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clausos" in Aen. 9. 67, saying that if he had not been aware that the rhythm introduced was an unusual one, he should not have apologized for it. It is really a question of ear and there are doubtless many ears to which the new line will seem hardly Virgilian, in spite of G. 3. 276 and Aen. 7. 634. "Via" in the received reading is synonymous with "ratio," as in. Aen. 12. 405. "Sic" for " sed" in v. 146 of Aen. 9 depends on a transposition which we have already seen reason to reject. In v. 226 "et," though not found in the MSS., is said to be necessary before "delecta." I do not know what is the objection to taking "delecta iuventus" in apposition with "ductores," but I suppose it is either that the leaders would be too old to be designated as "iuventus," or that the word naturally implies the rank and file, as distinguished from the chiefs. To the first I reply that "iuventus means little more than fighting men, and that Aeneas and Achates are addressed as "iuvenes" Aen. 1. 321; to the second that Catillus and Coras, who are unquestionably leaders, are called "Argiva iuventus" Aen. 7. 672. V. 403 is critically difficult, as the MSS. vary, and the best supported reading is not the most likely intrinsically; but that seems no reason for introducing a conjecture. V. 676 "freti armis" is unobjectionable, as the opposition is not between arms and personal strength, but between the protection afforded by walls and that which a warrior can give himself by his use of his weapons. It is conceivable, however, that as in Aen. 4. 11, Aen. 11. 641, and possibly other unsuspected places, may be from "armi." At any rate we do not need to read "animis."

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"armis "

As to "transiit" Aen. 10. 785, I must refer to the Excursus on G. 2. 81 in the second edition of my first volume. Peerlkamp's "quamvis dolor alto volnere tardet " for "quamquam vis alto volnere tardat" (or "tardet ") is really ingenious; far more so than Hoffmann's "vis alti volneris ardet." The received reading is difficult: "vis," in Virgil at any rate, is generally used for offensive force, and the intransitive use of "tardo" is rare, though we might give it its active meaning, and say that his physical strength keeps him back by reason of the wound. On the whole I am not sure that the 'perversa ratio" of Servius (as M. Ribbeck calls it) is not right, and that "vis" is not the violence of the wound, as the use of the instrumental ablative instead of the possessive genitive is quite in keeping with Virgil's other manipulations of language.

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There is not much force in M. Ribbeck's objection to "acceperit ultro," Aen. 11. 471, "qui accipit sequitur voluntatem alterius, ergo nihil ultra id facit quod voluit alter." A person may be compelled to accept a thing, or he may accept it voluntarily ; and it is the latter of these situations in which Latinus would gladly have been. "Asciverit urbi" is better than "acceperit urbi:" the one implies that Aeneas would have been the "gener" of the state (comp. Aen. 11. 105): the latter could only refer to Aeneas' admission within the walls, a much poorer thought. In v. 728 I cannot agree that "iniicit iras" is weak, though Heinsius' "incutit," if Virgil could only be shown to have written it, would be an exceedingly good word. "Iniicio" is a strong word in itself: the only question is whether it can be used idiomatically with "iras," and that the dictionaries, with their "iniicere metum," "formidinem," &c., set at rest. Last of all is a passage in Aen. 12. 55, where it is said of Amata, "ardentem generum moritura tenebat." M. Ribbeck objects that "moritura" would mean that she was actually going to die, and substitutes "monitura." Is it possible? Virgil, in the rapidity of his passion, says that the queen clung to her son-in-law with the tenacious grasp of one with death before her: the critic says she held him in order to advise or reprove him. Utri creditis, Quirites?

As I said in my former paper, I have no wish to derogate from the undoubted merits of M. Ribbeck's work: but I cannot but think that such criticisms as many of those which I have been noticing are a serious drawback to its value. English scholarship has not a few deficiencies: is it not preserved from some errors by the practice of Latin verse composition?



11. 158. Add Tibullus 2. 6. 31, " Illa mihi sancta est, illius dona sepulcro Et madefacta meis serta feram lacrimis."

686. Virg. may perhaps be thinking of the language of II. 21. 485, where Hera says to Artemis, Ητοι βέλτερόν ἐστι κατ ̓ οὔρεα θῆρας ἐναίρειν, ̓Αγροτέρας τ ̓ ἐλάφους, ἢ κρείσσοσιν ἶφι μάχεσθαι.

