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Indomiti agricolae ; nec non et Troia pubes
Ascanio auxilium castris effundit apertis.
Direxere acies. Non iam certamine agresti,
Stipitibus duris agitur sudibusve praeustis,
Sed ferro ancipiti decernunt, atraque late
Horrescit strictis seges ensibus, aeraque fulgent
Sole lacessita, et lucem sub nubila iactant :
Fluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere vento,
Paulatim sese tollit mare et altius undas
Erigit, inde imo consurgit ad aethera fundo.
Hic iuvenis primam ante aciem stridente sagitta,

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523.] Dirigere aciem' is a phrase for drawing up an army in battle array, G. 2. 281. The plural seems to show that both sides are here intended. 'Certamine agresti' seems a general abl. of circumstance, stipitibus' and 'sudibus' instrumental.

524.] Sudibus praeustis' i. q. "torre obusto " v. 506, where see parallel passages. 525.] Ferro' is the emphatic word of which ancipiti' is an epithet, probably meaning double-edged (comp. auoiróμov gipos), with a collateral signification of deadly, so as to balance the epithets 'duris' and 'praeustis.' Wagn. thinks the notion is that of "certamen anceps." 'Decernere ferro' is as old as Enn., A. 2. fr. 11.

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526.] It is doubtful whether 'strictis ensibus' goes with seges' or with horrescit.' The ordinary meaning of 'seges would rather suggest the former, the ordinary usage of construction the latter. Virg. may very well have intended both, at the same time that he thought of the other meaning of 'seges,' the land, not the crop, which would make this passage parallel to 11. 601, "late ferreus hastis Horret ager." There is the same question about 12. 663, 66 'strictisque seges mucronibus horret Ferrea." In G. 2. 142 the warriors seem to be called a 'seges' independently of their spears, though we must not sharply distinguish the two notions. 'Horrescit' as compared with horret' seems to imply motion: comp. G. 3. 198, "segetes altae campique natantes Lenibus horrescunt fla

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bris." Heyne comp. Apoll. R. 3. 1355, φρίξεν δὲ πέρι στιβαροῖς σακέεσσι "Αρηος Téμevos. Atra,' dense and so dark, comp. v. 466. There may also be a reference to the colour of the iron: comp. passages cited from Books 11 and 12. The outline of the image, as Cerda remarks, is from Il. 13. 338, éppičev dè μáxn pliσíμßpoтos èyxelnow.

527.] With 'sole lacessita' Germ. comp. Lucr. 4. 217, "Corpora quae feriant oculos visumque lacessant." Iactat lucem " Lucr. 5. 576.

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528.] The swelling of the quarrel from a rustic brawl to a pitched battle is compared to the gradual rising of the waves in a gale at sea. Med. and Rom. (whose conjunction, Wagn. remarks, is strong authority) have 'ponto,' adopted by Heins., who took the words 'primo ponto' to mean on the edge of the sea, as "prima terra" 1. 541 means the edge of the land, and so to answer to ev aiyar in the parallel passage from Hom. referred to below; while Jahn, also reading 'ponto,' takes 'primo' as an adverb and opposed to inde.' Heyne and Wagn. (followed by Ribbeck) read' vento' from Gud., which has ponto' as a variant, and apparently Ribbeck's other cursives, considering it clear that 'ponto' arose from a recollection of G. 3. 237, "Fluctus uti medio coepit cum albescere ponto," a constant source of error. On the whole the balance of considerations seems to be in favour of 'vento,' in spite of its having no uncial authority. Pal., we must remember, is wanting, as well as the fragmentary MSS. For the whole passage comp. Il. 4. 422, which relates distinctly to the breakers on a shore.

530.] "Fluctus erigit" 3. 423. "Imo fundo" 2. 419.

531.] "Primam ante aciem" below v.

535

Natorum Tyrrhei fuerat qui maxumus, Almo,
Sternitur; haesit enim sub gutture volnus et udae
Vocis iter tenuemque inclusit sanguine vitam.
Corpora multa virum circa, seniorque Galaesus,
Dum paci medium se offert, iustissimus unus
Qui fuit Ausoniisque olim ditissimus arvis :
Quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant
Armenta, et terram centum vertebat aratris.
Atque ea per campos aequo dum Marte geruntur, 540
Promissi dea facta potens, ubi sanguine bellum

673., 9. 595, apparently meaning no more than in the first rank of combatants. "Stridens sagitta " 9. 632.

