صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني



many of the cities enumerated above, and

RESOLUTION TO GO TO WAR. threatened against other cities by Amos. Israel's valour and resolve based on divine

promise--vain-glory, sometimes manifested, MILITARY TACTICS,

and caution and cowardice both exhibited-for The march-Hebrew soldiers during it to divisions of Reuben there were great searching of be pure - the roule of Sennacherib's land heart. drawn by Isaiah-attempt of Israel to march through Edom and the land of the Amorites,

RESULTS OF BATTLE. and its consequences—the march of an army God the giver of victory-acknowledged lwy productive of great devastation, licking up all Joshua and David-the promiser of it also round about-stopping wells, felling trees, pil- --defeat from him, and on account of sin, laging harvests.

and that defeat threatened by him.

FLIGIIT. Producing victory-ambushes, as of Joshua at The pursuit-and the flight often in vain-Ai, and of Israel at Gibeah-signals employed the wounded not able to rise—the slain, David's of various kinds—the scarlet line of Rahab- lament over Jonathan-recorded number of the arrows of Jonathan, etc.

Jews slain, and of Gentiles also — special

cause of disaster and hardship in ancient INTELLIGENCE,

Israel, the treatment of the Levite's concuOiten necessary to an army, and sometimes bine by the men of Gibeah. got of old from a divine source, as from the prophet:—fromreconnoitering-fromprisoners and deserters, from the natives-or from often taken in great numbers, as by Moses, secret emissaries and spies-many examples David and Nebuchadnezzar-sometimes kindof all these in Jewish annals-various effects ly treated, pitied by those who carried them captive produced by such intelligence-evil tidings, sometimes with ignominy; the five kings etc.

and their necks made a footstool by Joshua;

David's treatment of the Ammonites Hushai, Abithophel.

Zedekiah blinded and carried to Babylon. VARIOUS,

BOOTY, Campaigns and mauæuvres under Joshua Often referred to-spoil' and sporler-often and the kings and serving often for illustra- great-distributed among the soldiers, and tion to the prophets.

also among the women who tarried at home. ACTIVE WARFARE.

TRIBUTE. isebrew law-priests addressing the army

Paid by the vanquished · Mesha king of sanitary regulation for the host, the paddle Moab, Hezekiah, paid in money, and in sheep fixed to the weapon of war-watch word of and goats. Moses-Rise up, O Lord, Return—the camp, array of battle-proclamation before engage. To prevent war or in consequence of item


bassies as of Jephthah to the Ammonites Mentioned in Scripture, confederate kings, treaties as between Ahab and BenhadadAmalek, Og, Anachim, Anakims, Sihon-the treaties sometimes violated-ambassadors aborigines of Canaan, Abimelech, tribe of league with Gibeonites through their feigned Benjamin – Philistines of David and the ambassadors. other kings.

Not always successful -not a few instances in

the historical books. Capitulation, result of Garments rolled in blood-griet and wailing conscious weakuess—and urged by the strong produced by the bloodsbed-Oh that my head party-miscellaneous allusions to war and its were waters!

concomitants in various portions of Scripture.






SEAS, Gathered together on the third day—the scene Mentioned in Scripture, Adria-Mediterof great wondersJordan and the Red Sea--ranean variously named-Red sea-Salt or symbols of affliction-always under the com- Dead sea-Sea of Galilee or Tiberia--Sea of mand of God, the Lord sits king on the floods. Jazer,




FOUNTAINS, Often overflowing the banks—all run into Abounded in Canaan, highly prized, especially the sea,-yet the sea not full—mystic rivers in in gardens, mentioned in Scripture, near Ezekiel, Zechariah, and Rerelations. Shur, near the waters of Nephtoah, Jezreel,

Lebi, Pisgab, Upper and nether springs.
Mentioned in Scriptures, A bana and Pharpar,
Arnon, Chebar, Euphrates, and Hiddekel, Pools mentioned in Scripture-Bethesda, -
Gihon, Gozan, Jabbok, Jordan, Kanah, Ki. Gibeon, -Hebron,-Samaria, -Siloam,-Up,
shon, Ulai, of Pison, Ahava, of Babylon, of per Pool,-Lower Pool,-King's Pool-Old
Eden, of Egypt. of Ethiopia, of Jotbath, of Pool.
Judab, of Philippi, River of life.

