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striking colours the difference between the external profession of his religion, and the same profession of Judaism.
II. If such were our Saviour's design, we can see little or no meaning, that can be attached to the term spirit, in the following passage; "that which is born of the flesh, is flesh: that which is born of the spirit, is spirit:" nor can we perceive any import in the comparison, which he used. "Thou hearest the sound of the wind: but canst not tell whence it cometh, nor whither it goeth: so is every one, that is born of the Spirit."
It is likewise scarcely possible, I think, that Nicodemus should have expressed so great astonishment, as he continued to express, had our Saviour meant nothing more, than that persons, under the Messiah's reign, would enjoy light, and be placed in circumstances, different from those, previously existing.
Let us now suppose, that when the Jews spoke of a proselyte to their religion, as a child new born, the more intelligent and devout of them understood a moral change, corresponding with that which was external; or that both were comprehended in the same expression. In support of this supposition, we have the authority of Michaelis, who tells us, that "to be born again in the language of the Rabbins, signified to be accepted of God, as a son of Abraham, and, by following the example of his faith, to become worthy of that title." They, who hold this opinion, must have thought, as did the apostle, that "He is not a Jew, who is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh; but he is a Jew, who is one inwardly: and circumcision is that of heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God."
Supposing our Saviour discoursed of a moral change, a renovation of the heart, the whole conference will be quite intelligible.
1. Such a change is represented in other parts of scrip
ture, already cited, as necessary to eternal life, or an entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
II. As the meaning conveyed is vastly more important, on that supposition, than on any other, we more easily see, why so strong a figure should be used. For a bad man to become a good one, is a much greater alteration, than that which is made in changing from one profession, or community to another.
III. As there are, in this life, those, whom the Scriptures denominate ungodly, and those, whom it terms righteous ;-punishment being reserved for the one, and reward for the other conversion from sin to piety must be of all things most impor. tant. It was therefore, perfectly natural, that Jesus Christ, should have introduced this subject to one, by whom he was acknowledged, as a teacher, sent from God.
IV. This change of moral feelings, this melioration of character, is, with much frequency, in the Scriptures, attributof says ed to divine agency: and therefore, what our Lord being born of the Spirit, and being born from above, is perfectly intelligible.
Lastly. The supposition, now adopted, justifies the reproof, received by Nicodemus from our Saviour, "Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things?" Terms were used among them, we have seen, which expressed a change of character,-a melioration of heart. And if the highest import of these terms were not discerned by those, who used them, namely, by the Jewish doctors, it must have proceeded from a criminal inattention to their own scriptures: for in these, we find numerous passages, in which, such a change, and the influence of God in producing it, are unequivocally recognized. Such were the words of Moses; "The Lord, thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed to love the Lord thy God, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live."
Such were the words of the royal Psalmist; "Create in me a clean heart, and renew a right spirit within me." Of a
similar import were the divine promises, communicated by the mouth of the prophets; "I will give them an heart to know me, that I am the Lord. They shall return unto me with all their heart. This is the covenant, that I will make with the house of Israel. After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts."
All, that we have as yet attempted to prove, you will observe, is, that regeneration implies a moral change. The subject in general is reserved for further discussion.
Ir having been already shown, that the change implied in regeneration, is of a moral nature, we are interested to ascertain who they are, for whom it is necessary.
I. That heathen were of this number, will probably be conceded without reluctance. Concerning the moral state of the pagan world in general, when christianity was introduced, there can be but one opinion. The same testimony is given by historians, poets, and the inspired writers. The Gentiles were not indeed without religion; but theirs was such a religion, as imposed little or no restraint on the passions and vices of men; nor could it be otherwise, considering the character of those beings, whom they worshipped as God;-beings, by whose quarrels the heavens were perpetually disturbed, and by whose impunities the earth was polluted.
To describe pagan profligacy in the words of their own satirists, would be highly indecorous. We will use the less offensive language of St. Paul. "As they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, he gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things, which were not convenient : being filled with all unrighteousnes, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness: full of murder, debate, deceit, malignity; back biters, haters of God, despiteful,
proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, covenant breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: who, knowing the judgments of God, that they, who commit such things, are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them, that do them."
That all to whom this language applies, have need of being transformed, of being created anew, is a truth, which will find little opposition, either from the understanding, or the prejudices of any. In view of this subject, no one is supprised at the language of the apostle's commission, when sent among the Gentiles; "to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God." Here, it is believed by many, may be found a satisfactory explanation of those strongly figurative passages of scripture, by which a change of character is expressed. What wonder it may be asked, if persons, thus irrational in all religious sentiments, ignorant of God, and degraded by vice, should be told, "that if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature; old things have passed away and all things have become new ?” What wonder, that such sinners were said to possess a carnal mind; and to be dead in trespasses and sins; and that those, who reformed their lives agreeably to the precepts of christian morality, were said to be quickened, i. e. raised from the dead?
I answer, that in all this there is no cause of wonder. I grant too, that some of these expressions do appear to refer especially to converts from paganism. Such persons were, in a peculiar sense, new creatures. That change of disposition, produced in them, was accompanied by an alteration in externals, far more striking, than usually attends conversion in a christian country. Certain descriptions of the change, produced in Gentiles, by their reception of Christ into their hearts, when applied to the regeneration of those, who have from their youth been instructed in christianity, and decently restrained by its moral precepts, have not pre cisely their original applicability.