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532.] Some inferior MSS. have Almon.' Heins. restored Almo.' Gossrau remarks that Virg. gives several of his characters the names of rivers, as here 'Almo,' v. 535 "Galaesus," v. 745 "Ufens," v. 752 "Umbro," 11. 670 "Liris." 'Fuerat' may be simply i. q. "erat" (Madv. § 338 obs. 6): but there is more force and pathos in Forb.'s explanation, that he ceased to be the eldest at his death. Comp. 12. 519.

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nation (v. 571) at his fall. Heyne remarks that it is Homeric to interest us by descriptive touches in the individual combatants: comp. e. g. Il. 5. 152 foll., 612 foll. Perhaps the poet was thinking here of Axylus, Il. 6. 12 foll. It may be remarked that the river Galaesus runs through a country very rich both in corn and pastures, and especially famous for its sheep: comp. Hor. 2 Od. 6. 10 and the commentators thereon. 'Ditissimus arvis:" "Dives agris, dives positis in foenore nummis" Hor. A. P. 421. Elsewhere Virg. has the construction with the gen., e.g. 10. 563, "ditissimus agri Qui fuit Ausonidum." Some MSS. here have 'agris,' which is found as a variant in Gud. Olim,' like 'fuerat,' is pathetic : before that moment he was the wealthiest man.

538.] Redibant,' i. e. from pasture; and perhaps from their summer pasture on the hills, comp. Hor. Epod. 1. 27.

539.] On this and the previous line Serv. remarks "Duo dixit a Catone memorata, qui interrogatus qui esset paterfamilias, respondit, eum qui bene pascit et bene arat."

540-571.] Allecto reports her success to Juno, who tells her she has done enough and must return below. She vanishes in a sulphurous pool.'

"Atque

540.] The commentators compare Il. 5. 84, s oi μèv tovéovto: but the parallel is not close. Virg. however no doubt studied the Homeric transitions. ea diversa penitus dum parte geruntur," 9. 1. 'Aequo Marte' is probably the Homeric ὁμοίϊος πόλεμος. Neither had as yet been routed, though we gather in the sequel that the advantage was with the Trojans. Comp. 10. 755, "Iam gravis aequabat luctus et mutua Mavors Funera," and the following lines.

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Imbuit et primae commisit funera pugnae,
Deserit Hesperiam, et caeli conversa per auras
Iunonem victrix adfatur voce superba :

En, perfecta tibi bello discordia tristi;
Dic, in amicitiam coeant et foedera iungant.
Quandoquidem Ausonio respersi sanguine Teucros,
Hoc etiam his addam, tua si mihi certa voluntas:
Finitimas in bella feram rumoribus urbes,
Accendamque animos insani Martis amore,

Undique ut auxilio veniant: spargam arma per agros.
Tum contra Iuno; Terrorum et fraudis abunde est :
Stant belli caussae: pugnatur comminus armis;

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pos facta," or the simple "potita." Comp.
Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 13 "Victor propositi" and
"victrix ""
v. 544. So Ov. M. 4. 510 speaks
of the Fury as "victrix iussique potens."
542.] Imbuit' probably contains the
two notions of embruing (" imbuere manus,
arma sanguine:" comp. vv. 547 554)
and of setting on foot, using or doing for
the first time, Kavоûv (comp. Prop. 5.
10. 5 "Imbuis exemplum primae tu
Romule palmae," and Catull. 62 (64). 11).
"Primae pugnae," the beginning of the
battle; she leaves the field while it is still
undecided, " aequo Marte" v. 540. But
the words may mean that this was the
first act in the war. 'Committere funera
pugnae' is a variety for "committere
pugnam," funera' however being im-
portant, and indeed emphatic, like 'san-
guine' in the line before, referring to the
deaths of Almo and Galaesus. Markland
rather ingeniously conj. munera,' a me-
taphor from gladiators, which might be
supported by Hor. 1 Od. 28. 17" Dant
alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti."