Highly prized, dug by the Patriarchs, and

sometimes scenes of strife on account of their The ark of Noah, built of gopher-wood, ships value, -occasionally found in the courts of of war from Chittim, ferryboat in Jordan, houses,-symbol of spiritual blessings navy of Solomon and Jehoshaphat, boats often used by Christ at the Lake of Tiberias-voyaging ships with their tackling, masts, sails, Mentioned in Scripture, Beer-lahai-roi, pilot anchor, helm, rudder-bands,oars, rowers, Beth-lebem, Beer-cheba,-- Elim,--Esek,-in shipmen, mariners, captain, lading and unlading, crew, cargo, and passengers-ship with Rehoboth, Sitnah, --Floods often breaking

Hagar's history, Haran, Jacob, Marab,figure head of Castor and Pullox-Shipwreck out suddenly – Symbol of revolution and of the Apostle Paul, storms sent by God, great invasion. wind, rebuked by Christ, shipwreck-of ships of Tarshish, of the navy of Jehoshaphat, of Paul,-Euroclydon.

The flood of Noah, the rain-bow token of

the divine covenant, --Swimming,- spreading CROOKS,

forth hands. Abounding in Canaan-mentioned in Scripture, Arnon, Besor, Cherith, Eshcol, Gaash, A fearful punishment-water failing, (sec Kibon, Kishon, Zered, Of the Willow. under HEAVEN.)









DISTRIBUTION OF their substance. As the LORD | he redeem that which his brother LAND.

coinman led Moses, so the child sold. And it the man have done Num. Xri, 52-56.

dren of Israel did, and they divided to redeem it, and himself be able And the the land,

to redeem it; Then let him count LORD spake into Moses, saying, Unto theve the land shall be di- Joshua xviii, 10. And Joshua the years of the sale thereof, and vided for an inheritance accord cist lots for them in Shiloh before restore the overplus unto the man ing to the number of names. To the Lord: and there Joshua di- to whom he sold it; that he may vided the land unto the children

return unto his possession. But if Indy thon sluilt give the more in. beritance, and to few thou sbult of Israel according to their divi- he be not able to restore it to him, give the less inheritance: to every

then that which is sold shall resions.

main in the hand of him that hath ope shall his inheritance be given Josh, xix. 51. These are the bought it until the year of jubilee. aconding to

those that were inheritances, which Eleazar the and in the jubilee it shall go ont, bumbered of him. Notwithstand- priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and he shall return unto his pos tng the land shall be divided by and the heads of the fathers of session. bist: according to the names of the the tribes of the children of Israel, tribes of their fathers they shall divided for an inheritance by lot

EXAMPLES inherit. According to the lot shall in Shiloh before the LORD, at the Ruth iv, 3, 4. And he said unto the possession thereof be divided door of the tabernacle of the con- the kinsman, Naomi, that is come between many and few.

gregation. So they made an end again out of the country of Moab, Num. xxxiii, 53, 54. And ye of dividing the country.

selleth a parcel of land, which was et all dispossess the inhabitants of

our brother Elimelech's: And I the land, and dwell therein: for I

thought to advertise thee, saying, have given you the land to pos


Buy it before the inhabitants, and Bess it. And ye shall divide the Lev. xxv, 13-17. In the year of before the elders of my people. hand by lot for an inheritance this jubilee ye shall return every if thou wilt redeem it, redeem it: among your familles : and to the man unto his possession. And if but if thou wilt not redeem it, more ye shall give the more in- thou sell ought unto thy neigh- then tell me, that I may know: for beritance, and to the fewer ye bour, or buyest ought of thy neigh- there is none to redeem it beside shall give the less inheritance : bour's hand, ye shall not oppress thee; and I am after thee. And every man's inheritance shall be one another: According to the he said, I will redeem it. in the place where his lot falleth; number of years after the jubilee Ruth iv, 6-9, 11. And the kinsman according to the tribes of your thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, said, I cannot redeem it for myfatbers ye shall inherit.

and according unto the number self, lest I mar mine own inheriJoshua xiv, 1-5. And these are of years of the fruits he shall sell tance: redeem thou my right to the countries which the children unto thee: According to the mul- thyself; for I cannot redeem it. of Israel inherited in the land of titude of years thou shalt increase Now this was the manner in Caraan, which Eleazar the priest, the price thereof, and according former time in Israel concerning 01 Joshua the son of Nun, and the to the fewness of years thou shalt redeeming and concerning changbevis of the fathers of the tribes diminish the price of it: for ac- ing, for to confirm all things; a en the children of Israel, distri. cording to the number of the man plucked off his shoe, and bited for inheritance to them. By years of the fruits doth bo sell gave it to his neighbour: and this We was their inheritance, as the unto thee. Ye shall not therefore was a testimony in Israel. ThereLORD commanded by the hand of oppress one another, but thou | fore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Moens, for the nine tribes, and for shalt fear thy God: for I am the Buy it for thee. So lie drew of the half tribe. For Moses had LORD your God.

