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FAMILY A DIVINE INSTITUTION, the streets, piping and dancing in the market God's blessing promised to it; on behalf of it place, imitating the pursuits of manhood, prayers were offered-exemplified in Abraham,

Jacob, David, etc.

The sons of Eli, the son of the Shunamite, the The gift of God; sometimes asked of Him, as children of Job, etc.; cause grief to parents

exemplified in David for Absalom-submisby Leah, Hannah, etc.: often promised as a sion of Job. blessing, as to Abraham, Sarah, the Shuna

FILIAL PIETY, mite, etc.; and in other cases.

Exemplified in Jacob, Judah, specially in Jo BIRTH,

seph, etc.; enjoined throughout the Old and A season of sorrow and anguish; also one of threatened by God.

New Testaments; the violation of it severely Joy; sometimes attended by the death of the mother, as Rachel and the wife of Phinehas;

PARENTAL AFFECTION, accompanied by ceremonial observances in Israel; and an image of spiritual conversion. Expressed in various acts of endearment, as

by Hagar, Isaac, etc.—Illustrative of the pity BARRENNESS,

of God to his children. Regarded as a reproach; sometimes healed by

PARENTAL AUTHORITY, prayer, as in Sarah, Rebekah, Hannah, etc.

Accompanied by God's favour; neglect fol. BIRTHDAY,

lowed by God's displeasure-Exemplified in

Eli; instruction of children in the law of God, A high festivity-instanced in Pharaoh, Herod, and in the fear of God. etc., -birth place, regarded with the warmest attachment-proverbially noted in its inba. bitants for slighting those who had become Natural, receiving the children of others into

ADOPTION, prophets, instanced in Jesus.

the family-Spiritual, admission into God's family, with a right to the children's food, in

struction, chastisement, and inheritance, and At birth, instanced, etc., and at the time of likeness to Father in heaven. circumcision, the name especially in early times being significant of circumstances con

FAMILY CIRCLES, nected with birth or in childhood-Moses, Ichabod.

Distinguished by frequent and friendly interNURSING,

course; exposed to anxieties and cares, arising

out of relative profligacy; grief of mind to Isaac Requiring much tenderness and watchfulness; and Rebekah, etc.;— Want of harmony, arising descriptive of God's care of his people, the from selfishness, from pride, or from bigotrychurch's care of her members.-- Weaning in Exemplified in the brethren of Joseph, the ancient times deferred till an advanced period son shall rise up against the father. in childhood, was celebrated by a family festival-Weaning of Isaac.


A sore judgment upon a land, as threatened YOUTH,

by Moses, as often predicted by the prophets, Characters early developed—Ishmael, Esau, and as realized in the successive wars of Israel, Samson, etc.;-tenderly cared for by the Sa- the captivity to Babylon, and the final over viour-following their pastimes, playing in throw of the natiou by the Romans.



ABRAHAM'S POSTERITY, Recorded in Genesis and Chronicles- and In Genesis and Chronicles-his children in genealogy of his family.

the line of Ismael,--his sons by Keturahand his children in the line of Isaac and Esau,


CENSUS OF THE NATION OF ISRAEL, At his first settlement in Egypt, named in First taken at the commencement of their Genesis, comprising threescore and six persons. journeying in the wilderness, secondly on their

entrance into Canaan, and thirdly by David,

having reference to military objects forbidden GENEALOGIES OF THE TRIBES,

by God, Satan tempting the king.
The posterity of Jacob by Leah, Reuben,Simeon,
Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulyn, -by
Billah, Dan and Naphtali,—by Zilpah, Gad

CATALOGUES, and Asher,-by Rachel, Joseph, (Manasseh of the spies, in Numbers,of David's heroes, and Ephraim) and Benjamin.

in Chronicles, - of Solomon's officers, in Kings,-of Jews married to Gentiles, in Ezra,

-of Ezra's fellow-travellers from Babylon, in SPECIAL GENEALOGIES,

Ezra, -of the Jews who returned from BabyLevi and the line of the priesthood_Judah lon with Zerubbabel, in Ezra and Nehemiah, and the line of the kings-King Saul-various of priests who returned from Babylon, in families in Chronicles-the sacred orchestra, Nehemiah,-of those who dwelt in the rebuilt and of Ezra.

