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Expediam, et primae revocabo exordia pugnae.
Tu vatem, tu, diva, mone. Dicam horrida bella,
Dicam acies, actosque animis in funera reges,
Tyrrhenamque manum, totamque sub arma coactam
Hesperiam. Maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo,
Maius opus moveo. Rex arva Latinus et urbes
Iam senior longa placidas in pace regebat.
Hunc Fauno et nympha genitum Laurente Marica
Accipimus; Fauno Picus pater; isque parentem
Te, Saturne, refert; tu sanguinis ultimus auctor.

40.] Revocare' of recalling the past, Sen. Ben. 5. 25. So "repeto "v. 123 below. 'Primae exordia pugnae,' a variety for prima exordia pugnae."


41.] Mone,' aid his memory. Comp. "monumentuin," and see v. 645, "Et meministis enim, divae, et memorare potestis; Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur aura." The word is in keeping with 'revocabo,' and with the functions of the Muse as the daughter of Mnemosyne, E. 7. 19 note. Horrida bella' 6. 86.

42.] 'Reges.' The list of them is given v. 647 foll. Actos animis in funera' seems to mean, spurred by their courage to encounter death, either the risk or the certainty of it. The general sense is parallel to 9. 460, "Sed furor ardentem caedisque insana cupido Egit in adversos." If we take it in funera inferenda," we may comp. 12. 528 "nunc totis in volnera viribus itur."

43.] The Tyrrhene force' is naturally enumerated among the subjects of this part of the poem, as the strife between Mezentius and his subjects had an important influence on the struggle. Tyrrhenamque manum' is not to be taken with coactam,' any more than 'acies' v. 42 with "actos.' 'Totam Hesperiam' is of course not strictly true, but it probably refers to Tyrrhenam manum' and expresses that the war involved other states besides Latium. 'Sub arma coactam,' called out together to war. Sub arma'="sub armis," the regular phrase for 'in arms (5. 440 &c.), with an additional notion of motion.

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44.] A grander series of events opens before me,' grander, that is, than what he has hitherto related, if measured by the standard of importance in the Aeneid, for otherwise they could hardly be grander than the fall of Troy. But Virg. may mean to contrast generally the narrative



of wars with the narrative of wanderings, the Iliad with the Odyssey. "Nascitur ordo " E. 4. 5.

45-106.] Latinus, king of Latium, had a daughter, Lavinia, whose hand was sought by Turnus, a Rutulian prince: but various portents indicated that she was destined to have a foreign husband, and at last her father received a distinct oracular intimation to that effect.'

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45.] Moveo' stir, and so commence. Comp. v. 641 " cantusque movete," and Livy 23. 39, "movere ac moliri quicquam." For Latinus, the Italian god Faunus, and the nymph Marica, who was worshipped at Minturnae, see Dict. Myth. 'Arva et urbes' 3. 418.

46.] Jam senior' 5. 179., 6. 304. 'In pace with 'regebat :" "placida populos in pace regebat " 8. 325.

47.] In 8. 314 the Fauns and Nymphs are the indigenous race that inhabited Italy when Saturn came down to civilize it. Laurens' is properly the name of that territory and tribe whose capital was Laurentum : but Virg. uses it as a synonym of "Latinus." Thus Turnus the Rutulian is called "Laurens" below v. 650. Latium in its latest and widest signification would include Minturnae on the Liris.

48.] Accipimus' belongs to the historian rather than the poet: but the Muse, as we have seen (v. 41), inspires him to write history.

49.] The present 'refert' may be used either with reference to the actual existence of Picus as a god, or to his existence in history. For the possible meanings of the verb itself here see on 5. 564. Virg. seems here to treat the Italian divinities as a line of semi-divine earthly kings. For Saturn see 8. 319 foll. Ultimus auctor' like "ultima ex origine" Catull. 4. 15.

Filius huic fato divom prolesque virilis
Nulla fuit, primaque oriens erepta iuventa est.
Sola domum et tantas servabat filia sedes,
Iam matura viro, iam plenis nubilis annis.
Multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant
Ausonia; petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis
Turnus, avis atavisque potens, quem regia coniunx
Adiungi generum miro properabat amore;
Sed variis portenta deum terroribus obstant,
Laurus erat tecti medio in penetralibus altis,
Sacra comam, multosque metu servata per annos,
Quam pater inventam, primas cum conderet arces,

50.] Fato divom,' by the decree of the gods, 'fatum' being used in its primary sense. Comp. 3. 716 note. The gods decreed that Latinus should have no son, in order that Aeneas might obtain his kingdom with the hand of Lavinia. Possibly there may be a reference to some specific oracle which formed part of the legend. 'Filius prolesque virilis' can hardly be considered as otherwise than a pleonasm, though 'proles virilis' marks the exact point more accurately than 'filius.'

