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had been improved, that thought and reflection had been awakened, and that the affections of the soul had been called to act their part. Five years after the commencement of the station, the Missionary then in charge of it uttered this note of sadness, as though he were ready to despair: "The fact must not be disguised, whatever may be the result, that this Mission has not in five years produced as many converts to Christianity." But what then? Was it to be abandoned? Did the Missionary desire to leave his post? No. He continued to sow the precious seed, weeping as he went; and at length the fruit appeared. At the period now alluded to, there were not less than thirty persons who were recognised as members of the church at Buntingville; and subsequently the number has increased to sixty.

One individual in that congregation was most conspicuous. He was an Albino,-a white man, of a black race. His skin was as fair as that of an European. The iris of his eye was of a reddish hue. His hair was light and soft. We were informed that the complexion of both his parents was very dark, and that they had other children who were likewise dark; but this individual was thus distinguished from his brethren, and stood amongst his people like a speckled bird. He seemed deeply conscious of his position; and there was an air of melancholy about him which intimated that he would rather have been black than white,—a feeling which was doubtless natural. Several instances of this kind have occurred among the Kaffir tribes. One is mentioned by Mr. Burchell, of a female; and the Chief Eno, of the Amakosæ clans, had a white son, similar in appearance to the individual above-mentioned. This variety of the human species is found amongst almost all dark-coloured races. Dr. Prichard designates it the leucous variety, and furnishes numerous examples of it, from the works of travellers in different parts of the world. But whence does it originate? In some instances it has been ascertained that one of the earlier ancestors of such Albinoes was of European origin; but this cannot be supposed to have been always the case, as they have been found amongst tribes that could have had no connexion with Europeans. The phenomenon may be viewed as a lusus naturæ; but it furnishes evidence in favour of the unity of our species: it proves that, notwithstanding the variety of colour in the human race, that race may have descended from one common pair. "God," saith the Scriptures," hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth;" and the investigations of science tend to confirm this statement. The organization is the same, and the blood, "wherein is the life," is one. The variety only extends to external colour and complexion; and though science may not have been able to account for the modification, modification it certainly is, consistent both with oneness of nature and identity of race. The church of Christ is therefore warranted, and not only warranted, but bound, to attempt the conversion of universal man. No distinctions of colour, race, or country, should deter her from the enterprise. The swarthy Negro and the fair Caucasian, the barbarous Kaffir and the civilized European, are brethren. They are the fallen children of the first Adam; they are the redeemed property of the Second.

(To be continued.)

VOL. V.-FOURTII SERIES.

3 B

THE PURITY OF A VIRTUOUS MIND.

"REVELATIONS which are calculated to pollute the imagination of the reader ought not to be sought after under the promptings of an idle or licentious curiosity; and he or she who needlessly seeks them out, usually pays a just and severe, even though it should be unconscious, penalty for such folly. It is one which not unfrequently results in the melancholy spectacle of one sinner stumbling over another into ruin and perdition. The conversation even of the pure-minded and pious is sometimes defiled by the unnecessary introduction of such tainted topics; and we think these are times in which parents particularly should be on their guard against whatever may dull the edge of refinement, or impair that beautiful gloss, by which the youthful, and especially the female, character should always be enamelled." We found the above floating on the sea of newspaper literature, and caught it up. We commend it to the young and to the old; to writers and speakers and publishers. Read it, and remember it. Be careful of your words. Let nothing escape your lips that may tend towards soiling the purity of a virtuous mind. And, more than all, "keep thy heart with all diligence.”—New-York Observer.

ADAM'S PEAK, IN THE ISLAND OF CEYLON.

(FROM CEYLON AND THE CINGALESE," IN THE DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, JUNE, 1849.)

In the months of February, March, and April, many Buddhists and Mahomedans perform a pilgrimage to the mountain called Adam's Peak, to worship the impression of a gigantic foot, which is delineated on the summit of the rock. This imaginary impression of a human foot is equally venerated and worshipped, both by the followers of Buddha and Mahomet; the Buddhists asserting, that when Buddha honoured Lanka-diva with a visit, he left the imprint of his foot, as a convincing proof of his divinity, enjoining his followers to adore and worship the impression.