Jerusalem, in Nehemiah.



belongs to man-of human organs, as the face, Proved by the beauty, harmony, and wisdom hand, arm, back, eyes, nostrils, mouth, and of the works of creation, denied only by fools! feet. 2. Human feelings, as repentance, sorrow, characterized by majesty, immortality, felicity, in the lives of Abraham, Moses, Solomon. 4.

etc. 3. Iluman appearance and motion, instanced wity, incomparability, and glory.

Human voice instanced in the communications HIS NATURAL ATTRIBUTES,

made to Elijah and the prophets. Tokens of

divine appearance-Fire, light, and sometimes Spirituality. God is a Spirit, invisibility, for- by darkness conjoined, as when Jehovah apbidding all image worship, eternity, infinitude, peared to Israel on Mount Sinai. and incomprehensibility, omnipresence, power, paniscience, possessing a perfect knowledge of

WORKS OF GOD, everything present and future,-instanced in the revelations He has made-human 1. Creation, the heavens and the earth with thoughts, characters, actions, and circum- its furniture, population, and man. 2. Pro. stances, immutability, I change not.

vidence based on proprietorship, preservation,

and protection. And, 3. Redemption, HIS MORAL ATTRIBUTES, Holiness, -boliness predicated, 1. of persons,

(See under REDEMPTION.) His Spirit, Son, angels, priests, prophets, people-2, of places, His throne, heaven, dwelling-place, hill, mountain ;-3, things, His oracle

, promise, covenant, law, Scriptures, The divine Being existing in perfect unity of calling, Sabbath, name,-justice, truth, goodness, essence, yet subsisting in three persons, having and mercy according to which 'He deals with the same natural and moral perfections and sinful creatures, manifested in the form of the same majesty and glory-instanced in the pity, compassion, kindness, and longsuffering— apostolical benediction, in the formula of bapoften the theme of divine promise, the ground tism, etc. of His people's confidence, and the frequent subject of their prayer and praise.

(For Divinity of Christ see under JESUS CHRIST.) ANTHROPOMORPHISM,

(For Divinity and Personality of the Holy Ghost, dscription to God in figure of what properly

see under REDEMPTION.)





SEASONS, Or the region of the wind, clouds, rain, dew, Seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, summer thunder, lightning, hail, snow-agency of God. and winter, each with its own special character

istics— the seed-time marked by refreshing WIND,

rain, the winter by dreariness, the harvest by

joy, the summer by droughl. East wind the strongest-the rough wind, the wind of the Lord, spoken of as an instrument of divine power, as in the drying up of the

PROGNOSTICS OF WEATHER, water of the deluge, the dividing of the Red Clouds rising in the west portending rainsea, bringing locusts upon Egypt, emblem of instanced in the prophet

on Carmel

; the north afiliction; also of the unseen operations of the wind bringing fair weather, the sonth wind Holy Ghost; four winds, a proverbial expression heat-the red, evening sky, the red, lowering for the four quarters of the heavens.

morning sky.



II.-THE SECOND OR STARRY HEAVENS. Characterised as dark, thick, dropping, spread. ing, light, etc., pillar of the cloud-emblematical

THE HEAVENLY BODIES. of fleeting objects ; also of multitudes, as applied to sins, thick clouds, cloud of witnesses, Sun and moon, marking days, months, and

years, emblem of perpetuity; the stars, noted

for their number, their height, their beauty, RAIN,

their diversified brilliancy, awakening won

der, and prompting the question – What is Refreshing the earth, satisfying the deso- man? late ground, filling the pools; former rain in seed-time, latter rain on the approach of

THE SUN, barvest, the subject of promise and of prayer, At its rise clear, an emblem of prosperity ; at as by Samuel, Solomon, Elijah, emblematical noon, marking the perfect day-the heat of the of God's word, divine doctrine, righteousness, day, emblem of the glory of Christ; sunset in etc,--showers of blessings.

west, metaphorically the season of old age or

death. DROUGHT, A heavy calamity, causing the ground to be

LIGHT AND DARKNESS, chapt, the plowmen to be ashamed, the pas- The former put for knowledge, happiness, and tures to be devoured, the heavens to be as purity; the latter, for ignorance, affliction, and brass, and the earth to be as iron, etc., a prin- pollution,-emblem of the power and characcipal cause of famine, and often threatened in ter of Satan. judgment on account of national sins.

