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Tu pedes ad muros subsiste, et moenia serva.
Turnus ad haec, oculos horrenda in virgine fixus:
O decus Italiae virgo, quas dicere grates,

Quasve referre parem? sed nunc, est omnia quando
Iste animus supra, mecum partire laborem.
Aeneas, ut fama fidem missique reportant
Exploratores, equitum levia inprobus arma
Praemisit, quaterent campos; ipse ardua montis
Per deserta iugo superans adventat ad urbem.
Furta paro belli convexo in tramite silvae,
Ut bivias armato obsidam milite fauces.

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508.] Decus' as an address, 9. 18., 12. 142. Wagn. argues for the omission of a comma after 'virgo,' on the ground that Virg. does not mean to say "O decus Italiae, quae es virgo," but "O virgo, quae es decus Italiae:" but this seems refining. 'Dicere' refers to the expression of gratitude, referre,' like "persolvere 1. 600., 2. 537, to its exhibition in act. 509.] Nunc,' as things are, as in 10. 630 &c. Esse supra' like "ire supra 12. 839. Supra omnia' is rightly explained by Serv. " supra omnis grates et supra omne praemium." Heyne's "supra pericula, fortunae casus et sic porro' less natural.

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510.] Iste animus' like "hic animus " 9. 205. Ribbeck needlessly reads 'supera,' from a MS. of Priscian, who quotes the passage, and a doubtful indication in Med. Turnus proposes that instead of taking the whole work of engaging the enemy, she should share it with him.

511.] Fides,' credence, hence a story that claims credence. So "mira fides " occurs more than once in Stat.: see Forc. Reportant' applies to 'missi exploratores' more properly than to 'fama.'

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512.] Inprobus:' Aeneas being an enemy, his activity is made matter of blame. Equitum levia arma' for "equites leviter armatos." Levia arma' 10. 817.

513.] Praemisit' implies an order, and so is followed by an oratio obliqua. Comp.

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1. 645, where the distinction attempted in the note is nugatory, the two constructions being really the same. Quaterent campos' from Lucr. 2. 330, "equites . . . . Tramittunt valido quatientes impete campos." Ipse' &c.: the construction, as Wagn., following Donatus, has pointed out, is "per deserta montis ardua ad urbem adventat, iugo ea superans," not, as Gossrau thinks, superans ardua montis, per deserta iugo (= de iugo) adventat." "Parnasi deserta per ardua" G. 3. 291, where as here it may be doubted which is the substantive, which the epithet. 'Ardua montis' 8. 221.

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514.] Iugo' seems a sort of instrumental abl., i. q. “ iugo ascenso," though it might possibly be local. Virg. doubtless wished to avoid the more ordinary expression "iugum superans." 'Properans' was found in some copies by Pierius, who mentions Rom. among them; but this last Ribbeck seems to deny. urbem' is also mentioned by Pierius as a variant, but it is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS.


515.] Furta' of secret operations in war 9. 350., 10. 735. Serv. quotes a fragm. of Sall. Hist. 1 (given more fully by Non. p. 310), “gens ad furta belli peridonea." The path is called 'convexus' because lying along the sloping sides of a glen. "Convexo nemorum "1. 310.

516.] 'Ut' seems to mark the consequence or development of the action denoted by 'furta paro,' rather than an intention: but the distinction in such cases is apt to be evanescent. 'Bivias fauces,' because the passage through the defile is a thoroughfare, like "bivio portae" 9. 238, where as here the word has no special relevancy to the context. But it is possible that the first part of the compound may be the important one, the meaning

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Tu Tyrrhenum equitem collatis excipe signis;
Tecum acer Messapus erit, turmaeque Latinae,
Tiburtique manus; ducis et tu concipe curam.
Sic ait, et paribus Messapum in proelia dictis
Hortatur sociosque duces, et pergit in hostem.
Est curvo anfractu valles, adcommoda fraudi
Armorumque dolis, quam densis frondibus atrum
Urguet utrimque latus, tenuis quo semita ducit
Angustaeque ferunt fauces aditusque maligni.
Hanc super in speculis summoque in vertice montis
Planities ignota iacet, tutique recessus,
Seu dextra laevaque velis occurrere pugnae,

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being that soldiers will be planted on each side of the defile. Armato milite' 2. 20. 517.] Equitem' sing. 10. 239. Collatis excipe signis' i. q. "excipe et signa confer," meet them and engage them.

519.] Tiburti' Rom., Med. and Pal. corrected, Tiburni' Med. and Pal. originally. The former is supported by all Ribbeck's MSS. in 7. 671, and by "Tiburtia moenia" ib. 670. Tiburtus was the king of the place: his brothers Catillus and Coras led the troops: see 7. 1. c. 'Ducis et tu concipe curam :' 'et,' as Serv. rightly says, does not mean as well as Messapus &c., but as well as Turnus himself, the point of his speech being that she is to share his business. Concipere' however cannot mean, as Serv. thinks, to share, "mecum cape," but must mean to assume. Some copies point after ducis,' wrongly.

521.] Socios' relatively to himself, not to Messapus, the meaning being 'Messapus and the other confederate leaders,' i. e. Catillus and Coras.