Some Mahomedans believe, that when the progenitor of the human race was turned out of the Garden of Eden,-which, according to native writers, was situated in Ceylon,—he was compelled to perform penance by standin on one foot, on the summit of the mountain, leaving the imprint of the foot indelibly impressed on the rock. Other followers of Mahomet declare that Adam was precipitated from Paradise, which was situated in the seventh heaven, and fell on the rock, where he remained standing on one foot for ages, until the sin of disobedience, which he had committed, was pardoned. There is every reason to induce the belief that the Moormen of Ceylon gave the mountain the designation by which it is known to Europeans, as to this day they call the rock Baba Adamalei, whilst the Cingalese call the mountain Samenella, or the rock of Samen, who is the god that has the mountain and the Sree-pada, or "sacred footstep" of Buddha, under his especial protection; the Sanscrit name of the rock being Samenta-koota-parwate. Adam's Peak is one of the highest mountains in Ceylon,* and can be seen

The highest mountain in Ceylon is Pedro-talla-galla, which rises eight thousand two hundred and seventy-eight feet above the sea.

distinctly for an immense distance at sea, as the height of this stupendous work of nature exceeds seven thousand four hundred feet. This mountain is situated on the borders of the central and western provinces, and is the loftiest of a long ridge or line of mountains. The form of Adam's Peak is remarkably regular, the shape being that of a bell, which gradually tapers until the summit is attained, the platform of which is of an oval form, and measures nearly seventy-one feet in length by twenty-nine in breadth. This platform is surrounded by a wall, between five and six feet in height, in the centre of which appears the apex of the mountain, on which is an outline, which the natives call the Sree-pada, or "sacred footstep." This impression-if impression it can be called-is a superficial cavity, which is about five feet and a half in length, and two feet five inches in width; this has a border of about four inches broad, which is made of cement, painted a dark brown colour; there are also small raised portions, which are meant to delineate the form of the toes; but altogether it is as clumsy an attempt at deception as it is at a representation of the human foot. A brass cover or frame, studded with coloured glass and pieces of valueless crystal, protects the Sree-pada from the elements and the gaze of the curious. We have read in a recent work on Ceylon, that the sacred footstep is enclosed within a golden frame; which is an erroneous statement; and we presume the author must have been misled by his informant. The Sree-pada has a small temple erected over it: this is attached to the rock by iron chains, which are placed at the four corners of the edifice, the chains being fastened to the rock and the huge trees which grow on the precipitous sides of the cone. When the pilgrims come to worship, the roof of this building is lined with gaily-covered cloths, to which are attached garlands of fragrant flowers. There is, likewise, a small dewale dedicated to Samen, who is the presiding deity of the mountain; and on the north-east side of the mountain, there is a most luxuriant grove of magnificent rhododendrons, which is considered sacred, as the Priests affirm that these shrubs were planted by the god Samen, immediately after the departure of Buddha from Lankadiva. The officiating Priest has also a circumscribed pansola, or "dwelling," in this aerial region. Cingalese historical records affirm that the four Buddhas, which have appeared successively, visited the mountain, and stamped upon it the impression of their feet, as evidence of their divinity: and, assuredly, if the imprint now to be seen is that of the god's foot, it bears no resemblance to the beautiful form of the human foot; it is only, therefore, the credulous who, by an elongated exertion of the imagination, can fancy the mark to have been left by a supernatural being who "wore the aspect of humanity." In the same historical writings are recorded the visits which native Monarchs have paid to the Sree-pada, the sumptuous offerings which they made, and the numerous retinues by which they were attended. Before the pilgrims ascend the peak to worship, they bathe in one of the mountain-torrents, the most favoured being the Seetla-Ganga, or "cold stream," and attire themselves in new or perfectly clean apparel. The mode of worship on Adam's Peak differs slightly from that which is adopted in the other temples of Buddha. The Priest stands on the Sree-pada, facing the pilgrims, who kneel or prostrate themselves completely on the ground, raising their hands above their heads in an attitude of supplication. The Upasampada then recites the several articles of Buddhaical faith, which the worshippers repeat in a distinct voice after him. When he has finished, the pilgrims shout the sad-hu, or "exclamation of praise," which is reechoed again and again from crevice to crevice, and from crag to crag. The

most interesting part of the mountain-form of worship then takes place, which is called the "salutation of peace and good-will:" husbands and wives affectionately embrace each other, reciprocating kind wishes for mutual health and prosperity; children lowly salaam their parents, entreating their benediction; and friends embrace, expressing kindly feelings for each other's well-doing. This ceremony is concluded by the younger part of the assembly saluting their elders with respectful reverence, and an interchange of betel-leaves takes place amongst the assembled throng. Before leaving the rock, every pilgrim makes offering to the Sree-pada and the god Samen; the gifts varying according to the means and inclinations of the devotees: some presenting money; others fruits, grain, areka-nuts, flowers, or a piece of cloth wherewith to decorate the temple. These offerings are placed on the imprint of the god's foot, where they remain for a short time, and are removed by an attendant who is placed there by the Chief Priest of the Malwatte-wihare, as these offerings appertain to the Chief Priest, for the time being, of that temple; and these annual tributes are most lucrative perquisites of this functionary. After the offerings are made, the Priest bestows his blessing on the devotees, exhorting them to return home, and lead virtuous lives, and benefit their fellow-creatures. The Cingalese will not remain a night on this mountain, as they believe that none but a Priest can do so without incurring the displeasure of the gods; and that if any, save members of the priesthood, pass a night within these hallowed precincts, misfortune, sickness, or death will be the inevitable result.

