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Cum sese e pastu referunt et longa canoros

Dant per colla modos; sonat amnis et Asia longe
Pulsa palus.


Nec quisquam aeratas acies ex agmine tanto
Misceri putet, aeriam sed gurgite ab alto
Urgueri volucrum raucarum ad litora nubem.

Ecce, Sabinorum prisco de sanguine magnum
Agmen agens Clausus magnique ipse agminis instar,
Claudia nunc a quo diffunditur et tribus et gens
Per Latium, postquam in partem data Roma Sabinis.
Una ingens Amiterna cohors priscique Quirites,

it till v. 701. Liquida inter nubila' like
"liquidis in nubibus" 5. 525.

700.] E pastu' G. 1. 381., 4. 186. 'Longa colla is from Hom. 1. c., kúkvwv δουλιχοδείρων. Serv. says "Secundum Plinium, qui ait in Naturali Historia cycnos ideo suavius canere quia colla longa et inflexa habent: et necesse est eluctantem vocem per longum et flexuosum varias reddere modulationes." The words are printed as Pliny's in the editions of Serv.; but the copious Delphin and Variorum Index to Pliny supplies no clue to them, so that it would seem that Serv. has merely given Pliny's sense in the first clause, and that the words "et necesse est-modulationes are his own. The songs of swans have already been mentioned 1. 398, E. 8. 55., 9. 29, 36.


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702.] Pulsa' by the sound, E. 6. 84. 703.] From ApoÏl. R. 4. 238 foll., ovde κε φαίης Τόσσον νηΐτην στόλον ἔμμεναι, ἀλλ ̓ οἰωνῶν Ἰλαδὸν ἄσπετον ἔθνος ἐπιBpouée Teλáуeoow. Virg. may also have thought of Il. 4. 429, 430, though the resemblance is verbal only. The comparison here differs from that which has just preceded: there the song of the troops was compared to that of swans; here the troops are regarded from a distance, and the confused noise of the mass suggests the parallel of a flight of birds from over the sea. Ribbeck places these lines after v. 697, without reason. 'Ex agmine tanto' seems to go with 'misceri,' to be made up, or massed, out of that great multitude: a poetical variety for hoc agmen tantum aeratas acies esse." Not unlike is "adverso glomerati ex agmine Graii," 2. 727. "Aeratas acies " 9. 463.

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There seems to be no notion of joining in battle, as Heyne and others have thought. 'Aeriam,' flying through the air, like "aeriae fugere grues " G. 1. 375 note. Virg. may have thought of the Homeric népia Il. 3. 7. "Ad terram gurgite ab alto Quam multae glomerantur aves

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6. 310. 705.] Urgueri' seems to be middle, press themselves, or each other, on. 'Raucarum Virg. is not thinking, as some have supposed, of swans, but of other birds, such as cranes. 'Nubem,' of a troop of birds, as G. 4. 60 of a swarm of bees.

706-722.] Clausus leads an army from the Sabine territory.'

706.] Heyne wished to take 'Sabinorum' with 'agmen:' but it evidently goes with 'prisco de sanguine,' which forms a description of Clausus.

707.] The name Clausus seems to be taken from the later legend of Attus or Atta Clausus, who shortly after the establishment of the commonwealth migrated to Rome from Regillum with a large number of followers, who were formed into the Claudian tribe, while he himself was known as App. Claudius Sabinus Regillensis (Dict. B. Claudius'). "Agmen agens below v. 804. Agminis instar :' his strength and bravery made him worth an army-as we say, a host in himself.

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709.] "Vocamus in partem" 3. 223. The union with the Sabines under Tatius must be meant, so that Virg. has antedated the introduction of the Claudii by a couple of centuries.

710.] Amiternum (Dict. G. s. v.), the birthplace of Sallust, was assigned by some to the Sabines, by some to the Vestini. As Heyne remarks, Virg., writing about legendary times, gives a somewhat wider range to the Sabine territory than belonged to it in the historical period. Quirites,' the people of Cures.

