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interior rains, and the bed was full of holes, into which we might have fallen, to the endangering of our necks. But what was to be done? Proceed we must. We therefore engaged the natives who accompanied us first to convey our horses through the water, and then to aid us in attempting to get through ourselves. The former task was soon accomplished, the latter not so easily. It was necessary to take off nearly all our clothes; and then, one after another, with a Kaffir on each side of us, we plunged into the stream, and were glad enough to get safely to the opposite side. Happily, no accident occurred; and we did not forget to ascribe thanks to Him who has promised to uphold the footsteps of the traveller. Such adventures are among the ordinary events of the life of a Missionary in Kaffraria; and to perform a journey through the country without some occurrence of this kind would be impossible. A century hence, or less, and the traveller may find roads and bridges, and houses of accommodation here; for in the onward march of civilization and Christianity, who can tell what changes will be effected, even in a region so wild and desolate as this? It doubtless possesses great capabilities of improvement. The soil is fertile, and in many localities the streams by which the country is watered might be led out to irrigate the adjoining lands, with comparatively little trouble. It requires but the hand of industry to convert this somewhat uninviting territory into smiling fields and fruitful gardens, which would supply the wants of a numerous population.

Five days after leaving Buntingville, we arrived at the Mission-village in the territory of 'Ncapai. It was situated in a fertile valley, not far distant from the Umzimvooboo, and, though but recently established, presented a very pleasing aspect, in striking contrast with the surrounding country. There were two humble cottages, inhabited respectively by the Missionary and the Catechist; there was a chapel, such as it was, of which I shall give a description presently; and two or three hundred yards in front of these erections there was a number of superior native huts, forming a large circle, in the midst of which was a kraal, or fold, for cattle. And then there was the hum of human voices, and all the stir and activity of a little hamlet, which, after travelling for several days through an almost uninhabited region, was quite a relief, both to the eye and to the ear. The Missionary, Mr. Garner, had accompanied us from Buntingville, and with him and his excellent wife we found ourselves perfectly at home. I could not but admire their devotedness and zeal. Here, amidst the wildest of the Kaffir clans, and far away from the society of civilized men, they had taken up their abode, with no other object in view whatever than to make known the tidings of salvation to a heathen race. For a female, such a position is one of no ordinary trial; and surely no consideration of an earthly kind could induce her to encounter difficulties so numerous, much less voluntarily to sustain them for a lengthened period. It is faith in the invisible, the prospect of a heavenly inheritance, that nerves the Missionary's arm, and inspires his breast with courage, and that enables Christian females to take up the cross, and bear it with the noblest fortitude and zeal. And what could a Missionary do in such a land as this without the society of a wife? His spirits would be depressed, his soul would sink within him. In the eyes of the natives, too, he would seem less respectable. The Kaffirs suppose that a man who has no wife is too poor to keep one; and hence they look upon him with some degree of suspicion, and imagine that he is beneath themselves. Nor should it be forgotten, that the influence which a Missionary's wife may exert on the female part of the community will, in some

instances at least, be of the highest value. She gains access where her husband cannot. By her example and deportment she raises the tone of moral feeling, enkindles a desire for knowledge and instruction, and awakens in the breast emotions that had never dwelt in it before. The success of many of our Missionary institutions in Kaffraria may be attributed in a considerable degree to the zealous co-operation of our Missionaries' wives.

The residence of the Chief was near the station, and tidings of our arrival soon reached his ears. Presently a number of persons flocked to the village, in anticipation of his coming, and soon after 'Ncapai himself, attended by several of his counsellors, and two or three wives, made his appearance. He had no covering but a blanket loosely thrown over his shoulders, and most of his attendants were habited in the same manner. He stood before us, and shook us by the hand. We looked at him from head to foot; for, having heard so much of the terror of his name, we were anxious to see if his person corresponded with his character. Certainly there was nothing in his features indicative of ferocity: on the contrary, the expression of his countenance was rather mild and friendly. In his eye, however, there was something cunning; and, moreover, there was a certain air about him, which seemed to tell you, that haughtiness and pride were nurtured in his breast. He was about five-and-thirty years of age, tall, well-made, and marked with the small-pox, the ravages of which had visited his tribe when he was but a youth. Though he was recognised as the Chief, and possessed full authority in the State, he was only Regent for his nephew Dushani, a very fine young man, whose father, Sonyanga, was killed in war by Umdingi, Chief of the Amabele. 'Neapai's people are called the Amabatca. They formerly resided in the Quathlamba mountains, near the sources of the Umzimvooboo, whence they were driven by an army of the Zulu Chief, Dingaan. They joined themselves to the Amastutæ tribes, who resided on the other side of those mountains, and some time after made an incursion on the Tambookies. Having wandered about the country for several years, spreading desolation in their track, they at length took up their abode in the locality in which we found them; and now the banner of the Prince of Peace is waving on their hills.

