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to Joshua and Caleb in pursuance of special | by Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed it, and promise.

carried the people captive to Babylon.


RESTORATION, Jerusalem anciently called Jebus, and long in Promised and eventually fulfilled, -—but again the band of the aborigines, at length taken its ruin predicted by Jesus, and accomplished by David, - divinely selected as the centre by the Roman army. of God's worship, and the scene of the national gatherings,--placed under the special

JERUSALEM MYSTIC, protection of the Most High, and cherished Described by Ezekiel in vision, and by John by the people with the purest patriotism;- in the Apocalypse, detailing its vast extent, its very frequently threatened and many times holiness, its felicity, and its security in the invaded by hostile armies, as by Shishak king presence of God, and holding it up to the of Egypt, Rezin king of Syria, Sennacherib hope of believers as the gathering place of the king of Assyria, Pharaoh-necho, Jehoash, and redeemed from the earth.


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with Isaac and Jacob and with similar Used in reference to men to signify an agree, the promise of Canaan; -with Levi anent the

promises; with Israel in the wilderness, and ment or contract, entered into deliberately

and with David- his throne and with solemnity, - in reference to God, priesthood, signifying his solemn promise or engagement being established forever in the mediatorial to those with whom he entered into covenant. reignof Messiah. COVENANTS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE,

GOD FAITHFUL TO HIS COVENANT, Between God and man, between man and Evinced by his faithfulness, his mercy, bis man,-ratitied by oath' and sacrifice, and covenant an everlasting covenant. sometimes written and sealed, --instanced in Abraham, and in the princes, levites, priests, THE OBLIGATION TO KEEP GOD'S COVENANT, and people of Israel, after the return froni Manifest from the kindness displayed in the captivity.

them, the danger of violating them seen in the threatenings, and in the judgments he

has often inflicted, instanced very frequently Salt an emblem of incorruptibility, and per. in the history of the chosen people. petuity, BLOOD OF THE COVENANT,

MEN MAKING COVENANTS WITH GOD, Flowed from the sacrifices which were slain Mentioned especially in seasons of special in ratification,-illustrated by Moses at the solemnity, of providential judgments and of national covenant made by Israel in the religious revival, instanced'in Israel in view wilderness, and by Christ in the covenant of of the death of Joshua, and in the days of

of the approaching death of Moses, in view redemption

Often mentioned in scripture, and entered into

with great solemnity-instanced in those of Made in Christ with believers, so called to
Abraham with Abimelech, Laban with distinguish it from the old covenant of Sinai,-
Jacob, Joshua with the tribes, Jonathan with spiritual and is founded on the better promises.
David, etc.


Wonderful, made by God for his people, with Graciously revealed to successive saints with the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and their respective and appropriate promises, with the stones of the ground, ruinous those twice with Noah in reference to the flood:- which godless men make in their vain im. with Abraham, conveying the gift of the land agination with death and hell; unlawful, those of Capaan, and the romise of the seed, which Israel made with heathen nations







son, manna,-eating of human flesh threaten. Suffered by Esau,—by the army of king Saul, ed by Moses as an aggravation of famine, -- by Jesus after his baptism,- by Paul in alluded to by the prophets, and instanced Damascus and at other times, - voluntarily in the seige of Samaria. borne by Abraham's servant,-by Hannah,and by king Saul in his last extremity.


Often mentioned in Scripture history-as FASTING IN CONNECTION WITH RELIGION,

in the case of Israel at Rephidim, Sisera in Often observed by individuals, families, and house of Jael, Samson at Lehi, and Jesus at communities, when observed to be in the the well of Sychar and on the cross, emblem right spirit of kindness to fellow-men, alms of the awakened sinners longing for spiritual giving to the poor, etc., opposed to the fasting blessings. of the Pharisees.

FASTS BY DIVINE AUTHORITY, Proclaimed by prophets and rulers in seasons This vessel, therefore, the emblem of a per. of calamity, as in Joel, and Esther, in Nine- son's lot or portion – as cup of salvation, of veh, sometimes proclaimed under pretence trembling, of astonishment, of the Lord's right

hand, etc. of piety, instanced in Jezebel. EXTRAORDINARY FASTS,

EATING AND DRINKING, Extending to forty days, Moses on the mount, Denoting generally to take a meal, instanced Elijah on Horeb, and Jesus in the wilderness.' in the language of Elijah to Ahab--sometimes

feasting and indulgence, instanced in Israel FOOD THE GIFT OF GOD,

sitting down to eat and drink in connection Furnished from earth in his kind providence, with the golden calf. emblematical at the same time of Zion's pro. vision,-dependent on human industry in

BEVERAGES, tilling the ground, in sowing the seed, and Various, water most common—wine frequently harvesting the products,--thanks therefore to be offered with prayer to God, that food may used, strong drink, weak wine called vinegar be blessed, as commanded by Moses, enjoined presented to Jesus on the cross, etc.; corn and

wine, often associated as the means of susteby Apostles and exemplified by Christ.

nance, and corn, wine, and oil connected together, representing the produce of the field,

vineyard, and orchard. “ To eat bread," the common term for taking food.