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Ereti manus omnis oliviferaeque Mutuscae ;
Qui Nomentum urbem, qui Rosea rura Velini,
Qui Tetricae horrentis rupes montemque Severum
Casperiamque colunt Forulosque et flumen Himellae ;
Qui Tiberim Fabarimque bibunt, quos frigida misit
Nursia, et Hortinae classes populique Latini;
Quosque secans infaustum interluit Allia nomen :
Quam multi Libyco volvuntur marmore fluctus,
Saevus ubi Orion hibernis conditur undis;

711.] Eretum, though occasionally mentioned in history, never seeins to have been a place of importance (Dict. G.). Mutuscae' seems to be gen. sing. The full name was Trebula Mutusca. There are still olives in the neighbourhood (Dict. G.). 712.] Nomentum, already mentioned 6. 773, where it is among the places afterwards to be built and named by Aeneas' posterity. It is disputed whether it was a Latin or Sabine town. The passage in Book 6 favours the former view, making it a colony from Alba. 'Rosea :' the country in the valley of the river Velinus, about Reate, was called "Rosei" (or "Roseae") "Campi (according to Serv. " ager Rosulanus "): see Dict. G. 'Reate.' For a story about its fertility see on G. 2. 201, 202. Pal. and Gud. have 'Roscia,' whence some inferior copies read 'roscida.'


713.] Tetrica or Tetricus seems to have been part of the central range of the Apennines, separating the Sabine territory from Picenum. Severus, which no other author mentions, doubtless belongs to the same range (Dict. G.). Cerda notices that both names are used as adjectives and applied as such to describe the traits belonging to the Sabine character. Pal. and Gud. have amnemque severum (the latter with a variant montem ') from a recollection of 6. 374. 'Horrentis' probably gen. sing.

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714.] Casperia and Himella are scarcely named except by Virg. and Silius. Foruli is somewhat better known, being mentioned by Livy and Strabo (Dict. G. s. vv.).

715.] Fabaris is identified by Serv. with Farfarus, mentioned by Plautus and Ovid, and still known as Farfa (Dict. G.).

716.] Nursia, called 'frigida' from its situation in the midst of mountains, is mentioned several times both in early and later history. Shortly before the time of the composition of the Aeneid

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its inhabitants were punished by Octavianus for their conduct during the Perusian war (Dict. G.). There is a difficulty about Hortinae classes,' as the town of Horta stood on the Etruscan side of the Tiber, and the adj. would naturally be "Hortanus" (Dict. G. 'Horta'). Possibly there may be some confusion with the Fortineii, who are enumerated by Dionys. 5. 61 among the cities of the Latin league, and are identified by some with the Hortenses, perhaps the people of Ortona, mentioned in Pliny's list (3. 5 &c.), of the extinct communities of Latium. Comp. "fedus," "hedus," "fordus," "hordus" &c. This would agree with the mention of the 'populi Latini' here, and would not be inconsistent with the occurrence of Allia in the next line. Populi Latini' seems used very loosely, as we can hardly suppose that Virg. means to introduce at one sweep all the communities which partook in the sacrifices at the Alban mount, which is apparently Serv.'s explanation. Heyne, Excursus 8, following Cluver, understands the expression either of Latin cities which had fallen under the dominion of the Sabines or Latin colonies established in the Sabine territory. It is possible, however, as has been suggested to me by Mr. Nettleship, that Virg. may be referring to some community of which the memory has perished, as certain Latinienses follow the Hortenses in Pliny's list just referred to. 'Classes' in its ancient sense, according to which the word was applied to military as well as naval forces: see Dictt.

717.] Allia is well known for the defeat of the Romans by the Gauls under Brennus, on July 16, hence called "dies Alliensis," and kept as an unlucky day.

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718.] Quam multa" in a comparison G. 4. 473. Libyco marmore' perhaps like " Libyci aequoris" G. 2. 105, where see note. The comparison is like the second of the two in G. 2. 1. c.