The men are

The Amabatca are as fine a Kaffir tribe as I have seen. generally tall and muscular: the women are inferior, but equal to the majority of females in Kaffraria. Both the Amabatca and the Amampondos take great pains in making mats and baskets, the workmanship of which is really beautiful. In carving ivory and wood they possess superior skill. Rings, spoons, sticks, and a few other articles, are wrought with a degree of taste, which indicates the possession of abilities that might be turned to very good account. Some of their habitations, too, are constructed with much greater care than those of the Amakose; and, though they are a wild and barbarous people now, they may not improbably have descended from a much more civilized race. They have degenerated in the course of years; but in the course of years, they will doubtless, through the instrumentality of the Gospel, reach an elevation even higher than before. There are elements amongst them on which, if remoulded by the Gospel, a social system might be superinduced, of the most happy, peaceful kind. Bring Christianity to bear upon these tribes, fully and efficiently, and you will transform them into an industrious and contented peasantry.

But to proceed. After the ceremony of introduction, the Chief presented us with an ox as a mark of hospitality. It was a fine, large animal, and almost as fierce as the buffalo of the forest. The people who had assembled

were to share in the feast, and the ox was therefore killed immediately. As he rushed into the crowd, he was seized by a few athletic fellows, who dexterously threw him on the ground, amidst the loud vociferations of the standers by; and, plunging a knife into his throat, they speedily despatched him. It was just such a scene as the multitudes who thronged the gladiatorial exhibitions of Rome would have gloried to witness; but what followed was even more revolting. In a few minutes the beast was cut up into portions, (half of it being reserved for us, whenever we chose to eat it,) and presently groups of men, women, and children were seen, squatted on the ground, devouring the flesh raw, or but just put into a fire that had been kindled near, with the greediness which distinguishes a savage or semi-savage people. With all the sang-froid possible, some selected as their dining-room the verandah of the Missionary's house, to screen them from the sun; and there they sat, as though the place belonged to them, feasting, with but little delicacy, on their meat. I confess I was sickened at the sight; for a spectacle so barbarous I had not seen before. And yet what was this compared with the cannibalism of the South-Sea Isles or Ashanti? Degraded as these people are, they would, unless driven to it by hunger, revolt from eating human flesh: so that there was a bright side also, even to such a scene as this. But by what instrumentality other than the Gospel, can human beings, sunk so low, be raised?

The Chief anticipated a present, and, taking the Missionary aside, he said, "Tell Mr. Shaw that he must not let these fellows see what he intends to give me, or they will eat it all up themselves." This was quite in keeping with the character of 'Ncapai, or with that of any other Kaffir Chief. He will get all he can, and he will generally keep what he gets. His people, however, are as avaricious as himself, and sometimes he finds it no easy task. The request was communicated to Mr. Shaw, who accordingly reserved the present until an opportunity should occur for giving it to the Chief, alone.

The following day was the Sabbath, and at the appointed hour we repaired to the chapel for divine service. The chapel-how shall we describe it? It was built, if that term may be applied to it, with a view to economy, until, after the Mission had been tried, a more substantial edifice could be erected. No unnecessary outlay is incurred in buildings on our stations in Kaffraria: every shilling that is expended, is expended with the greatest care. It is this fact only which accounts for the existence of a place of worship so humble and unsightly: a better might have been erected, but it would have cost more money than it was thought warrantable to lay out in the infancy of the Mission. It was about forty feet in length by fifteen broad, and was constructed of poles, rough as from the forest, fastened together, and forming, with the ground, a triangle, placed upright. It was covered in with reeds and rushes, a few holes being left to let in light and air. Into this singular-looking place, numbers of the natives crowded, and it was completely filled from one end to the other. The Missionary took his stand within a rail which served instead of a pulpit; a few chairs and stools being placed on either side of him to be occupied by ourselves, whilst the majority of the congregation sat upon the ground. This, I thought, is primitive enough; and yet how cheering to behold this people thus assembled, listening to the word of life, and bowing at the throne of Him whose name had heretofore been scarcely heard in this dark corner of the earth! 'Ncapai himself was present; but there was an air of hauteur in him which seemed to indicate that he thought himself above

being there; yet the Preacher did not fail to speak to him, with plainness, of the authority and power of God. The congregation, on the whole, behaved with great decorum, and heard attentively the message which the Missionary proclaimed.