There is a mountain situated on the south of Adam's Peak, which the natives call Deiya-Guhawa, or “the Cave of the God;" and they affirm that no human footstep has yet trodden upon or polluted the summit of this rock; and that if any attempt to penetrate into the sacred mysteries of the Deiya-Guhawa, they immediately arouse the god's anger, who inflicts summary vengeance upon the intruders. The following legend connected with this rock is related by the natives:-A Upasampada, relying upon his sacred calling, resolved to penetrate the mysteries of the god's cave, and ascend to the summit of the mountain. He ascended some distance, and the fire which he had kindled beneath the overhanging summit of the mountain was distinctly seen during the night by his followers, who remained at the base of the mountain. When morning dawned, the Priest was found seated at the foot of the mountain, a drivelling, jabbering idiot, continually exclaiming: "Hide me, hide me from his terrible gaze!" but not an intelligible account could be given of the terrible and awful sights which had shaken reason from her throne. Since that period, no one has had sufficient courage to attempt the ascent of Deiya-Guhawa, or to penetrate into the mysteries of the god's cave.

The ascent to Adam's Peak is most difficult and precipitous; but as the guides are very highly paid, they evince active intrepidity; and ladies occasionally ascend the mountain. Aged Priests, who feel their end approaching, ofttimes desire to worship the Sree-pada before leaving this world, and have been carried up the rock's perpendicular sides in light palanquins. The approaches to the mountain are almost destitute of roads; and so impassable were they, that in 1845, when Prince Waldemar of Prussia was in Ceylon, and intimated his desire to visit the renowned rock, a road was constructed for his especial use. In some parts of the rock steps have been cut; and in an enormous mass, which is almost perpendicular, one hundred and forty steps were cut by the order of Dharma Rajah, who

died whilst on a pilgrimage to the Sree-pada. The figure of the Monarch is to be seen roughly outlined on the rock, and an inscription states the name of the King by whose command these steps were made. It would be impossible to convey by the pen an adequate description of the sublime, stupendous, and magnificent scenery of this mountain, down whose sides torrents dash in cataracts of frothy foam; wood-covered mountains, rising above mountains, are beheld, at the base of which lie verdant valleys, replete with luxuriant vegetation. Abysses, the depth of which the eye cannot fathom, cause the beholder to start back in affright, as he finds that he has incautiously approached the edge, and the next step forward would have dashed him down the abyss, a mangled, bleeding corse. The terrors of these precipices are concealed by the dense foliage, underwood, and creeping plants, which cling to the mountain's sides; where, also, mosses, plants, and weeds, indigenous to colder regions, are met with; thus combining the gorgeous vegetation of the torrid, with the no less beauteous productions of the temperate, zone. Near the summit of the mountain the ascent is most dangerous, and iron chains are fixed to the sides of the rock, to assist the ascenders; and woe unto those who become nervous, or gaze below, as by the slightest false step, the footing would be inevitably lost, and the fate of the unfortunate individual sealed. We have never heard of an European having met with a serious accident in this mountain; but many natives have at different times lost their lives: they feel alarmed, gaze below, become giddy, make a false step, incautiously relax their hold, fall, and are dashed into myriads of atoms.

When the summit of Adam's Peak is attained, then the adventurer is well rewarded for his toil. In every direction, as far as the eye can reach, are beheld mountains covered with umbrageous forests of huge trees; over precipices dash sparkling cascades, which glisten in the sun's dazzling beams; and the ravines are filled with rills and torrents. In the valleys are seen the magnificent trees clad in luxuriant foliage, the tints of whose leaves are diversified, and the vision revels in their brilliant hues of green, red, yellow, and brown, which gladden the eye, and cause the heart to rejoice. It is in such scenes as this that man feels his own nothingness, and the worm man blesses the mighty Creator, who made this beautiful world, "and saw that it was good."

COUNTRY WALKS.

How full of mirth, and joy, and gladness, does everything appear at this happy season! The blackbird, perched aloft on yonder tree, animates the shrubbery with his rich, melodious whistle; while the thrush, in its immediate neighbourhood, pours forth equally pleasing strains; the great titmouse utters his short but sprightly song, as he flies from tree to tree, and flits among the branches; the hedge-sparrow, and that universal favourite, the robin, join in the joyful chorus; whilst, least in size, though by no means least in strength of voice, the little wren, with tail erect, surprises us with his strikingly powerful notes, which he sends forth with such sprightliness and vivacity, as he creeps among the ivy, or in the thick bushes of the hedge-bank. The hoarse cawing of the rooks, though less musical, is, however, scarcely less pleasing: they are now beginning in earnest to prepare for the reception of their future progeny; some, more fortunate than the rest, have been enabled, after much disputing, and many

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