his shoo. And Boaz said unto the given the inberitance of two tribes Lev. xxv, 23-28. The land shall elders, and unto all the people, Ye med an ball tribe on the other side not be sold for ever: for the land are witnesses this day, that I have Jardan: but unto the Levites he is mine; for ye are strangers and bought all that was Elimelech's, fare none inheritance among sojourners with me. And in all and all that was Chilion's and them. For the children of Joseph the land of your possession ye Mahlou's, of the hand of Naomi. were two tribes, Manasseh and shall grant a redemption for the And all the people that were in Ephraim: therefore they gave no land. If thy brother be waxen the gate, and the elders, said, part onto the Levites in the land, poor, and hath sold away some of we are witnesses. sve cities to dwell in, with their his possession, and if any of his 1 Kings xxi, 3. And Naboth said suburbs for their cattle and for kin come to redeem it, then shall I to Abab, The LORD forbid it me, that I should give the inheritance tent, at the hand of the children, fruit of her hands she planteth of my fathers unto thee.

of Hamor, Shechem's father, for a vineyard. 2 Kings viii, 3-6. And it came to an hundred pieces of money.

Acts v, 1, 2. But a certain man pass at the seven years' end, that

Josh, xxiv, 32. And the bones of named Ananias, with Sapphira his the woman returned out of the Joseph, which the children of Is-wife, sold a possession, and kept land of the Philistines: and she rael brought up out of Egypt, back part of the price, his wife went forth to cry unto the king buried they in Shechem, in a par- also being privy to it, and brought for her house and for her land: cel of ground which Jacob bought a certain part, and laid it at the And the king talked with Gelazi of the sons of Hamor the father of apostles' feet. the servant of the man of God, Shechem for an hundred pieces saying, Tell me, I pray thee, all of silver: and it became the in

ANCIENT CHARTERS. the great things that Elisha hath heritance of the children of Jodone.

Gen. xxiii, 17, 18. And the field of And it came to pass, as seph.

Ephron, which was in Machpelah, he was telling the king how ho

John iv, 5. Then cometh he to a which uas before Mamre, the field, had restored a dead body to liso, that, behold, the woman, whose city of Samaria, which is called and the cave which vas therein, son he had restored to life, cried Sychar, near to the parcel of and all the trees that were in the to the king for her house and for ground that Jacob guve to his son field, that were in all the borders her land.

round about, were made sure unto And Gehazi said, My Joseph.

Abraham for a possession in the lord, ( king, this is the woman, UNDER JEWISH LAW.

presence of the children of Heth, and this is her son, whom Elisha restored to life. And when the

2 Sam. xxiv, 21-24. And Araunah before all that went in at the gate king asked the woman, she told said, Wherefore is my lord the of his city.

Jer. xxxii, 10-15. And I sul him. So the king appointed unto king come to his servant? And her a certain oficer, saying, Re- David said, To buy the threshing- scribed the evidence, and sealed store all that was her's, and all floor of thee, to build an altar unto it, and took witnesses, and weighed the fruits of the field since the

the Lord, that the plague may be him the money in the balances

And So I took the evidence of the purday that she left the land, even stayed from the people. until now.

Araunah said unto David, Let my chase, both that which was sealed Lam. v, 2. Our inheritance is what seemeth good unto him: be- and that which was open: And I

lord the king take and offer up according to the law and custom, turned to strangers, our houses to hold, here be oxen for burnt sacri- gave the evidence of the purchase aliens.

lice, and threshing instruments unto Baruch the son of Neriah, the

and other instruments of the oxen son of Maaseiah, in the sight of TRANSFER OF LAND.

for wood. All these things did llanameel mine uncle's son, and IN EARLY TIMES.

Araunah, as a king, give unto the in the presence of the witnesses

king: And Araumah said unto that subscribed the book of the Gen. xxiii, 7-9. And Abraham the king, The Lord thy God ac- purchase, before all the Jews that stood up, and bowed himself to cept thee. And the king said unto sat in the court of the prison, the people of the land, eren to the Araunah, Nay; but I will surely And I charged Baruch before children of Heth. And he com- buy it of thee at a price: neither them, saying, Thus saith the LORD muned with them, saying, If it will I offer burnt offerings unto of hosts, the God of Israel; Take be your mind that I should bury the Lord my God of that which these evidences, this evidence of my dead out of my sight; hear me, doth cost me nothing. So David the purchase, both which is sealed, and intreat for me to Ephron the bought the threshing-floor and and this evidence which is opei son of Zohar, That he may give the oxen for fifty shekels of sil- and put them in an earthen vessel, me the cave of Machpelah, which

that they may continue many days he hath, which is in the end of his field; for as much money as it is The word of the Lord came unto the God of Israel; Houses and

Jer.xxxii, 6-9. And Jeremiah said, For thus saith the LORD of hosts, worth he shall give it me for a pos: me, saying, Behold, Hanameel the fields and vineyards shall be pos session of a burying-place amongst son of Shallum thine uncle shall sessed again in this land. you.

