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النشر الإلكتروني

It is now quite time that we should leave off talking for to-night; but I must just tell you first, in few words, how all these wars ended.

The five kings who fought against Gibeon fled, and hid themselves in a cave ; but Joshua took them and put them to death, and hanged them on five trees as an example to all other kings of the land. Still the Canaanites were obstinate, still they did not believe: the miracles which they saw did not bring them to acknowledge the Lord. The victories of Joshua did not hinder them from setting themselves against him. He had, therefore, many more battles to fight, before all the kings of the land were overcome; and made war a long time, even many years; for there was not a city that made peace with Israel, save the inhabitants of Gibeon. But as God was on the side of Israel, it did not matter who fought against them. So, at length, Joshua took the whole land of Canaan; and the land rested from war.



E. MAMMA, how glad the children of Israel must have been, when they had conquered the people of Canaan and had done with battles !

M. Yes, my love; both Joshua and the whole camp of Israel must have been glad indeed, that the time was at length come when they might rest from war, that they might lay by their arms, and enjoy in


near the Mediterranean and the river Jordan. If you look at the map you will see how the mountains are marked. Let us begin with those of Lebanon, which lie, as you perceive, at the top of the map, in the northern part of the country. This is a long chain of mountains, a part of which was called AntiLebanon; for Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon were really but one mountain, or two parts of the same range divided by a valley. Lebanon is of all the mountains of Palestine the highest, largest, and most beautiful. In ancient times, it abounded in cedars and other sweet-smelling trees of many kinds, which produced valuable balsams or plants good for healing, and in frankincense, which was a kind of fragrant or sweet-smelling resin of great value. These mountains may be seen from an immense distance, and have a very white, smooth, and velvet-like appearance, from being covered with thick snow : they are not, by any means, barren mountains, but well-planted with corn and other grain, and have numbers of people living among them. They are watered with many springs and streams of the purest description, which makes everything around look fresh and green. Here are vineyards also, Edward, and groves of mulberry-trees, as well as olive and fig-trees; and here once grew the "pomegranate with pleasant fruits,” camphire with the precious spikenard, and saffron; calamus also, which was a sweet-scented cane, besides cinnamon, myrrh, aloes, and all the most costly spices.

The spikenard, which is often mentioned in Scripture, is a highly aromatic plant; the finest and most valuable species of it grow in India, though there is

one kind which grows in Syria and Arabia. From the Indian spikenard there used to be made a very valuable ointment of the richest perfume; so valuable that a very small quantity of it was considered a fit present even for the greatest kings. You will find this ointment mentioned by and bye in the New Testament.

E. And what is myrrh, Mamma? is that a plant too?

M. Myrrh is a precious kind of gum, bursting from the trunk and larger branches of a tree which grows in several eastern countries. Its taste is bitter; but the ancients used to make use of it in composing their richest ointments. The wise men of the East, who came to worship our Saviour at Bethlehem, presented to him myrrh and frankincense, amongst other rich gifts, which shows that they were both of high value in their own country. Myrrh was also used, in former days, for embalming the bodies of the dead, to preserve them from decay as long as possible: it was used, you know, by Nicodemus, among other articles, for embalming the body of Jesus.

Such were some of the choice plants, my love, which were found upon Mount Lebanon. Here too were once the " fir tree, the pine and the box together;" and here was that goodly cedar tree, so often spoken of in Scripture as the glory of Lebanon, "where the fowls of the air made their habitation and sung among the branches, and where the eagles built their nests."

E. Do they grow there now, Mamma?

M. They are not so numerous now as they then were; but persons who have been there lately tell us,

that they may still be seen growing amongst the snow in the highest part of the mountain, and are much to be admired both for their age and size. On the lofty summits of this mountain, lions, leopards, and other fierce beasts used to hide themseves; so that Lebanon is spoken of, in one part of Scripture, as “ the lions' den, the mountain of the leopards.” But, happily, these are not there now: instead of them, the traveller may often see the gentle deer bounding from its hiding place, to quench its thirst in the streams that spring up on every side.

The very highest point of Lebanon used to be called by the Hebrews Mount Hermon. On this spot the dews of heaven still fall most freely, as they seem always to have done ; for king David speaks particularly of the dew of Hermon in one of his beautiful psalms.

Now, Edward, leaving Mount Lebanon behind, if we go down a little way on the western side of the map, we shall see Mount Carmel, on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. This is a range of very rocky hills, its tops covered with oaks and other trees : wild olives and vines are found there, and cool fountains to refresh the weary traveller. It is called, in the Bible, “ the habitation of shepherds,” and “the forest of Carmel :” which leads us to suppose that it was once covered with flocks of sheep and lofty trees.

Next comes Mount Tabor, and then the mountains of Israel or Ephraim, and the mountains of Judah opposite to them ; both of which are in the very middle of the Holy Land.

We now go on to the mountains of Gilead, on the other side of the Jordan, which extend from Mount VOL. II.


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