Divided, the former into twelve divisions,

called hours, counting from the rising to the Refreshing to the grass and herbs, emblem of setting of the sun, emblem of human life ; divine grace, of blessings descending upon latter divided into four watches, named, the Israel, and of the influences of the Holy Spirit. evening, midnight, cock crowing, and morning,

emblem of death, and life's labour finished. HAIL AND SNOW, Dreadful effects of hail upon the fields and NAMES OF SOME OF THE MONTHS, vineyards, discomfiting armies, etc.; snow, Nisan or Abib, Zif, Sivan, Thammuz, Elul, emblem of purity.

Tizri, Ethanim, Bul, Chisleu, Thebet, Sebat,


III. THE THIRD HEAVENS, From divine agency-the former said to be the Called the heaven of heavens, paradise, etc., utterance of God's voice, and the latter to be the scene of God's glory, and the abode of the fire of God, described as shot, cast forth, Christ, angels and saints; Paul caught up sent out, etc.; the twenty-ninth psalm.

to it,



I-OBJECTS OF FALSE WORSHIP. Anammelech, Nibhaz, Tartak, Ashima, Ner. ist

. The host of heaven, the sun at its rising, and gal, Succoth-benoth, Ashtaroth, Baal, 'Baalthe moon as the queen of heaven; 2nd, images or

berith, Baalim, Baal-peor, Baalzebub, Bel, idios made of gold, silver, stone, iron, and Berith, Chemosh, Chiun, Dagon, Diana, God Hood, mollen and graven; 3rd, men and spirits ; of forces, Jupiter, Mercurius. Milcom,

Molech, 4th, enferior animals, birds, four - footed beasts Merodach, Nebo, Nisroch, Queen of Heaven, and creeping things-the golden calf, calves Remphan, Rimmon, Tammuz, and the Un. of Dan and Bethel.

known God.



The law prohibited the making of any image,

required groves to be cut down, altars to be SCENES

broken and overthrown, forbade the worship Groves of trees,-tops of hills,-roofs of houses, of images on any pretext. temples, instanced in the house of Baal-temple of Dagon-the temple profaned by heathen altars, images, and idolatrous worship, intro

PENALTY OF IDOLATRY. duced into Israel by Ahaz and Manasseh. Death by stoning-spiritual judgments, as God's

curse, the hiding of His face, the destruction IDOLATROUS PRIESTS,

of the temple, with the discontinuance of its Taken by Jeroboam from the lowest of the services, etc., and natronal punishments, as, war, people in Israel, imitating the true priesthood, I famine, captivity, civil discord. wearing ephod, robes, and broidered garments.

Praying, burning incense, presenting sacrifice,

Inflicted by pious kings and others, with a swearing by them, etc.; indulgence in intoxi- view to extirpate it, instanced in Jacob, cation, lewdness, pretended inspiration, cut Gideon, David, Jehu, Asa, Hezekiah, Manasterselves with lancets-Baal's priests.


V --INCONSISTENCY OF IDOLATRY, Sacrifices of slain beasts; also human sacrifices The idols made by ordinary craftsmen, out of ons and daughters made to pass through ordinary materials, being without consciousthe fire to Molech, drink-offerings and meat. ness or sense, or power of motion; early preofferings, flour, oil, honey, corn, wine, etc.

valence of idolatry, instanced in the family

of Abraham - the obstinate attachment to CONSULTATION OF IDOLS,

idolatry, instanced in Israel worshipping the With a view to ascertain the result of wars, golden calf within sight of the glory of Sinai. journeys, and undertakings-a variety of forms of witchcraft, divination, necromancy,

REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF OPPOSITION TO magic, sorcery, etc., placed on the same

IDOLATRY, ground as idolatry by Moses, and pronounced Recorded of Naaman the Syrian, after he was to be vanity and delusion.

cured by the prophet of his leprosy, of ShaIIL--NAMES OF IDOLS,

drach, Meshach, and Abednego, and of others,

of whom it is predicted that they will cast their Mentioned in Scripture are-Adrammelech, lidols to the moles and to the bats.



II. -HIS RELATION TO THE FATHER. 1.-XAMES OF GOD GIVEN TO HIM. Described as God's Son, His only begotten Son, The incommunicable name, Jehovah, the Lord His beloved Son, His image, His cqual, His

Jehovah) of hosts, the Lord (Jehovah) our Shepherd, His fellow; one with the Father, $0 righteousness, the mighty God, the true God, that he who hath seen Him

hath seen the God blessed for ever, God our Saviour, King Father, while on the other hand

what belonged of Kings, and Lord of Lords, etc.

to the Father belonged to Him.