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543.] Convexa is the reading of all the MSS. except Med. first reading 'conversa,' and the second Moretan, which has connexa,' as " well as of Probus, Asper, Donatus, and Serv. Wagn. and Forb., supposing convexa' to have arisen from "caeli convexa 4. 451, have adopted 'conversa,' which Wagn. interprets "convertens se a terris," a sense which, even if it can be given to 'conversa' alone, is very poor. On the other hand it is very difficult to construe 'convexa,' unless we may explain it by the analogy of "devexus" G. 4. 293, "Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis," and suppose it by a rather extraordinary combination of ideas to have reference to the flight of the Fury up the slope or cope of heaven, the shape of that over which

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550

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547.] Heyne altered the old pointing, which joined this line with the preceding. The connexion seems to be 'now that I have done thus much, it will be easy for me to do more,' an ostentatiously liberal offer to exceed what she had promised. 'Ausonio sanguine' seems to imply that the bloodshedding had been on one side.

548.]His' refers to the contents of the line before. "Tua si mihi certa voluntas" 4. 125 note.

549.] Rumoribus: comp. 9. 464., 12. 228, and the description of Fame in Book 4. 550.]" Incenditque animum famae venientis amore' " 6.889. "Insanus amor Martis " E. 10. 44.

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Quae fors prima dedit, sanguis novus imbuit arma.
Talia coniugia et talis celebrent hymenaeos
Egregium Veneris genus et rex ipse Latinus.
Te super aetherias errare licentius auras
Haud Pater ille velit, summi regnator Olympi.
Cede locis. Ego, si qua super fortuna laborum est,
Ipsa regam.
Talis dederat Saturnia voces ;
Illa autem attollit stridentis anguibus alas,
Cocytique petit sedem, supera ardua linquens.
Est locus Italiae medio sub montibus altis,

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554.] Prima' with 'fors' (comp. 2.387) rather than with 'quae.' 'Sanguis novus,' the first blood, is said with reference to the sense of imbuit, i. q. " auspicatus est,” mentioned on v. 542. The meaning is not that the chance weapons of the rustics (v. 508) have been stained with blood, but that the quarrel which was begun accidentally has proceeded to bloodshed. 555.] Connubia' was retained by Heyne: 'coniugia' however is found in all Ribbeck's MSS., the best authority for 'connubia' being the first Mentelian. 'Connubia' may have been introduced from 4. 316.

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557.] See Wagn.'s remark quoted on 1. 680. Strictly speaking, the Fury was not wandering above, but in the upper air. The opposition is between the light of day, as shared by men and gods, and the darkness of the world below. Jupiter, as 'summi regnator Olympi,' prevents the Fury from trespassing on his domain. Comp. Aesch. Eum. 365 foll., and indeed the play generally. 'Aetherias auras:' see on 1. 546 'Errare licentius' combines the notions of free movement ('errare' as in E.1.9) and wandering from the proper place. 558.] Pater ille comp. 2. 779, and see on v. 110 above. Regnator Olympi" 10. 437. The first Mentelian, a variant in Gud., and others, have 'ipse;' Gud. also gives 'superi' as a variant.

559.] "Cedere loco" is a phrase for giving way in battle, and perhaps the plural

555

560

may be used here to avoid that special
meaning, though it may be equally well
referred to metrical convenience or poetical
variety. The sense obviously is Be gone
from hence.' Canon. has 'loco,' omitting
'ego,' unmetrically. Laborum,' the war:
comp. v. 481. "Fortuna laborum" G. 3.
452. Virg. probably imitates Il. 1. 522
(Zeus to Thetis), 'Aλλà où μèv vûv a&tis
ἀπόστιχε, μή σε νοήσῃ Ηρη· ἐμοὶ δέ κε
ταῦτα μελήσεται, ὄφρα τελέσσω, as Cerda
remarks. For the tmesis
comp. 2. 567, E. 6. 6.

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super est 560.] Regam' 'dirigam," 9. 409 &c. 'Dederat:' in these cases Virg. uses the perfect and pluperfect tenses indifferently.

561.] Snakes in her wings are a new feature: the allusion cannot be to the snakes in her hair. Doubtless they supply the place of feathers, as feathers answer to hair. "Stridentibus alis" 1. 397, of the ordinary rushing sound of wings.

562.] Med. and Rom. have 'super,' which Ribbeck adopts, as in 6. 241, 750, 787.