SOBRIETY, PREPARATION OF THE PRODUCE OF THE FIELD. forced by describing the evils of intempe.

Often directly enjoined, and frequently en. Often done in the simplest form, even eaten rance, namely, personal and bodily suffering, on the field as when the disciples plucked the mental anguish, domestic strife and conten corn, sometimes simply parched, --sometimes tion, spiritual insensibility, and if unrepented grinded into meal, and baked by females and of, the curse of God in this world, and excluslaves.

sion from the kingdom of heaven-instanced

in Noah, Lot, and Nabal; unjust imputations LEAVEN.

in the case of Hanuah, and by the Jews Generally used in the preparation of bread, against Christ; and also against the apostles --in its diffusive and assimilating nature on the day of Pentecost. likened to malice and wickedness, to corrupt manners and customs; also to false doctrine; prohibited for specific reasons in the bread Principally two-the dinner, generally light, used at the Passover.

and eaten in the forenoon; the supper, or OTHER ELEMENTS OF DIET, SUCH AS MILK, principal meal, eaten at a late hour of the day:

the former instanced in Joseph, and alluded BUTTER, CHEESE, HONEY, ETC.

to in the parable of the marriage feast—the [See under AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS.] latter in the feast in honour of Herod's birth

day; postures observed in eating various, more

gener ly recumbent, as exemplified by Jesus Leeks, onions, garlic, (Egyptian) beans, pot- and his apostles in the Last Supper, John tage, fruit of the carob tree, figs, raisins, veni. lying in his bosom.










said to be naked, as David when he danced Provided on occasions of joy,-as marriages, before the ark, and Simon

Peter when Jesus barthdays, etc, often referred to in the figura came to him at the lake of Tiberias. tive language of the sacred writers, as emblems of divine blessings—instanced' in that VARIOUS OTHER PARTS OF DRESS. provided by Solomon for bis servants; by The head dress, girdle made of linen, leather. Samuel for Saul; by Belshazzar for his lords silk, etc., wrapped round the loins, for the and captains, etc.-invitations to feasts some. double purpose of tucking up the loose gartimes issued, of which our Lord advises that ments, and for strengthening the loins, which og receiving and using them the guests should form the weakest part of the body; hence the study humility in selecting the lower seats.

emblem of power or strength. To gird up the

loins descriptive of readiness for travel, preDRESS.

paredness for labour, and emblematical of First felt to be necessary by Adam and Eve- preparedness for Christ's coming shoes or Ag-legtes—the skins of animals slain in sacri. sandals, generally consisting only c: soles tice, etc.

tied over the foot with a latchet, put off on

entering houses, and sometimes on other COLOURS OF DRESS.

occasions in token of reverence, and untying Significant; white, of felicity, purity, and glory; of which was assigned to the lowest servantsperple, of royalty; hence in mockery one was the veil, important part of the female dress, put upon Jesus by Pilate; black, of mourning, used not only for covering the face, but for 23 metaphorically expressed by covering the carrying objects, instanced in Rebekah and bearens with blackness; various coloured, of Ruth-ornaments consisting of rings, bracelets, bodour, usually, though not exclusively worn earrings, jewels, worn by females, as were also lig kings' daughters, and also instanced in the used a profusion of perfumes of myrrh, etc. diat which Jacob gave to Joseph.

DRESS IN MOURNING AND SORROW. MATERIALS OF DRESS. Ford. flar, şilk, etc.; soft raimentfine linen, Strictly attended to, ornaments laid aside, or a

rent made in the outer robe, instanced in embroidered garments--coarser being worn by Reuben in not finding

Joseph, in Joshua and the poor.

Caleb on hearing the report of the other SPECIAL DRESSES,

spies, etc., - sackcloth put on, and dust cast upon Worn on special occasions—the names given to the head as in case of Job and his friends, etc. them expressive, such as the garments of widowhod, prison garments, wedding garments, bridal attire, swaddling clothes, etc.