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51.] Nulla fuit,' was no more, i. e. at the time when Aeneas landed. Comp. Virg. (?) Catalect. 14. 7, sed tu nullus eris," Cic. 3 Q. Fr. ep. 4, "sed vides nullam esse rempublicam, nullum senatum, nulla judicia, nullam in ullo nostrum dignitatem," and the common comic phrase "nullus sum." Serv. says that Virg. has taken the death of Latinus' male offspring from "history," which relates that Amata had two sons, whom she killed, or, as others said, blinded, for siding with their father in promising Lavinia to Aeneas.

52.] Servabat domum.' remained in the house, as in 6. 402, "Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen," with a further notion of preserving the family. 'Domum' perhaps refers rather to her being the hope of his family, tantas sedes' to her being the heir of his estate. In the imitation by Stat. Theb. 1. 572, "Mira decore pio servabat nata penates," we are meant also to think of worshipping the gods.

53.] If any distinction can be drawn between the two parts of this line, it is that the first relates to ripeness of person, the second to sufficiency of age.

54.] Petere of seeking in marriage 12. 42. Magno,' like "magna" v. 4,

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simply an ennobling epithet.

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55.] Ante' pleonastic after a superlative, as in 1. 347 after a comparative. 56.] Potens,' probably with reference to his claims as a suitor, with the prestige of a great line,' or 'with a high lineage to back his claim;' though Silius (8. 383) has "avis pollens" merely for high born. Comp. " parvo potentem " 6. 843; also "dives avis" 10. 201.

57.] Properabat' in the sense and with the construction of "studebat." Comp. σrovdáÇew, and the phrase "nihil mihi est longius," "there is nothing for which I am more impatient," alluded to in Forb.'s note. It must be remembered that the infinitive, whether active or passive, is really a noun constructed with the verb. 'Amore,' eagerness, as in 2. 10, “si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros."

58.] "Variis portenta terroribus ' is equivalent to "varia et terrifica portenta," though 'terroribus' might be abl. instr. with obstant.'

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59.] Tecti medio' should be understood, as Heyne says, with reference to the custom of planting trees in the "impluvium" of a house, 2. 512, Hor. 3 Od. 10. 5. Penetralibus,' the "impluvium' being in the centre of the house. Compared with 2. 514, it illustrates the connexion between the 'penetralia' and the "Penates."

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Ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus,
Laurentisque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis.
Huius apes summum densae-mirabile dictu—
Stridore ingenti liquidum trans aethera vectae,
Obsedere apicem, et, pedibus per mutua nexis,
Examen subitum ramo frondente pependit.
Continuo vates, Externum cernimus, inquit,
Adventare virum, et partis petere agmen easdem
Partibus ex isdem, et summa dominarier arce.
Praeterea, castis adolet dum altaria taedis
Et iuxta genitorem adstat Lavinia virgo,
Visa, nefas, longis conprendere crinibus ignem,
Atque omnem ornatum flamma crepitante cremari,
Regalisque accensa comas, accensa coronam,

62.] Ipse' seems simply to add gravity to the narrative; unless we like to say that the king assumes the priestly function.

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63.] For the construction Laurentis' in apposition with 'nomen' see Madv. § 246 obs. 2, who quotes Livy 1.1, "filium cui Ascanium parentes dixere nomen." "Mihi ponere nomen "Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 93, the Greek ὄνομα θέσθαι. With 'quam followed by ab ea' Wagn. comp. Cic. Orator 3, "species pulchritudinis.. quam intuens in eaque defixus."

65.] Comp. G. 4. 59 (of bees), "Nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris ag



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66.] 'Apicem' answers to 'summa v. 70. 'Per mutua' is obviously equivalent to "mutuo or "vicis sim." But it is not easy to fix the exact sense of the preposition. Perhaps we may compare such usages as "per ludum," 66 per speciem," &c. - -'in the way of reciprocity.' The expression seems to be a variation of mutua' used adverbially by Lucr. e. g. 5. 1100, “Mutua dum inter se rami stirpesque teruntur."

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? ' agmine

i. e. the 'arx.' Rom. has ';
on 3. 614.


70.] 'Partibus ex isdem,' i. e. apparently from the quarter of the sea, though we have not been told explicitly whence the bees came. 'Summa dominarier arce' implies that the palace of Latinus was in the arx:' and the expression of course denotes complete dominion over the city.