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12. 7. Comantes tori' is probably to be taken (not as in the note, but) simply as 66 masses of hair: a sense of 'torus' which can be paralleled by Pliny,

Ep. 5. 8. 10, "Hanc (historiam) saepius ossa musculi nervi, illam (orationem) tori quidam et quasi iubae decent."

357. Extorqueri,' with the dative of a thing, does not seem to be Ciceronian: Pliny, Ep. 3. 9. 16 has, however, "cum praerepta et extorta defensioni suae cerneret in quibus omnem fiduciam reponebat." (Forc.)

453. Mr. Munro has retracted his emendation "aqua" in the Cambridge Journal of Philology, 1. p. 117. 518. Mr. Munro writes, "Lerna, at the present day, consists of a series of exceedingly deep natural canals of beautifully clear water, which might well be called 'flumina.' These are formed from a vast series of springs in that part of the plain of Argolis. I do not remember any visible 'flumina' which ran into them."

529. Serv.'s interpretation of 'sonantem' in this passage (as="recalling in the sound of his name ") is confirmed by Hieronymus ad Laetam, Ep. 107. (ed. Vallars. vol. 1, col. 672), "Ante paucos annos propinquus vester Gracchus nobilitatem patriciam nomine sonans." Mr. Munro, who thinks 'sonantem = talking of," quotes Martial 5. 17. 1, “Dum proavos atavosque refers et nomina magna, Dum tibi noster eques sordida condicio est," &c.

621. Mr. Munro remarks that this use of diversus' is common in the Annals, but the Annals only, of Tacitus, e. g. 3. 2, "etiam quorum diversa oppida, tamen obvii :” 4. 46, "fore ut in diversas terras traherentur.”

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648. He would write, 'Sancta ad vos anima, a! atque istius inscia culpae.' there be," he says, "an easier change than this? Could one of three a's fail to get extruded in MSS.? The kind of feeling expressed by a here would resemble that of Hor. 2 Od. 17. 5, 'A te meae si partem animae rapit.' A is not elided in Tibullus 3. 4. 82, ‘A, ego ne possim tanta videre mala:' and in Horace, Epod. 5. 71, A, a solutus ambulat,' &c. The position of a in the verse would resemble its position in Propertius 1. 11. 5, Nostri cura subit memores, a, ducere noctes' comp. Sen. Medea 1009 (1017), where the best MS., the Florentine, has 'Si possetuna caede satiari, a, manus:' rightly, I should say. In Ov. 3 Am. 7.55 MSS. read, 'Sed puto non blanda, non optima perdidit in me Oscula' editors, 'Sed non blanda puto,' &c., quite spoiling the force of 'puto.' Lucian Müller, in his text of 1861, reads, much to my satisfaction, 'Sed puto non blanda, a, non optima,' &c. In the poem, which is sometimes printed as the 19th of Catullus, beginning Hunc ego, iuvenes, locum villulamque palustrem,' surely no one would hesitate to read with Lachmann (Prop. p. 289) 'Hunc ego, O iuvenes :' and my emendation is even lighter."

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697. Comp. II. 20. 423 (of Achilles when he saw Hector coming to meet him), Avτàρ ̓Αχιλλεὺς ̔Ως εἶδ', ὡς ἀνέπαλτο καὶ εὐχόμενος ἔπος ηὔδα κ.τ.λ.

739. The parallel passages should have been limited to the line from Homer.

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where dative or in with accusa-
tive would be usual, x. 681

without preposition, xi. 175
-of the cause by which a thing is
done, xi. 568

Abunde, with genitive, use of, vii. 552.
Ac velut, xii. 908

Accipere, of welcoming, viii. 178: ix. 233
omen, xii. 260

Accusative, cognate, vii. 460: xi. 573

cognate, in apposition to the

action of the verb, ix. 53

viii. 180

cognate, after nitor, xii. 386
cognate, after labo, x. 283.
and ablative, interchange places,

in apposition to the sentence,

viii. 487
Acer, in contrast with lentus, vii. 164
Acerbus, of premature death, xi. 28,

Acies inferre pedestris, x. 364

Aclys, the, vii. 730

Acrisioneus, vii. 410

Ad, force of, viii. 359

force of, in composition, ix. 52
aliquem loqui = adloqui aliquem, x.

limina, denoting humility in supplica-
tion, vii. 221

lumina, viii. 411

Adclinis, x. 835

Adcommodus, xi. 522

Addo, of a speech following an act, xi.


