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baptize with the Holy Ghost, continuing faith
4. THE LAST PASSOVER, ful to death, he was imprisoned and beheaded Observed in an upper room, by Jesus and the by Herod.
twelve Apostles, after which the ordinance of
the Lord's Supper was instituted probably in *4. CHRIST'S BAPTISM.
the absence of Judas who had gone out. At Jordan by John, accompanied by the descent of the Holy Ghost, and by a voice from
5. TREACHERY OF JUDAS, heaven.
Bargaining for thirty pieces of silver to hand
over Jesus to his enemies, and aproaching his 5. FAME OF CHRIST'S PREACHING AND MIRACLES. master with a kiss, the symbol of friendship, Crowds waiting upon his ministry, often from he betrayed him, afterwards smitten with a great distance, astonishment and wonder despair, he committed suicide. among the people at what they saw and heard.
6. APPREHENSION OF JESUS, 6. CHRIST'S UNWEARIED ACTIVITY.
Designed by the chief priests, scribes, and Labouring in every variety of circumstances,
elders, Jesus in Gethsemane the scene of preaching on the mountain, in the plain, drops of blood, -- Judas with a band coming
sorrow,-in an agony,–His sweat as great in the temple, in the synagogue, on the into
the garden, apprehended him. sea-side-in the ship,-in the city,—the town, and the village.
7. HIS TRIAL, 7. CHRIST'S PERSON AND WORK OFTEN
First before the Sanhedrim, the charge against MISUNDERSTOOD.
him being blasphemy, the witnesses false, Seen in the conduct, and the language of all suborned, and contradictory, sentence of death classes, the disciples, the priests, the rulers, the the Roman governor, the charge sedition, and
pronounced. Secondly betore Pontius Pilate common people arising from ignorance, na- the sentence clamorously demanded was crucitional prejudice, and self-righteous pride.
8. HIS DEATH. 8. CHRIST OFTEN OPPOSED AND REVILED. By enemies endeavouring to entangle Him in feted, smitten on the head, crowned with
Suffering manifold indignities, spat on, bufhis sayings, throwing odium upon him as being thorns, arrayed in a purple robe, worshipped of Nazareth, representing him as a companion in derision, and ignominiously crucified on of sinners, a glutton and a wine-bibber, and as Calvary nigh to Jerusalem, between two working his miracles by Satanic agency.
malefactors, atended by supernatural dark9. CHRIST PERSECUTED AND CONSPIRED
ness, an earthquake,-rending of the veil of
the temple, and the opening of the graves of AGAINST,
saints,-witnessed by the women of Galilee, By the Pharisees, the Herodians, the chief priests turion and Roman soldiers, and by many of
John, and Mary the mother of Jesus, the Cen. and ruler3-to lay hold on him.
the Jews, still mocked on the cross, He
behalf of his V.-VARIOUS SCENES OF CHRIST'S MINISTRY.
presented his prayer on
persecutors,—his promise to the thief,-his 1. TEMPTATION IN THE WILDERNESS OF charge to John,-his complaint of thirst, -his JUDEA,
attestation of his work being finished, He By Satan for forty days.
commended his spirit into the hand of His
Father-His death designed as an atonement 2. LABOURS AND TRAVELS OF JESUS IN VARIOUS in the room of sinners, -effected according to
the determination of God through the instruPARTS OF THE COUNTRY.
mentality of the wicked Jews-variously reIn the districts of Judea, Samaria, Galilee, garded as foolishness—a stumblingblock, or as and beyond Jordan, in the cities of Jerusalem, the wisdom of God Capernaum, Bethsaida, Cæsarea, Philippi, Sychar, Nazareth, etc., preaching the Gospel,
9. HIS BURIAL. coufirming His commission by miraculous The body procured from Pilate-was taken works, calling, ordaining, instructing His down from the cross-wrapt in tine linen with apostles, etc.
spices, and laid in a new tomb the persous
who took part in it being Joseph of Arima. 3. SOLEMN ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM, thea, Nicodemus, etc. Púding on an ass's colt accompanied by multi
10. HIS RESURRECTION. tudes strewing the way with branches of palm trees, and filling the air with exclamations. The tomb secured by a great stone rolled to
the mouth of it-sealed and guarded by a went about doing good, our example in purity, detachment of Roman soldiers,—was opened in meekness, in self-denial, in patience, and on the morning of the third day by an angel in love. descending from heaven Jesus rising again to life—the event proved by the subsequent
VII. Christ's OFFICES. appearance of Jesus to Mary Magdalene, to the other women from Galilee, to the disciples on their way to Emmaus, to the ten on the Confessed under the designations of prophet of same evening, to the eleven on the following Nazareth, the prophet of the Highest, the prophet Lord's day, at the sea of Tiberias and on a thit should come into the world, a great prophet, a mountain in Galilee, and by bis frequent and prophet mighty in word and in died, names veritamiliar intercourse during a period of forty tied in toretelling of false Christs, the down. days-resurrection proving-his work was fall of Jerusalem, the treachery of Judas, Peter's finished-approved--the Father giving as first denial, His own Apprehension and Death, fruits the hope of a resurrection to all his Burial, and Resurrection, etc. people.