Jer. xxxii, 44. Men shall boy Gen. xxiii, 13-16. And he spako come unto thee, saying, Buy thee unto Ephron in the audience of my field that is in Anathoth: for fields for money, and subscribe the people of the land, saying, to buy it.

the right of redemption is thine evidences, and seal them, and taka But if thou wilt give it, I pray uncle's son came to me in the and in the places about Jerusalon,

So Hanameel mine witnesses in the land of Benjamin, thee, hear me: I will give the court of the prison according to and in the cities of Judah, and in money for the field; take it of me, the word of the LORD, and said the cities of the mountains, and in and I will bury my dead there. unto me, Buy my field, I pray the cities of the valley, and in tha And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, My lord, hear: thee, that is in Anathoth, which cities of the south: for I will cause

is in the country of ken unto me: the land is worth the right of inheritance is thine, LORD.

njam for their captivity to return, saith tha four hundred shekels of silver; and the redemption is thine; buy what is that betwixt me and thee? it for thyself. Then I knew that bury therefore thy dead.


this was the word of the LORD. Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; And I bought the field of Hana- son of Nun, and Caleb the son of

Num. xiv, 6-8. And Joshua the and Abraham weighed to Ephron meel my uncle's son, that was in the silver, which he had named in the andience of the sons of lleth, | Anathoth, and weighed him the Jephunneh, which were of them

that searched the land, rent their four hundred shekels of silver, curmoney, eren seventeen shekels of

clothes: And they spake unto all silver. rent money with the merchant.

the company of the children of

Jer. xxxii, 43. And fields shall Israel, saying, The land, which we Gen. xxxiii, 18, 19. And Jacob came to Shalein a city of Shechem, be bought in this land. whereof passed through to search it, is an which is in the land of Canaan, ye say. It is desolate without man exceeding good land. If the LORD when he came from Padan-arann; or beast; it is given into the hand delight in us, then he will bring and pitched his tent before the of the Chaldeans.

us into this land, and give it ne city. And he bought a parcel of Prov. XXXI, 16. She considereth a land which floweth with milk a feld, where he had spread his la field, and yeth it: with the and honey.


Deut. 1, 22-25. And ye came near the ears with thine hand; but thou eat the labour of thine hands: totu me every one of you, and shalt not move a sickle unto thy happy shalt thou be, and it shall fild, We will send men before us, neighbour's standing corn.

be well with thee. and they shall search us out the Deut. xxvii, 17. Cursed be he Isa. XXV, 10. For in this mounland and bring us word again by that removeth his neighbour's tain shall the hand of the LORD bat way we must go up, and into landmark.

And all the people rest, and Moab shall be trodden ini cities we shall come. And shall say, Amen.

down under him, even as straw is the saying pleased me well: and I Erktwelve men of you, one of a landmarks; they violently take

Job xxiv, 2. Some remove the trodden down for the dunghill. triter And they turned and went

Luke xvii, 7. But which of you, up into the mountain, and came

away flocks, and feed thcreof. having a servant plowing or feedinto the valley of Eshcol, and

Prov. xxii, 28. Remove not the ing cattle, will say unto him by Barched it out. And they took ancient landmark, which thy fa- and by, when he is come from the of the fruit of the land in their thers have set.

field, Go and sit down to meat? lands, and brought it down unto Prov. xxii, 10, 11. Remove not

2 Tim. ii, 6. The husbandman Es, and brought us word again, the old landmark; and enter not that laboureth must be first parand said, It is a good land which into the fields of the fatherless: taker of the fruits. the LORD our God doth give us. For their redeemer is mighty; he Deut. Fiii, 7-10. For the Lord shall plead their cause with thee.