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71.] Adolet: see note on E. 8. 65. Castis' refers to the rite, as performed meetly and in order. Comp. 3. 409, “Hac casti maneant in religione nepotes." The altar was that in the centre of the house. Comp. v. 77 and 2. 512.

72.] 'Et' is the reading of all Ribbeck's uncials but Rom., which is apparently illegible, and it is now adopted by Wagn. for 'ut.' Lavinia has been mentioned 6. 764.

73.] Nefas comp. 8. 688, "sequiturque, nefas, Aegyptia coniunx." It seems to express the first feeling of the spectators, who regarded the event with horror and alarm, like Aeneas and his family in the similar case of Ascanius 2.680 foll. Comprendere crinibus ignem :' the more ordinary expression would be "ignis crinem comprendit," as in G. 2. 305. Visa,' was seen, not seemed. It was a "visum" or portent.

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74.] 'Ornatum ' to be taken after cremari,' like ‘coronam' after 'accensa.' "Flamma crepitante crematur" occurs Lucr. 6. 155.

75.] Wagn. considers the repetition of accensa as equivalent to a second 'que' ("accensa comasque coronamque "), and refers the line to the class of cases noticed



Insignem gemmis; tum fumida lumine fulvo
Involvi, ac totis Volcanum spargere tectis.
Id vero horrendum ac visu mirabile ferri:
Namque fore inlustrem fama fatisque canebant
Ipsam, sed populo magnum portendere bellum,
At rex sollicitus monstris oracula Fauni,
Fatidici genitoris, adit, lucosque sub alta


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on E. 4. 6, where see note: 'accensa' would then be coupled as a participle with visa est cremari.' This seems the best way of taking the passage. common method is to take 'accensa accensa esse visa est," which is rather clumsy, and involves moreover a tautology, inasmuch as 'omnem ornatum' includes comas' and 'coronam.' 6 Jahn proposes to strike out the semicolon after gemmis' and arrange the words: 'et, comas, accensa coronam, tum (i. e. "postquam accensa est," comp. 5.719) visa est involvi fumida lumine fulvo.' But it is more after the manner of Virg. to begin a new clause with 'tum,' as the last point in a description: see 11. 724, G. 2. 296. Ribbeck considers v. 74 to have been Virg.'s first draught, which he afterwards amplified, intending to retrench the superfluity. It is singular that in descriptions like these (especially in similes) Virg. is apt to leave the reader in doubt about the exact construction intended. Regalis' probably refers to the tiring and general appearance of the hair, which was worthy of a queen. Insignem gemmis' proves, as Heyne remarks, that the 'corona' is the royal, not the sacrificial crown.

76.] Tum,' &c. till at last she became wrapped in dusky and smoking flame. 'Fumida' belongs in sense to 'lumine,' the words being nearly equivalent to "lumine fulvo et fumoso.' Fulvus' is twice applied to the colour of the eagle, 11. 751., 12. 247. Serv. explains the smoke grotesquely, as causing and therefore symbolizing tears.

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78.] Id vero' implies that this portent following and surpassing the other brought their fear to its height. Comp. the use of "tum vero" 2. 228., 4. 450., 5. 659, 720. Ferri,' was accounted or rumoured. Comp. 2. 229, "scelus expendisse merentem Laocoonta ferunt," Hor. 2 Od. 19. 27.

79.] Fama fatisque' seems equivalent to "claris fatis." Comp. 8. 731, "famamque et fata nepotum." The fire round the princess herself portends her own


bright fortunes, that which spreads from her over the palace portends the general conflagration of war over the land of which she was to be the cause.

80.] Wagn. Q. V. 13. 2 d. remarks on the metrical effect of the initial spondee, 'ipsam,' followed by a pause. It is difficult to say whether the subject of 'portendere' is 'Lavinia' or some word to be supplied from id ferri.'

81.] Sollicitus' (originally a participle) has here the force of "sollicitatus." Wakef. read monstrorum' from a MS. of Donatus.