CHRIST'S OFFICE AS A PRIEST. 11. THE ASCENSION.
(See REDEMPTION.) On the Mount of Olives, and in the presence of His followers, in the act of blessing them,
CHRIST'S OFFICE AS KING, separated from them—seen to ascend and en King of Zion, King of righteousness, etc., His ter into a cloud, the disciples gazing after Kingdom being universal, eternal, supreme, Him, addressed by two angels, who gave pro- yet subordinate to the Father, His mission mise of His return again to earth, ascension being to glorify the Father, and to finish the necessary for the gift of His Spirit, the pre- work which the Father gave Him to do; paring of heaven for His followers, and making exercising this office, accomplishing the con continual intercession for them.
version, sanctification, and gloritication of VI-CHRIST'S CHARACTER.
His people—the subjugation of his enemies at
the last day, sitting as Judge of the righteous Humility-intercourse in social life, friend and the wicked, with full power to acquit and ship, instanced in the case of the family of justify the one and condemn and punish the Bethany, unostentatious manner in which He lother:
ORIGIN OF THE JEWISH NATION.
THE EXODUS. Traced to Abraham; called a people above all Sis hundred thousand marching out of Egypt, others, a holy nation, a kingdom oj priests; se besides women and children, accompanied by lected not because better, or more numerous a mixed multitude, along with flocks and herds; than other nations, but simply of sovereign achieved by the power of God; Egyptian pur. grace.
suers drowned in Red sea. HIGH PRIVILEGE OF THE JEWS. Covenant with God,--üwelling in his land, - SUBSEQUENT RELATION OF THE JEWS TO EGYPT, protected by his favour--enjoying the services Forbidden to look back to it, to traffic with of his tabernacle,-the miuistrations of His it-to form alliances with it-Egypt a bruised priests, and the teachings of Ilis prophets. reed to trust in, yet in the wilderness Israel
often seeking to return to it. ISRAEL IN EGYPT, Subjected to cruel bondage, described as a ISRAEL IN THE WILDERNESS, state of oppression, an iron furnace, a rigorous For forty years, by the way of the Red sea, service, but sten and cherished by God; greatly Edom and the plains of Moab, led by Jehovah increased in number.
in the pillar of the cloud, fed by manna, and
water from the finty rock, defended from COMMISSION OF MOSES,
enemies by the Captain of the Lord's host. Given by God at the burning bush to demand the release of the tribes; executed by doing
BINS IN THE WILDERNESS, signs and wonders, calling down plagues upon Pharaoh and his people-cventually leading Murmuring against God, and against Moses forth the chosen people to the land of pro- and Aaron; committing fornication; with the muise.
exception of Joshua and Caleb, the entire
IN THEIR HISTORY.
generation, abuve twenty years of age, which the captives to return and build Jerusalem, lett Egypt in the wilderness, dying.
in conformity with which many went back. ISRAEL IN CANAAN,
(REBUILDING OF JERUSALEM, See under CANAAN.) Conquering the land, destroying thirty-one OPPOSITION TO THE RETURNED TRIBES. kings, settled in it, enjoined to separate From the Samaritans, false pretences of themselves from all other nations, were for- friendship, false representations to the king, bidden to make covenant with them.
and active opposition to the undertaking. THE SAMARITANS,
FINAL DISPERSION OF THE JEWS, In one of the provinces of Palestine in the Predicted by Moses as the consequence of time of our Lord, descended from a colony persisting in disobedience, by Christ as the sent by the king of Assyria during the capti consequence of rejecting him-was accomrity; at first entirely idolatrous, but afterwards plished by the Romans under Titus when mingled the ceremonies of the Jews with Jerusalem was destroyed, the Jewish polity their idolatrous rites held in great aversion broken up, and the people scattered over all by the people of Israel.
nations. WICKEDNESS OF THE JEWS,
PROPHECIES REFERRING TO AND ILLUSTRATED Forsaking the worship of God, and turning to the worship
of idols, in following the customs Having allusion to the enemies of Israel, to of surrounding nations, and forming alliances captivity, to a return from it, to the joy at. with them, in "hardening their neck," and in dis- tending such a return, to the enlargement of obeying the statutes of Jehovah; famine, and the nation, to Zion attired in beauty, to the pestilence, and war sent upon the people, God Church of Israel as the light of the Gentiles, etc. * forsook His dwelling place," and sent the people into captivity.