PLOUGHING. thy God bringeth thee into a good

Deut. xxii, 10. Thou shalt not nd, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring


plow with an ox and an ass toge

ther. out of valleys and hills; A land of Gen. il, 15. And the LORD God

1 Sam. xiii, 19-21. Now thero wheat, and barley, and vines, and took the man, and put him into fig trees, and pomegranates; a the garden of Eden to dress it and all the land of Israel: for the Phil

Tras no smith found throughout kind of oil olive, and honey; A to keep it.

istines said, Lest the Hebrews land wherein thon shalt eat bread Gen.iii, 17-19, 23. And unto Adam make them swords or spears: But without scarceness, thou shalt not he said, Because thou hast hear all the Israelites went down to laek any tking in it; a land whose kened unto the voice of thy wife, the Philistines, to sharpen every s nes are iron, and out of whose and hast eaten of the tree, of which man his share, and his coulter, mills thou mayest dig brass. When I commanded thee, saying, Thou and his axe, and his mattock. Yet thua hust eaten and art full, then shalt not eat of it: cursed is the they had a file for the mattocks, thou shalt bless the LORD thy God ground for thy sake; in sorrow and for the coulters, and for the Pre the good land which he hath shalt thou eat of it all the days forks, and for the axes, and to siten thee.

of thy life; Thorns also and this- sharpen the goads. Deut. si, 10-12. For the land, tles shall it bring forth to thee;

1 Sam. xiv, 14. And that first whither thou goest in to pos- and thou shalt eat the herb of the

it, is not as the land of Egypt, field; In the sweat of thy face slaughter, which Jonathan and his frim whence ye came out, where shalt thou eat bread, till thou re

armour bearer made, was about tha sosedst thy seed, and water turn unto the ground; for out of twenty men, within as it were an est it with thy foot, as a garden it wast thou taken: for dust thou half acre of land, which a yoke of of herbs. But the land, whither ye art, and unto dust shalt thou re- | vxen might plow. zoto pissesg it, is a land of hills turn. Therefore the LORD God 1 Kings, xix, 19-21. So he de14 Falleys, and drinketh water sent him forth from the gar- rarted thence, and found Elisha

the rain of heaven: A land den of Eden, to till the ground the son of Shaphat, who was plowanch the LORD thy God careth from whence he was taken. ing with twelve yoke of oren be. fr: the eyes of the LORD thy God

Jud. xix, 16. And, behold, there fore him, and he with the twelfth: e always upon it, from the be

camo an old man from his work and Elijah passed by him, and zilning of the year even unto the out of the field at even, which was

cast his mantle upon him. And od of the year. also of mount Ephraim; and ho

ho left the oxen, and ran after sojourned in Gibeah: but the men Elijah, and said, Let me, I pray

thee, kiss my father and my moAGRARIAN ENACTMENTS of the place were Benjamites.

ther, and then I will follow thee. Erod. rtil, 5, 6. If a man shall

1 Çhr. xxvii, 26. And over them And he said unto him, Go back Ce a field or vineyard to be that did the work of the field for again; for what have I done to

tillage of the ground was Ezri the thee? And he returned back from {, and shall put in his beast, 1 shall feed in another man's son of Chelub.

him, and took a yoke of oxen, and of the best of his own field,

2 Chron. xxvi, 10. Also he built slew them, and boiled their flesh of the best of his own vine- towers in the desert, and digged with the instruments of the oxen, on shall he make restitution. many wells :: for he had much and gave into the people, and they i fire break out, and catch in cattle, both in the low country, did cat. Then he arose, and went 10, 80 that the stacks of corn, and in the plains: husbandmen after Elijah, and ministered unto

the standing corn, or the field, also, and vine dressers in the him. - consumed thereurith; he that mountains, and in Carmel: for he

Job I, 14, 15. And there came i bi the fire shall surely make loved husbandry.

messenger unto Job, and said, The Istution. Inst, six, 14. Thou shalt not Eccles. V, 9. Moreover the profit feeding beside them: And the

oxen were plowing, and the asses ramove thy neighbour's landmark,

of the earth is for all: the king Sabeans fell upon them, and took la they of old time have set himself is served by the field.

them away; yea, they have slain a thine inheritance, which thou

Eccles, vi, 7. All the labour of the servants with the edge of the sult inherit in the land that the man is for his mouth, and yet the sword; and I only am escaped alone La thy God giveth thee to pos appetito is not filled.

to tell thee. Psalm civ, 23. Man goeth forth

Job xxxix, 10. Canst thou bind Den will, 25. When thou com

unto his work and to his labour the unicorn with his band in the set unto the standing corn of thy until the evening.

furrow? or will he harrow the bighbour, then thou mayest plock Psalm cxxviii, 2. For thou shalt valleys after thee?

« السابقةمتابعة »