82.] Lucosque,' &c. The chief thing with a view to explaining this difficult passage is to ascertain what and where Albunea is. Heyne and Forb. take it as a spring, and Heyne's ultimate interpretation, given in a review in the Göttingen Gelehrt. Anzeig. for 1804, p. 1672, was "Albunea aqua, quae sonat fonte sacro, maxima (aquarum) nemorum, i. e. nemoris." But in the first place it is difficult to understand the meaning of "lucos sub Albunea aqua," and in the second place 'quae maxima nemorum' for "quae maxima aquarum nemorum," and that for "aquarum nemoris," seems hardly admissible. G. 2. 15, "nemorumque Jovi quae maxima frondet Aesculus" is not nearly so strong. Wagn., following Bonstetten's Voyage sur la scène des six derniers livres de l'Enéide (p. 205), takes Albunea as a wood, which removes some difficulties, but leaves 'lucos sub alta Albunea' to be explained. It is however not yet determined where Albunea itself is. Serv. places it "in altis montibus Tiburtinis,” and Heyne originally identified it with the fall of the sulphurous waters of the Albula into the Anio at Tibur: but Bonstetten thinks he has discovered it in the sulphurous spring of Altieri near the fane of Anna Perenna on the road to Ardea, and his opinion was accepted by Heyne, and is adopted by Mr. Bunbury, Dict. G. Ardea.' The former view is confirmed by Hor. 1 Od. 7. 12, where "domus Albuneae resonantis" coupled with "praeceps Anio et Tiburni


Consulit Albunea, nemorum quae maxuma sacro
Fonte sonat, saevamque exhalat opaca mephitim.
Hinc Italae gentes omnisque Oenotria tellus
In dubiis responsa petunt; huc dona sacerdos
Cum tulit et caesarum ovium sub nocte silenti
Pellibus incubuit stratis somnosque petivit,
Multa modis simulacra videt volitantia miris,
Et varias audit voces, fruiturque deorum
Conloquio, atque imis Acheronta adfatur Avernis.
Hic et tum pater ipse petens responsa Latinus
Centum lanigeras mactabat rite bidentis,
Atque harum effultus tergo stratisque iacebat
Velleribus: subita ex alto vox reddita luco est:

lucus," and by Lactant. Inst. 1.6 (quoting Varro) "decimam (Sibyllam) Tiburtem, nomine Albuneam, quae Tiburi colitur ut dea, iuxta ripas amnis Anienis." 'Sonat' here and "resonantis" in Hor. seem to imply a waterfall. Mr. Long has no doubt that the Albunea was the sulphur lake (or nymph of the lake) from which issues the canal of the Albula. Virg., he says, has confused the lake and the woods round the lake. The difficulty (he continues) is that the lake is not at Tibur, but at least two Roman miles below the heights of Tibur, where the cascade is.

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83.] "Nemorum quae maxuma G. 2. 15 note. 'Sacro:' comp. note on G. 4. 319. 84.] Mephitin' was the old reading. 'Mephitim' was restored by Heins. from Med. &c. Mephitis was worshipped as a deity in various parts of Italy, as at Amsanctus (see v. 564 below), Pliny 2.93, at Cremona, Tac. H. 3. 33. It had a temple and grove at Rome on the Esquiline, Varro L. L. 5. 49, Festus s. v. "Septimontis." Serv. says some made it a male power, connected with Leucothea like Virbius with Diana, which may possibly account for 'saevum,' the reading of Med. Comp. generally 6. 240. Saevam' like "saevior pestis" 3. 214. Virg. may have thought of Apoll. R. 599, xíuvns els poχοὰς πολυβενθέος· ἡ δ ̓ ἔτι νῦν περ Τραύματος αἰθομένοιο βαρὺν ἀνακηκίει ἀτμόν.

85.] Oenotria:' see 1. 532.

86. There were many oracles of this kind in Greece, generally in caves, as that of Trophonius at Lebadea and that of Amphiaraus at Thebes and Oropus. Virg. seems to have transferred the custom to Italy. Heyne remarks that Tiburtus, the founder of Tibur (mentioned below v. 670),





was the son of Amphiaraus. This again tends to prove that the oracle mentioned by Virg. was at or near Tibur. Serv. observes that incubare' is the proper term for this mode of consultation, answering to youãobaι: comp. Plat. Curc. 2. 2. 16, Cic. Div. 1. 43. Rams were sacrificed, and the worshipper slept in their skins, Pausan. 1. 34 (of Amphiaraus), Strabo 6. p. 284 (of Calchas in Daunia).

89.] Lucr. 4. 127," Noscas rerum simulacra vagari Multa modis multis," Id. 1. 123, "simulacra modis pallentia miris.” Comp. also Id. 6. 789, where, though the verbal similarity is less, the passage may have been in Virg.'s mind, as the context is all about mephitic vapour.

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92.] Et tum,' then too, as in other emergencies. Wagn. seems right in remarking that Latinus himself is here the priest and takes the oracle alone. But the practice seems to have been different in different places: comp. the passages quoted on v. 86 with Hdt. 1. 182, Strabo 14, pp. 649, 650. 'Ipse,' not, as Gossrau thinks, contrasted with messengers, but either in the sense of ' also,' or strengthening 'pater.'

94.] Effultus' 8. 368.
95.] Med. has 'subito.'

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