Thus, in this "vale of desolation," are the first seeds scattered of eternal truth; and these are destined to spring forth, until ultimately harvests shall wave over the whole land, as a field which God hath blessed: thus a little rill of the water of eternal life has been opened in the desert, which shall flow onwards in an ever-widening channel, to bless the generations yet unborn. Who would not assist the Missionary enterprise? Who would not give countenance and support to a scheme so benevolent and glorious? The timid, the heartless, the indifferent, will stand aloof; but the genuine philanthropist, and the faithful Christian, will espouse the Heathen's cause, and will listen to the cry of Afric's swarthy sons, who are perishing by thousands because "there is no vision." Grounds of encouragement are not wanting, to the prosecution of the work of Africa's evangelization: they present themselves in every portion of the field where the husbandman has laboured they exhibited themselves here, amid these wild and savage clans. This Mission has received the name of Shawbury; and Shawbury has its thirty converts to Christianity, its ninety scholars under Christian training, and its hundreds of attentive hearers of the preached word. And these are but the first-fruits of a glorious harvest, the early tokens of a victory that for real grandeur shall infinitely transcend the proudest conquests that were ever gained by man.

"In moral death dark Afric's myriads lie;

But the appointed day shall dawn at last,
When, breathed on by the Spirit from on High,

The dry bones shall awake, and shout, 'Our God is nigh!'"

The day after the Sabbath we took our horses, and rode to the heights of the Umzimvooboo. This river takes its rise in a range of mountains called the Quathlamba, which runs almost parallel with the coast, and separates Kaffraria and the territory of Port-Natal from the country occupied by the Bechuana tribes. These mountains are from five to nine thousand feet

above the level of the sea, and are often capped with snow. The sources of the Garriep, or Great Orange River, which runs across the country from east to west, lie on the opposite or northern side of the chain; whilst further in the interior, whence the chain extends, other streams arise, both on the one side and the other. The Umzimvooboo (literally the Sea-Cow River) is the Sinwowoe of Van Reenen, and the St. John's River of several of our maps. It flows in a channel so deep that it appears as if some extraordinary convulsion had split the solid mountain in two, to allow the escape of its impetuous waters." As we stood upon the rocky heights, and looked down into the depths below, our eyes were giddy; and though a considerable body of water was rolling at the time, we could only hear a faint and gentle sound. The course of this river is upwards of a hundred miles; and there are but two or three points where it can be crossed, one of which is near the mouth in connexion with the road leading from the Cape Colony through Kaffraria to Natal.

On our return we visited the "Great Place" of the Chief,-the royal residence; and here a scene presented itself such as can be witnessed only in a heathen land. It happened to be the birth-day of one of 'Ncapai's daughters, and crowds of people were assembled to celebrate the event. A

number of cattle had been slain, and in several directions fires were burning, and groups of men, women, and children were sitting round them, eating flesh, as on the day previously referred to. On a level spot of ground, a wild and fantastic dance had commenced, performed by upwards of a hundred persons. The women, who were clothed in skins, stood or sat down in a line, and the men formed a semi-circle opposite them. The latter were nearly naked. On their legs and arms pieces of the tails of oxen were suspended, and each individual held in his hand a short knob-stick, which he constantly moved up and down in the most earnest manner. The dancing consisted of stamping the ground with the feet, with so much violence that the whole frame was agitated, and poured forth such streams of perspiration, that the earth seemed literally saturated with it, as if it had been wet with rain. The Chief 'Ncapai occupied a position in the midst, and was distinguished by the feather of a crane which was fastened in his hair. He was so completely absorbed in the sport, that he took no notice of our presence, but continued dancing with a degree of warmth which showed that he was one of the principal actors in the scene. A monotonous song accompanied the performance, in which both the men and women joined; and we observed that when an individual was tired, he left the circle, and his place was occupied by another. In this way the dance was kept up during the greater portion of the day.

Though there was nothing immoral in this scene, yet it was calculated to awaken the most painful reflections, and to produce feelings of the deepest grief and sadness. As I witnessed it, I was ready to ask, Are these beings men? And is it possible to turn them from these vanities to the service of the living God? This is the object of the Christian Missionary; but how strong must be the faith that can rise above the hinderances which present themselves, among tribes so barbarous as these! Yet the promise stands secure: "I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear." We retired from the spot, and a few hours after bade adieu to Shawbury, more deeply and seriously impressed than ever with the sad condition of the heathen world, and more fully satisfied that nothing short of the appliances of the Gospel will be found adequate to its amelioration. Who, indeed, but the Christian will attempt it? Who else will isolate himself from civilized society, and go and take up his abode among the most degraded of our species? Motives of a higher order than those which actuate the generality of mankind, or even many of our great philanthropists, are requisite for a work like this: it is a work which none will undertake, but men upon whose hearts a flame has been enkindled, pure, quenchless, and divine.

We returned to the Colony, passing through the Tambookie country, and visiting also Clarkebury, where we might detain the reader with many interesting details relative to the progress of the Gospel, if our limits would admit; but enough, we trust, has been advanced to satisfy the friends of Missions, that a work is going forward in Kaffraria, which is deserving of their best support, and which gives promise of results that shall amply recompense the church for all her toils.

(To be continued.)

VOL. V.-FOURTH SERIES.

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