Adeo, used for emphasis, vii. 629: ix. 156:
xi. 314

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after numbers, vii. 629
Adficere pretio, xii. 352

Adiunctus, of close juxta-position, ix. 69
Adiuro, with accusative, xii. 816
Adire, of approaching in worship, viii.
Adjective, emphatic position of, in descrip-
tions, xi. 626

xi. 88

xi. 890

for genitive, x. 520: xi. 84
from proper name for genitive,

hypallage in construction with,

used for adverb, xi. 426

Adlacrimare, x. 628

Admisceri, of the mixture of blood, vii.

Admovere, of victims, xii. 171
Adnixus, with ablative, xii. 92
Adnuere, with infinitive, xi. 20: xii.

Adparere, of servants, xii. 850
Adsensus varius, x. 97: contrast dis-
sensus varius, xi. 455

Adsidere with accusative, xi. 304
Adspectare, of gazing at from far, x. 4
Adusque, xi. 262

Adverbs formed from participles, x. 405
Aegis, of Jove, viii. 354

of Pallas, viii. 435

Aeneadae, viii. 341

Actium, battle of, described as on Aeneas' Aeneas, visit to Evander, viii. 102

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Aeneid, the, want of finish in its later | Amplexus petere, viii. 615
books, vii. 430, 664: viii. 380: ix.


the, discrepancies between Book
III. and other parts of the poem, vii.

Aequalis caterva, x. 194

Aequati numero, sense of, vii. 698

Aeratus aereus, xi. 656

of Aeneas' shield, x. 887

Aestus, of fluctuation in opinion, xii. 486
Aetherios orbis, of the heavenly bodies,
viii. 137

Aetherius sol, viii. 68

Amplification, turn for, in Virgil, xii. 899
Amsanctus, derivation of the name, vii.

Amyclae, x. 564

Anachronisms in Virgil, vii. 186
Anceps, vii. 525

Ancilia, the, viii. 664

Anfractus, a curve, winding way, xi. 522
Anhelare, viii. 421

Animi, genitive with epithet, ix. 246: x.
686: xi. 417: xii. 19

Animis animose, xi. 18, 438
Animos tollere, ix. 637

Agere, of leading to battle, vii. 804: viii. Animus, vii. 356

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of liberality, xii. 23

Ante, without specified object, ix. 315 : xii.

alios, pleonastic after superlative,
vii. 55

tubam, proverbial expression, xi. 424
Antecedent repeated in another form, vii.

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Bellator equus, x. 891: xi. 89
Belli commercia, x. 532

portae, the gates of Janus, vii. 607
rabies, viii. 327

signum, viii. 1
Bellipotens, of Mars, xi. 7
Bellum, for battle, viii. 606
Bene emere, ix. 206
Berecyntia, ix. 82

Bibere, of the spear, xi. 804

Biforis, of the sound of a flute with two
stops, ix. 618
Bimembris, viii. 293
Bipatens, x. 5

Bipennis, in original adjectival sense,

xi. 135

Birds of Diomede, xi. 273

-, introducing new element in descrip- Birth of men from stocks and stones, idea

tion, xii. 531

Attactus, vii. 350

Attollere fasces, vii. 173

of, viii. 315

Biting the ground in death, x. 489: xi. 418
Bonus =

propitious, xii. 179

Attonitus, of being under strong divine Bubo, xii. 862

influence, vii. 580

Attorquens, ix. 52

Auctor, x. 67

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Bacchanalia, the, vii. 385

Bacchic orgies, description of, vii. 385
Bay-tree, in Latinus' palace, vii. 59
Bellator bellans, xii. 614

Bullets, belief that they melted in passing
through the air, ix. 588

Buxum, of a top, vii. 382

Buxus, of a flute, ix. 619

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Capys, x. 145

Carmental gate, the, viii. 338
Carmentis, prediction of, viii. 340
Carbaseus, xi. 776

Carbasus, viii. 34

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