719.] From Apoll. R. 1. 1201, EυTE

Vel cum sole novo densae torrentur aristae,
Aut Hermi campo, aut Lyciae flaventibus arvis.
Scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus.

Hinc Agamemnonius, Troiani nominis hostis, Curru iungit Halaesus equos, Turnoque ferocis Mille rapit populos, vertunt felicia Baccho Massica qui rastris, et quos de collibus altis Aurunci misere patres Sidicinaque iuxta

μάλιστα Χειμερίη ολοοῖο δύσις πέλει 'Apiwvos. For the storms about the setting of Orion comp. Hor. 1 Od. 28. 21., 3. 27. 17.

720.] Strictly speaking the construction is "aut quam multae aristae cum sole novo densae torrentur," but as 'densae' really does duty for "multae," we may say that Virg. expresses himself as if the comparison in v. 718 had been introduced by "ac veluti," "quales," or some similar form. Heyne, after Faber and others, at one time conj. 'quam' for 'cum,' and so an edition of 1495: and one MS. (not one of Ribbeck's number) has 'quot.' 'Sole novo 'would naturally mean either the early morning (G. 1. 288) or the early warm weather (G. 2. 332): but it is difficult to see why either of these should be represented as baking the ears of corn, as we should rather have expected the "maturi soles" (G. 1. 66) of summer. Perhaps it may mean 'an Eastern sun,' like "sole recenti" Pers. 5. 54, the countries being spoken of relatively to Italy. 721.] For the fertility of Lydia comp. 10. 141. Heyne doubts that of Lycia: but see Dict. G. Lycia' § 2.

722.] 'Scuta' is the only hint given us of the arms of Clausus' forces. The rest of the line is from II. 2. 784, tŵv vnd noσol μéya OTEVAXÍČeтo yaîa. For conterrita' the Medicean of Pierius and another of his MSS., with some inferior copies, readtremit excita,' which is found in 12. 445, where these words recur. In itself it might be an improvement, but the authority is insufficient and the cause of the variation clear. The construction is doubtless'scuta sonant tellusque (sonat) pulsu pedum conterrita,' as against Wagn. (large ed.) and others who make territa' a finite verb. Med. has 'cursu' for 'pulsu.'


723-732.]Halaesus brings troops from the Auruncan and Oscan territories.' 723.] Hinc' apparently means 'next,' though Forb. understands it "ex hac (alia) parte." 'Agamemnonius:' Serv. says



that Halaesus was variously represented as the bastard son and as the companion of Agamemnon. Virg. can hardly have considered him the former, unless he is inconsistent with himself 10. 417 foll., where he speaks of Halaesus' father in language that could not apply to Agamemnon. The epithet may well be used loosely, just as the Trojans are called " Aeneadae." Whether any extant author speaks of Halaesus as Agamemnon's son is questionable. Ovid, who mentions him twice (3 Amor. 13. 31 foll., F. 4. 73 foll.), is not more express than Virg., unless we read "Atrides" with Heins. in the latter passage. Ov. makes him the founder of Falerii (for the etymology see on v. 716 above), which is inconsistent with Virg. Troiani nominis' like "nomen Latinum."

724.] 'Curru iungit Halaesus equos' like "Armentarius Afer agit" G. 3. 344, an abnormal rhythm adopted for variety's sake (see Munro, Lucr. vol. 1. p. 323, 2nd ed.). Cerda, after Scaliger, fancifully supposes that it is intended to express the time taken in harnessing a chariot. Turno' 'for Turnus.' Populosque ferocis," above v. 384., 1. 263, of Italian nations.


725.] "Mille rapit densos acie atque horrentibus hastis" 10. 178. "Bacchi Massicus humor" G. 2. 143. Massica' neut. pl. like "Ismara" G. 2. 37. 'Felicia Baccho' more prob. dat. (E. 5. 65) than abl. (6. 784). Vertere' of breaking the ground G. 1. 2.