563.] Some MSS. and the old editions have in medio.' Heins. ejected in.' Amsanctus is fixed by Cic. de Div. 1. 36, Pliny 2. 95, in Hirpini, and therefore 'Italiae in medio' is said only with reference to the breadth, not to the length of Italy. I am indebted to Mr. Long for some extracts from a paper by Mr. Hamilton in the London Geographical Journal vol. 2. p. 62, describing the place. It is a small pond, in the smallest dimension about twenty paces, and not more than thirty in the longest. "The water bubbles up with an explosion resembling distant thunder." "On one side of the pond "is a constant and rapid stream of the same blackish water rushing into it from under" a "barren rocky hill," under which the pond is: "but the fall is not

noise."

Nobilis et fama multis memoratus in oris,

Amsancti valles; densis hunc frondibus atrum
Urguet utrimque latus nemoris, medioque fragosus
Dat sonitum saxis et torto vertice torrens.

Hic specus horrendum et saevi spiracula Ditis
Monstrantur, ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago
Pestiferas aperit fauces, quis condita Erinys,
Invisum numen, terras caelumque levabat.

Nec minus interea extremam Saturnia bello
Inponit regina manum. Ruit omnis in urbem

more than a few feet." "A little above are apertures in the ground through which warm blasts of sulphuretted hydrogen gas are constantly issuing with more or less The name is derived from the old "am""circum" and "sanctus." 565.] Valles' nom. sing., as in 11.522, where see note. Frondibus' may go either with 'urguet' or with atrum.'

566.] Latus nemoris,' a woody steep cliff: comp. Hor. 2 S. 6. 91, "Praerupti nemoris dorso," and note on v. 82 above. Medioque' sc. 'nemore.' Freund seems wrong in explaining 'fragosus' here of sound, though probably we are meant to be reminded of that sense of "fragor." Here it doubtless means full of breaks, which is its general sense. In Val. F. 2. 622., 4. 261 it may have the sense of sound, but it may equally well refer to the broken waves, if it is not to be taken actively, ship-wrecking. Some MSS. have 'fragosis.'

567.] Saxis et torto vertice,' doubtless refers to the bubbling up of the water among the rocks.

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568.] 'Horrendum et saevi' is the reading of all Ribbeck's MSS. but one (Pal. and Vat. and Verona fragmm. are wanting), which omits 'et.' Serv. says that ancient copies read specus horrendus,' which doubtless shows that they had not the copula, though it has been suggested that the copyists may have thought that 'us' could be elided. Et' was omitted by Heins. and Heyne, who read 'monstratur;' but the authority seems insufficient, especially as the copies which omit 'et' do not agree in reading 'monstrantur.' Rom. is the only one of Ribbeck's MSS. that has 'monstratur,' and it retains et.' 6 'Specus is fem. in Ennius, Pacuvius and Attius, masc. in ordinary Latin, neut. here and in Sil. 13.425. Specus' is the pool, 'spiracula'

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the apertures. The latter name, and that of "Charoneae scrobes," are said by Pliny 2. 93 to have been generally given to places of this kind. Comp. Lucr. 6. 762 foll., where the supernatural explanation is protested against. For 'saevi' Wagn. rightly comp. v. 84, "saevam mephitim." "Spiracula mundi" Lucr. 6. 493.

569.] Monstrantur,' 6. 440. 'Rupto Acheronte,' formed by the bursting up of Acheron: rupto' like "rupto turbine" 2. 416. Turn. comp. àπoppwè̟ II. 2. 755, which however is rather the arm of a river. 'Aτóστаσμа, as used by Plato, Phaedo 61 (see the passage quoted on 6. 551), seems a better parallel.

570.] Pestiferas: Mr. Hamilton says the vapours are at times fatal. Med., Gud., and others have condit,' a natural error, mentioned as a various reading by Serv.

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571.] Wakef. and Jahn make 'numen' acc. after 'condita,' which would be harsh. Rom. and others have levavit,' which would be easier, as levabat' is not sufficiently supported by 11. 827, "linquebat habenas," where we are meant to dwell on the gradual relaxation of Camilla's grasp in death. Perhaps one may say that the description of Amsanctus has the same effect here, making us linger on the contemplation of the Fury's disappearance: or the point may be the gradual relief caused by her removal.

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572-600.] The Latins, backed by Turnus, clamour for war against the Trojans. Latinus resists long, but eventually yields under protest, abandoning the conduct of affairs to others.'

ultimam,'

572.] Manum extremam,' summam imponere' is a common phrase for completing a thing: see the Dictionaries. The metaphor is taken, as Serv. and Donatus remark, from a work of art. "Nec minus interea " 6. 212.

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