree blasted,--draught of fishes.


Daughter of Jairus, son of the widow of 2. THE HEALING OF DISEASES.

Nain,-Lazarus of Bethany. Thenobleman's son,-Peter's mother-in-law,

OTHER MIRACLES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Leper,--Centurion's servant,-man sick of the palsy,

-woman with the issue of blood, -the By the seventy disciples, — by and in conlame man at Bethesda,-man with a withered pection with the apostles, etc., -by Peter,-hand,--daughter of Syro-Phenician woman;

lame man cured,-death of Ananias,-death -man deaf and dumb cured, -woman cured of Sapphira,—the sick healed-Eneas made of eighteen years' infirmities,-dropsical man, whole, -Dorcas restored to life;--by Stephen, -ten lepers cleansed,—the car of Malchus -great miracles;—by Philip—various miracles; restored.

-by Paul,-Elymnas smitten with blindness,

lame man cured,-an unclean spirit cast out, 3. GIVING SIGHT TO THE BLIND.

special miracles,-Eutychus restored to life.-Two blind men,--blind man restored to sight, healed;-Paul and Barnabas,-various mir

viper's bite mnade harmless,-father of Publius --man born blind receiving sight,-blind acles, – signs requested, --signs given, - & Bartimæus.

solemn caution, since the power to work mi.

racles is not equivalent to the possession of 4. EXPULSION OF DEMONS.

genuine faith and saving grace, -I never knew Man with an unclean spiritdemoniacs of you.




various, wine, wool, cedar, pearls, clothing, Writing, scribes, writing table,-parchments, let. metals, spices, etc , -accounts regularly made ters, matters of antiquity recorded in old up: The Christian law-enjoining industry and Testament-Heraldry-pedigrees of the tribes quiet-Paul a tentmaker. originally, and of such as came back from Babylon. MUSIC,

Preparation of food, cooking--pots—wine in Vocal-female choirs-choirs in temple; in stone bot!les, cedar, timber for building, strumental music invented by Jubal, and of clothing-new cloth on old garn ent-spinused in families and in public worship- ning, weaving, needle-work; carthenware Heman, Asaph, Levites and David-harp, -potters, pitchers, treasure in earthen vessels; psaltery, organ, cornet, trumpet, etc., power leather, Simon a tanner; working in metal of music-among sons of prophets, and over Tubal-Cain, silver and dross, (see under Saul and Elisha.

METALS) gold-smiths—silver-smiths-lamps carving-jewellery; mills, women grinding;

roads, cast ye up, cast ye up; fowling applied Employed by the tribes to survey the country, to devices of the wicked-done by pit, gin, and by Nebemiah over the ruins of Jerusalem. snare, net; (NAVIGATION, see under WATER.)



CUSTOM OF CARRYING PRESENTS, Merchandise-old and early-getting gain, Often referred to, often given for mere selfTyre the great mercantile city-buy the truth interest, and also from fear, and as compliand sell it not; articles of merchandise very ments, -a truly oriental fashion.



his sons-once against the letter of the law by Ceremonial institutions - daily burning of David; sprinkling on hand, ear and toe, incense in censer — the symbol of prayer; symbol of complete puritication-of things shewbread in twelve loaves, removed every showing their dedication to divine serSabbath, and to be eaten only by Aaron and vice, as in case of all things by the law purged

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