Often referred to and frequently mentioned JEWISI CLOTHING,

as given or sent in presents, as Joseph to his

brethren, Naaman to Elisha, etc., implying Made up of two robes; the first or inner, termed washing, 'instauced in Israel when the law the cat or tunic; the second or outer, termed was about to be given from Mount Sinai, the cok, which being gathered up formed the also the laying up of clothing, stated to be lapos bosom, on its being laid aside, the person sometimes motheaten in the wardrobe.




DISEASES VERY DIVERSIFIED. The token of sin, often painful, as instanced in Expressed in Scripture more generally by sick. Job and Hezekiah, sent by God, who gives ness and leanness, more particularly according comfort and hope under it,-affliction some to their specific nature as ague, boils, blindtimes not improved.

ness, consumption, deafness, debility, demoADVANTAGES OF AFFLICTION.

niacal possession, dumbness, dysentery,

emerods, epilepsy, fever, fractures, gout, itch, The afdicted person humbling himself, open inflammation, issue, laineness, leprosy, loss of ing his heart to discipline, seeing the hand of appetite, lunacy, monomania, mortification, God in his trouble, being more impressed with palsy, plague, skin disease, ulcers, worms. the evil of sin and experiencing that purification which is compared to silver refined in the fire

Priest being judge of the symptoms.



body when dead-instanced in Jacob, Joseph, Sometimes resorted to instead of the Lord, as and old Barzillai; spiritual, having reference

to a future world_instanced in all the saints. Asa, and sometimes withont any benefit, as the woman who had the issue of blood; the medicines and applications in use being balm,

HAPPY DEATH OF THE RIGHTEOUS, wine, oil, figs, etc.

Characterized by peace, hope, confidence in

God, assurance, introduction into the house of OTHER MEANS OF CURE,

many mansions, and, finally, participation in a Miraculous power, as in the cures effected by blessed resurrection. Jesus and his apostles, praying over the sick; apart from miracle, disease sometimes incur

DEATH A GREAT CHANGE, able as in Jehoram; often alluded to by the Body laid in grave, food for worms, returns prophets while exposing the spiritual maladies | to dust, the individual forgotten in the of Israel.

house, the street and the city, cut of totally

and for ever from the world; hence said to RECOVERY FROM GOD,

be gathered to his fathers. In His band the issues of death-sometimes bringing back from the grave.


In anointing the body, as that of Jesus, or enr DEATH.

balming it, as that of Jacob in Egypt, then

wrapping it in fine linen, with spices, etc. THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE, Dust thou art and unto dust thou shalt return,

BURIAL, pronounced by God upon our first parents The ordinary mode of disposing of the dead after the fall, has descended also upon their illustrated in every part of Scripture—boty posterity.

sometimes burned, as that of Saul and his

sons-non-burial regarded as a disgrace, and SHORTNESS AND UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE, sometimes a punishment. Illustrated by many emblems and comparisons--as a pilgrimage, a sojourn, a step, a hand

MOURNING FOR THE DEAD, breadth, and described as swifter than a post, a Strictly attended to-instanced in the death few days, a few years, grass, a flower, etc.-Its of Sarah, Aaron, Moses, etc.; very frequently fruilty appearing from many images and by hired mourners or minstrels, referred to figures—as when man is said to be dwelling in by Jeremiah; cutting for dead forbidden; and

cottage of clay, to be crushed before the oth, mourning forbidden to the high-priest, or to
etc.-Teaching us to be watchful, to be redeem- such as were under the vow of a Nazarite.
ing the time; to be preparing for death.


Of various kinds, in caves, under trees, in Asserted everywhere-He wounds and heals gardens, etc., -instanced in those of Abraham, Preparation for it, of various kinds-secular, Sarah, and Christ,—those of the kings of Judah having respect to the arrangement of worldly in the city of David-monuments, heaps of affairs instanced in the instruction of Isaiah stones, pillows, and erections, whited at reto Hezekiah; solicitude for survivors—instanced gular periods, employed by the Saviour as in Moses on behalf of Israel; care about the images of hypocrisy.



EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS, In the beginning, arranged and beautified by Often referred to, the former described as reHim, covered with vegetation, peopled with moving mountains, as carrying them into the its numerous and diversitied inhabitants, and midst of the sea, as shaking the earth out of fixed it as one of the orbs of space; ilustrative her place, the latter represented as causing of the Creator's wisdom and goodness, char- the mountains to melt, the hills to smoke, etc. acterized by stability, variety, order and permanence; compared to a building having EARTHQUAKES MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. foundation, and as a tent whose curtains are At mount Sinai, in the wilderness,-in the the heavens above.

stronghold of the Philistines, – at mount



Horeb on Elijah's visit to it,-in Uzziah's pents and scorpions,-subject to scorching reign,-at our Lord's death, at Philippi,-be- winds, blasts and whirlwinds. fore the destruction of Jerusalem; images of civil commotions.