PROPHECIES RESPECTING THE GENTILES AS THE
SUCCESSORS OF THE JEWS.
The heathen as the Messiah's inheritance, all The ten tribes conquered by Shalmanezer nations flowing to the temple, the isles waitking of Assyria, and carried to Halah, Habor, ing for God's law, incense being offered from etc.; Judah, by Nebuchadnezzar king of Ba- the rising to the setting of the sun, etc. bylon, and carried to Chaldea, where they remained for seventy years.
JEWISH FAITH AND JEWISH PREJUDICE.
Seen, the former in the converts on the CONDITION DURING CAPTIVITY,
day of Pentecost, and in the numerous Their land mourning in solitude, Jerusalem converts to the gospel which were gathersitting in widowhood, Zion covered with a cloud, ed by the apostles from all ranks, the and the other cities of the land as a wilder | latter seen in the obstinacy and zeal with Dess, the people in captivity as weeping by which the nation at large maintained the perthe rivers of Babylon.
petual obligation of the ceremonial law, in
stanced in Peter's preaching to Cornelius, in THE PRESERVED REMNANT,
the church at Antioch, in the synod at Jeru.
salem. With the promise that they should be gathered again, restored to their own land, and TIIE CHURCH AMONG THE GENTILES, there again take rout, animated by the hope of Made up of believers from all nations, Paul, deliverance, and by the expectation of seeing the Apostle of the Gentiles. their temple again built up.
FINAL INBRINGING OF THE JEWS,
Involved in God's promise to Abraham, often Accomplished by the proclamation of Cyrus, the theme of prediction by Isaiah, repeatedly who had taken Babylon, granting liberty to foretold by Paul.
I. LAWS PROTECTING LIFE. committed in purpose or fact. Cain, David,
HUMAN PENALTY AGAINST MURDER,
and entail, extending to daughters, on certain Punishments natural and supernatural—in conditions, as well as sons this life and in the life to come.
IV.-LAW OF DEBT.
Regulations respecting the recovery of it, the MALICE THE CAUSE OF MURDER Hatred of Esau towards Jacob--of the breth- remission of it, pledges in security of it,'cauren of Joseph towards him-of Haman to, ture; the borrower as servant to the lender.
tionary, etc.; many allusions to it in Scripwards the captive Jews of Saul toward David --and of the Rulers of the Jews towards V.-LAW OF MASTER AND SERVANT. Christ.
Superiority of master-contracts-Abraham, MURDERS WERE PREVENTED,
Mephibosheth, and Solomon, and their serBy Rebekah, the midwives of Egypt, Jona vants servants good and bad; the former, than, and by the Spirit of God informing wise and faithful; the latter, as stubborn, un. Elisha of the designs of Ahab.
faithful, and filling their master's houses with
violence. INQUEST, Made in case of the death of a person tak.
VI.-ANCIENT SLAVERY. ing place in circumstances of suspicion, de.
SLAVERY, volved upon the elders of the nearest city, - Or service rendered among the patriarchs, attended by a special religious ceremony. under the kings, in the days of Christ and his
apostles, and in foreigu nations as well as in MANSLAUGHTER,
Israel. Or the death of a person undesignedly, that is, as expressed by Moses, not in malice, nor LAW OF SLAVERY, OR BOND-SERVICE, by the use of a lethal weapon, nor by lying in Forbidding all trading in the persons of men, wait—the person implicated required to tlee stealing of a Hebrew punished with death, to one of the cities of refuge, or be exposed to the heathen alone held in bond service, the death from the nearest kinsman or the avenger Hebrew, if so held, might redeem himself, at of blood.
all events became free on the year of jubilee, CITIES OF REFUGE,
and whether Hebrew or stranger, servants Situated three on each side of the Jordan, were to be kindly treated by their masters furnished an asylum for the manslayer till
NEW TESTAMENT PRECEPTY TO SERVANTS. the death of the high-priest, when he might return again to his inheritance, meanwhile Obedience to masters, singleness of heart, pernot to pass beyond the sacred boundary on formance of duty, not with eye service as men. risk of death.
pleasers; allusions as when Christ's people are called servants of righteousness, as made free
by the truth, and when the world is spoken LAW REGARDING ASSAULT.
of as the servunis of sin, and as being under the Awarded death for smiting a father or mother, bondage of sin. in other cases recompense for injury done, sometimes a fine in money, and generelly re
VIL-POOR LAW. taliation-eye for eye. II.-LAWS GUARDING PROPERTY.