3. ATTRIBUTES OF GOD POSSESSED BY HIM, quence, the characteristics of the territory,

Galilee where he should commence and for Eternity past as well as future, represented as having come down from heaven, having been the most part prosecute his ministry, a "land before Abraham, having been with the father of darkness and the shadow of death." before the world was, and as Alpha and Omega, Omnipresence, as with all his people to the end 4. PROPHECY AND ITS FULFILMENT ABOUT HIS of the world, Omniscience, seen in His know- APPREHENSION, TRIAL, AND DEATH, ledge of circumstances of absent persons and His triumphal entry into Jerusalem, rejection objects, the heart, thoughts, motives, character, by men, opposition from the Jewish rulers, and dispositions of men--unchangeableness- betrayal, silence during his trial, innocence, the same past, present, and to come.

endurance of scourging, crucifixion, raiment

divided by lot, bearing insults, dying between 4. WORKS OF GOD ASCRIBED TO HIM.

two thieves, being pierced with the spear of In creation, having made all things visible or the Roman soldier, body without a bone invisible, in providence, upholding all things, broken, burial, resurrection and ascension to in the resurrection, His voice obeyed by all in glory. the grave, and in the final judgment, as before Him all shall give in their account.



Recorded by Matthew, the espousal of Joseph to On earth forgiving sins, and from heaven Mary, the appearance of an angel to him, sending down the Holy Ghost in a vast the obedience of Joseph to the heavenly variety of common and supernatural gifts.

mission, his flight into Egypt with Mary and

the child from the rage of Herod, their return 6. WORSHIP OFFERED TO HIM.

on the death of that governor, and their takAscription of glory and honour,—the presen- ing up their abode in Nazareth, --Recorded by tation of prayer and praise, as foretold in pro- Luke, the appearing of an angel to Mary give phecy, commanded also, practised in the ing her promise of the Saviour, and informing church on earth, continued among the angels her of the name he should bear, the meeting and saints in heaven, and never refused by of Mary and Elizabeth the mother of John Him.

the Baptist, the birth of Jesus in Beth

lehem, accompanied by a throng of angels II.-CHRIST'S HUMANITY.

in the neighbouring field, the announceBorn of a woman, named man, and the son of circumcision on the eight day, the visit to

ment of the event to the shepherds, the man, the seed of woman—the seed of Abraham the temple, Simeon giving utterance to his and David—a brother of mankind--a par: prediction respecting the child, the growth of taker of flesh and blood-having bodily parts Jesus in wisdom and stature, and at the age and senses-having a human soul, as growing of twelve years bis disputation with the in stature, as hungering and thirsting, as sub- doctors in the temple. ject to weariness and sleep, and as sympathi. sing, weeping, dying.


His mother and brethren occasionally attended PROPHECY.

on his ministry, other connections opposed

his Messiahship, his fellow townsmen, for the 1. PROPHECY ABOUT HIS BIRTH AND ITS FULFIL- most part viewing him, “beside himself."

taunted him as the carpenter, and the carpenter's The place of his birth, the time of it, the son; in the estimation of Jesus, "his mother supernatural manner of it, -born of a virgin, and_brethren were those who did the will of ---his appearance in the Temple,-his descent his Father in heaven.” from Abraham, through Isaac, Judah, and David,—the massacre of the children of Beth.

3. HIS FORERUNNER, JOHN THE BAPTIST. lehem, and the refuge in Egypt.

Predicted under the name of Elijah, to pre2. PROPHECY ABOUT HIS CHARACTER AND ITS pare the way of the Messiah, promised to

Zacharias his father in the temple, - spent FULFILMENT.

his youth in retirement, - entered on the His meekness, his lowliness, and his zeal.

ministry at the river Jordan,---drew around

him multitudes, described by Jesus as the 3. PROPHECY AND ITS FULFILMENT ABOUT HIS

greatest of prophets, as a burning and shining

light, and as a faithful witness he testified to Prophet, a healer, a speaker in parables, a the pre-existence of Christ to his divine expreacher of extraordinary wisdom and clo-cellence, and to his authority and power to



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