DESERTS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, Arabian, or great desert, Bethaven, Beer

sheba, Damascus, Edom, En-gedi, Gibeon, Characterized as being, everlasting, perpetual, Judea, Jeruel, Kedemoth, Kadesh, Maon, cient, as the pillars of heaven, etc.

Paran, Shur, Sin, Sinai, Ziph, Ziu, of the Red

Sea, and that near Gaza.
Scenes of retirement for prayer and medita-

ROADS, tion; instanced in Moses, when Israel fought Variously designated, highways, byways, ancient with Amalek; scenes of observation, and paths, old wuys, etc.; used by travellers, freSCEDES of idolatrous worship as everywhere quented by robbers, and by beggars asking illustrated




ISLANDS, On account of its being the place of God's Representing in Hebrew poetry distant places,

those mentioned in Scripture, Chittim, Clauda, presence, hence called God's holy hill.

Cyprus, Elishah, Melita and Patmos.


Effected by the descendants of Noah, recorded Are, A barim, Amalek, Amana, Ammah, in the tenth chapter of Genesis, and more Ararat, Basban, Beth-el

, Bether, Carmel, particularly on the dispersion at Babel. Ebal, Ephraim, Esau, Gaash, Gareb, Gerizzim, Gilboa, Gilead, Hachilah, Hermon, Hor, NATIONS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, Horeb, Lebanon, Mars' hill, Mizar, Moreh, Moriah, mount of the Amorites, Nebo, Olives, Are Amalek, descended from Esau, Ammon Paran, Perazim, Pisgah, Samaria, Seir, Shenir, descended from Lot, the Amorites one of the Sinai, Siou, Sirion, Tabor, Zalmon, Zion, seven nations of Canaan, Arabia noted for its mount of Beatitudes, mount of Transfigur: kings and merchandise, Assyria, chief city ation, Agar, mountain of Myrrh.

Nineveh, Asii a small district of Asia Minor,

Chaldea sometimes named Sinar, chief city VALLEYS,

Babylon, Bashan on the east of_the Jor.

dan, sometimes named Idumea, Edom, deAchor, Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Bochim, scended from Esau, chief city Bozrah, Charashim, Elah, Eshcol, Gerar, Gibeon, Egypt named also Sihon, Rahab, the land of Hebron, Hinnom, Jehoshaphat, Jericho, Ham, the house of bondage, Elam or Persia, Jezreel, Jiphtha-el Keziz, Lebanon, Megiddo, Ethiopia a name given to several nations, Vaab, Rephaim, Salt, Shaveh, Shittim, Sido Galilee the northern province of Palestine in um, Sorek, Succoth, Zared, Zeboim, Zepha, the time of Christ, Gog and Magog subjects of thah, Valley of Vision, Fat Valleys, Valley of prophecy, Grecia, chief cities in the days of Dry Bones, Valley of Haman-gog.

the Apostles, Athens and Corinth, Macedonia,

chief city, Philippi, Italy Rome, Judea thé PLAINS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, southern province of Palestine in the time of Preaches, Jericho, Jordan, Mamre, Moab, Christ, Medes and Media in the distant east, Shechem, Shinar, Tabor, Vineyards,' Wilder- Midiun, Moab descended from Lot, Ophir famed Iita, Low Plain.

for its gold, Padan-aram or Mesopotamia;

Palestina or Philistia long the nearest and ROCKS,

bitterest enemy of Israel, Phenice on the

coast of Syria, Phrygia in Asia Minor, Samaris Czed for writing on, as referred to by Job; of the middle province of Palestine in the time shelter and refuge.

of our Saviour, Syria, chief city Damascus,

-Tarshish noted for its shipping.-Tyre famed ROCKS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, as the mart of nations and Sion on the north Adullam, Bozez, and Seneh, En-gedi, Etam, west border of Canaan. Horeb, in Kadesh, Oreb, Rimmon, Sela-hamma-lekoth, Ziz; for obvious reasons Rock is a

DESTINY OF THE EARTH, frequent name of God and Christ.

Predicted by the apostle Peter to consist

in its destruction by fire at the second comDESERT,

ing of Christ, and is urged as a reason for Characterized as arid, desolate, barren, solitary, a diligent preparation for the coming of that 2 scenes of danger, pathless, infested by ser. I day.

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