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726.]Rastris:' see G. 2. 355, 400, the "bidens" being a form of the "rastrum (Dict. A. 'Raster').

727.] Patres' used in its ordinary sense: comp. 2. 87. Med. (2nd reading) has 'senes,' from v. 206 above. 'Aurunci' is used in its narrow historical sense for the nation inhabiting Aurunca and afterwards Suessa (Dict. G. Aurunci'). The Sidicini of Teanum and the people of Cales were their neighbours. The construction of Sidicinaque iuxta aequora' is not clear. Either we may borrow' 'pa

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Aequora, quique Cales linquunt, amnisque vadosi
Accola Volturni, pariterque Saticulus asper
Oscorumque manus. Teretes sunt aclydes illis
Tela; sed haec lento mos est aptare flagello.
Laevas cetra tegit; falcati comminus enses.
Nec tu carminibus nostris indictus abibis,
Oebale, quem generasse Telon Sebethide nympha
Fertur, Teleboum Capreas cum regna teneret,
Iam senior; patriis sed non et filius arvis
Contentus late iam tum dicione premebat
Sarrastis populos et quae rigat aequora Sarnus,



Quique Rufras Batulumque tenent atque arva Celemnae,

tres' from the preceding clause, so as to make it "quos misere patres iuxta Sidicina aequora (habitantes)," or suppose that Virg. has written loosely, meaning "qui iuxta Sidicina aequora habitant," or lastly, with Mr. Long, make Sidicina aequora' nom., iuxta' being adv.

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728.] Vadosi: Ov. M. 15. 714 has "multamque trahens sub gurgite arenam Volturnus."

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729.] 'Accola Virg. apparently forgets that the different nations he mentions are constructed in app. to populos' v. 725. Wagn. comp. Aesch. Pers. 33 foll., where there is a similar change of construction. Comp. also v. 741 below, 10. 497. Saticulus' apparently for Saticulanus," the town being Saticuli. 'Asper' is explained by Serv. "asper moribus;" by Heyne with reference to the probable position of the town under Mount Tifata. The place gave some trouble to the Romans during the Samnite wars (Dict. G.), which may account for the epithet.

730.] Serv. says 'aclydes' are a species of weapon so ancient as not to be mentioned in military accounts: they are said however (he continues) to be clubs a cubit and a half long, studded with points, and furnished with a thong, so that they can be recalled by the thrower. See further Lersch § 40. They are mentioned by Silius and Val. Flaccus, the one making them a Spanish, the other an Oriental weapon, but neither describes them in any


'Teretes' seems to mean rounded. 731.] Flagello' i. q. "loro." 732.] Cetra' is defined by Serv. and Isidorus (18. 12. 5) as a shield made wholly of leather. It seems to have been used by Africans, Spaniards, Achaeans and Britons: see passages in Lersch § 31. 4. Yates (Dict. A.) identifies it with the target of the Scotch Highlanders. Cali

gula (Suet. Calig. 19, quoted by Lersch) rode in state on a bridge built over the sea at Baiae, "insignis quernea corona et cetra et gladio aureaque chlamyde." Falcati enses,' äρraι (Serv.), a kind of scimitar.

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733-743.] 'Oebalus leads forces from Capreae and places in Campania.'

734.] This Oebalus is not otherwise known, Serv. merely repeating Virg.'s account. Sebethide,' from the river Sebethus (Dict. G.).

735.] The Teleboae were the inhabitants of the Taphian isles (Dict. G. 'Taphiae'), mentioned in Hom. Od. as pirates, and also in connexion with their chief Mentes. Tac. A. 4. 67, speaking of Tiberius' retirement to Capreae, says "Capreas Telebois habitatas fama tradit."

737.] Tenebat' Med., Pal., Gud., the last with a variant 'premebat:' but 'tenebat' could not stand with teneret' so near, and the word obviously came from 1. 622 (comp. ib. 236). "Dicione premat" 10. 53.