An inevitable state of society—the poor shall THEFT.
never cease out of the land; the poor ye have always Forbidden; its penalty the restoration of the thing stolen, and adding to it, two, four,
BEGGING ALMS. or in some cases seven fold.
In thoroughfares and places of public resort,
as at the gate of the temple, and of rich mens' COVETEOUSNESS,
houses, the wayside. Source of theft; is described in Scripture as being greedy of gain, running greed ly after the
RICH AND POOR. error of Baalam; forbidden as idolatry-in. Often alluded to in their appropriate characstanced in Ahab and Jezebel-various kinds teristics; the former,as strong, honoured, ansver. of it
ing roughly, aud having many friends; the latter, KINDS OF DISHONESTY.
using entrealies, being hated, and being separatea False weights and measures, bribery.
from their neighbours III.-LAW OF FIXED PROPERTY.
GOD'S CARE OF THE POOR. Involving peculiar rights of primogeniture Maintaining their right, being their por.
tion, fulfilled, in providing for them, and in
LAWGIVER, making them rich in faith.
Persons employed in transcribing and inter
preting the law of Moses, in later times, orators LEGAL SUPPORT FOR THE POOR.
or lawyers, employed in pleading before The gleanings of the harvest field, of the judges, instanced in Tertullus. vintage, the tithe of the third year, and the spontaneous productions of the seventh.
In ancient times set at the gates of cities, as SUPPORT FROM BENEVOLENCE,
in Ruth; in latter times in balls, as the Almsgiving enjoined - characterized, when judgment hall of Pilate, set for deciding in rigtitly performed, by being done freely, readily, controversies, involving accusation, defence, and tapostentatiously.
PUNISHMENTS. VIII.-ADMINISTRATION OF LAW.
Imprisonment sometimes with fetters and stocks
Paul at Philippi; scourging, which, JUDGES.
bowever, might not be inflicted on a Roman Appointed by Moses ; afterwards in all the citizen, and limited by Mosaic law to strokes cities of Israel - were set to hear the forty, save one, retaliation, fine, stoning, the causes of the people, to dispense righteous sword. judgment, neither respecting the persons of the rich por favouring the poor, noted as fearing CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS OF FOREIGN NATIONS. God, hurting covetousness.
Hanging, instanced in Haman,-burning alive,
the sentence pronounced upon Shadrach, WITNESSES.
Meshach and Abednego, -exposure to wild Required to be faithful, considerate, and beasts, instanced in Daniel,-cutting asunder, conscientious; in number at least two or three; threatened by Nebuchadrezzar to his wise sometimes false, instanced in the trial of men-decapitation, instanced in John the BapJesus
tist, and crucifixion inflicted upon the Saviour.
JUDGES OR OFFICERS.
Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Governing Israel between the time of Joshua Pekah, and Hoshea. and that of Samuel, the office not hereditary, but the men raised up, qualified, and ap- OTHER KINGS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. pointed by God when the circumstances of Hanun and Nahash, kings of Ammon, Hathe nation called for them, usually invested zael, Ben-hadad, and Aretas, kings of Syria, with extraordinary powers, and continued as Cyrus, king of Persia, Darius the Median, the supreme magistrates of Israel for the space Herod and Agrippa, kings of Judea, and of four hundred and thirty years.
Tiberias, emperor of Rome.
ANOINTING, CORONATION. formal approval of the people, as Saul and Conducted with great pomp, the pouring of David, with whom God covenanted that the oil on the person consecrated, sounding of throne should be his, descending in his family trumpets, the shouts of the people, God save the in the line of Solomon; also Solomon by im- King, the congratulations and good wishes mediate revelation and appointment. of officers, men of rank, and neighbouring
kings, accompanied with general festivity, KINGS OF JUDAH.
among the people, instanced in the coronation Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jeho
of Solomon, etc. ram, Ahaziah, Athaliah, Joash, or Jehoash, Amaziah, Uzziah or Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz, ROYAL DRESS, DIGNITY, AND ETIQUETTE. Hezekiab, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoa- Punctiliously attended to, the throne was very haz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah.
magnificent in the case of Solomon, the crown
was sometimes of massive gold and precious KINGS OF THE TEN TRIBES.
stones, instanced in that of David, the sceptre Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, also of gold, instanced in the book of Esther, Omri, Ahab, Ahaziah, Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoa- and the royal robes were of great magnii. haz, Jehoash, or Joash, Jeroboam the second, cence.