738.] The Sarrastes are unknown to history: but Serv. refers to a work on Italy by Conon for the statement that they were Pelasgian and other Greek emigrants who settled in Campania, and gave the river near which they took up their abode the name of Sarnus from a river in their own country. No Greek river is mentioned as bearing the name: nor is it known when Conon lived, though there were two or three writers so called (Dict. B. Conon'). For Sarnus see Dict. G., where it is said that the course of the river is not now what it was, having doubtless been changed by the eruption of Vesuvius which overthrew Herculaneum and Pompeii.

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739.] Rufrae seems to have been a Samnite town on the borders of Campania. Batulum is only mentioned by Silius, and

Et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae,
Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias;
Tegmina quis capitum raptus de subere cortex,
Aerataeque micant peltae, micat aereus ensis.
Et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae,
Ufens, insignem fama et felicibus armis ;
Horrida praecipue cui gens, adsuetaque multo
Venatu nemorum, duris Aequicula glaebis.
Armati terram exercent, semperque recentis
Convectare iuvat praedas et vivere rapto.

Quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdos,
Fronde super galeam et felici comptus oliva,

Celemna (sacred to Juno, according to
Serv.) not even by him.

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740.] Almost all the MSS. have 'Bellae,' which Serv. says was written by Virg. instead of 'Nolae' on account of his quarrel with the people of Nola, mentioned in G. 2. 225. Ribbeck adopted Bellae,' believing it to be the reading of all the MSS., but the discovery of 'Abellae' in one copy seems to have led him to alter his mind (Prolegomena p. 353). Serv. says that critics in his time read Abellae,' supposing it to be a case of synaloepha: and the change is one which might safely be made in the teeth of all external authority, the cause of corruption being of the commonest, and proper names especially liable to corruption. Abellae is five miles N.E. of Nola. It was known for a particular kind of nut, filbert or hazel, called "nux Avellana." Sil. 8. 543 however speaks of it as "pauper sulci Cerealis." There are remains of the old town on a hill, which accounts for 'despectant.' An inscription was discovered there, one of the most important remains of Oscan, recording a treaty between Abella and Nola (Dict. G. ‘Abella ').

741.] A change of construction like that in v. 729 above. The 'cateia,' according to Serv., was like the 'aclys' (v. 730). Isidorus 18. 7. 7, quoted by Lersch § 40, describes it similarly, except that he supposes that it returned of itself to the thrower, like an Australian boomerang. Papias ap. Lersch makes it a Persian word: later writers consider it Celtic (Dict. A. 'Cateia'), which would agree with Teutonico ritu,' the Celtae and Teutones being often confounded. Various mediaeval writers mention it (see Lersch), but differ as to whether it was a club or a spear. Sil. 3. 277 calls it "panda." Val. F. 6. 83




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744.] Montosae: the commoner prose form seems to be "montuosus." Nersae is otherwise unknown.

745.] "Non felicia tela" 11. 196.

746.] With the description of the nation comp. 9. 605 foll.

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747.] Venatu' may be either dat. or abl. Aequicula' with 'gens.' The people were called Aequiculi or Aequi, though in later times the former name was restricted to the inhabitants of the Apennine valleys.

748.] Armati' seems to express at once the character of the nation and the quality of the soil. Comp. 9. 609, “Omne aevum ferro teritur, versaque iuvencum Terga fatigamus hasta." Semper-rapto' occurs again 9. 612, with the change of 'convectare' into " comportare."

750-760.] Umbro, a noted serpentcharmer, leads the Marsians.'

750.] Marruvium or Marrubium was the capital of the Marsi, though it is not mentioned previous to their conquest by Rome (Dict. G.).

751.] So Stat. Theb. 4. 216 describes Amphiaraus, "vatem cultu Parnasia monstrant Vellera, frondenti crinitur cassis oliva, Albaque puniceas interplicat infula cristas." Fronde et felici oliva' ev dià dvoîv.

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