522.] Valles' is a collateral form of vallis (comp. "aedis " and "aedes," felis" and "feles," "vulpis " and " vulpes") recognized by Serv. and by Prob. Cathol. p. 1470 P, though there seems some doubt about the text of the latter, but found only here and 7. 565. 'Vallis,' the reading before Heins., is the original reading of one of Ribbeck's cursives. 'Anfractus' seems to mean a curve of any kind: see Forc., who quotes Varro L. L. 7. 15 Müller, where "in anfracto" is explained "in flexu." Here accordingly we are to think of a winding glen. Adcommodus' is a rare word, perhaps confined to poetry.

523.] Densis' &c., nearly repeated from 7.565.



524.] Qua,' the reading before Heins., is mentioned as a variant by Serv., but found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. In any case Virg. would seem to be speaking of the valley itself rather than of the road to it; but the two are easily identified.

525.] 'Maligni' i. q. "angusti:" see instances in Forc. Comp. the use of “iniquus" of space. Serv. interprets it "obscuri," from a misunderstanding of 6. 270.

526.] There is a table-land at the top of the hills on each side (dextra laevaque' v. 528) overlooking the valley. 'Specula of the top of a mountain E. 8. 60 note. Perhaps the plural indicates the two hills between which the valley runs. For 'in,' which Rom. omits, Pal. and originally Gud. give 'e.'

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527.] Ignota' because unseen, owing to the formation of the ground. 'Receptus' Pal., Med. originally, and three of Ribbeck's cursives, including Gud., where the word originally was 'receptis, recessus Rom., Med. corrected. Serv. reads 'receptus,' mentioning, according to some copies of his commentary, recessus' as an inferior variant, though the Dresden MS., as cited by Wagn., seems to reverse the readings. Wagn. restored 'recessus' as the more appropriate word, 'receptus' meaning a place of refuge and rallying for an army, not a retreat in general: and on the whole it seems safest to follow him as against Ribbeck, in spite of the preponderance of MS. authority, as Virg. is hardly likely to have used a technical military term in an improper sense when an unobjectionable word was ready to his hands. The words are repeatedly confounded in MSS. (see Forc.), so that external considerations are of less value.

528.] The meaning seems to be that if you choose to give battle to an advancing

Sive instare iugis et grandia volvere saxa.
Huc iuvenis nota fertur regione viarum,
Arripuitque locum et silvis insedit iniquis.

Velocem interea superis in sedibus Opim,
Unam ex virginibus sociis sacraque caterva,
Compellabat et has tristis Latonia voces

Ore dabat: Graditur bellum ad crudele Camilla,
O virgo, et nostris nequiquam cingitur armis,
Cara mihi ante alias. Neque enim novus iste Dianae

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532.] Serv. complains of the transition marked by interea' as abrupt, and Heyne agrees with him, observing that this word is used elsewhere to introduce conversations of the gods (10. 1, 606), and that we might have expected something more appropriate. It is inartificial, doubtless, but it is difficult to see why it should be blamed on that score, unless we are prepared to condemn the whole framework of the epic narrative, as Virg. took it from Hom. Here we may well suppose that the conversation took place while Turnus was discoursing with Camilla, or when the two were taking up their respective military positions. Opis' (OUTIs) was one of the names of Artemis herself (Callim. Hymn to Artemis 204, 240), but appears elsewhere as the name of a Hyperborean maiden who brought offerings to Delos, and remained there with the goddess (Callim. on Delos 292). As Heyne observes, it is remarkable that she is represented here as being on Olympus with Diana, whose nymphs would VOL. III.



naturally be confined to the woods. 'Velocem,' as Arethusa, a wood-nymph, is called "velox" G. 4. 344.

533.] Sociis' is doubtless adj., though it might possibly be subst. Rom. has virginibus sacris sociaque caterva.'


534.] Tristi' Rom., which Heins. adopted. There is still a doubt whether 'tristis' is nom. sing. or acc. pl. Jahn prefers the former, Heyne the latter, which is supported by Serv. Heyne comp. "haec tristia dicta" 2. 115. 'Latonia' of Diana, like "Saturnia" of Juno, 9. 405.

536.] Serv. mentions that some strangely thought 'O virgo' referred to Camilla. Nostris,' mine and yours, being armed as a huntress, vv. 652, 844 below. Cingitur' middle.

537.] "Felix una ante alias " 3. 321. The narrative that follows, down to v. 584, is supposed by Heinrich and Peerlkamp to have been inserted after the completion of the poem. The latter thinks that it was intended to come at the end of Book 7, but that Tucca and Varius placed it here. It is of course true that it is calculated to interest the reader rather than Opis, who can hardly have been ignorant of the facts; but this is the fault of the poet, and might easily be paralleled from other passages in epic narrative, where such things are difficult to avoid. Gossrau remarks that the ancients not unfrequently forgot themselves in their narrative speeches, which only resemble speeches in the beginning and end, just as many modern letters only resemble letters in the superscription and subscription. The use of Dianae' here, and 'Diana' v. 582, is perhaps part of this self-forgetfulness, though there is some rhetorical force in each: comp. 2. 79., 3. 380, 433.

Dianae' dative. 'Iste' is explained by Wagn. Q. V. 19. 2, "quo me illi conciliatam sentis;" scarcely a satisfactory view, but it is difficult to suggest a better.

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Venit amor, subitaque animum dulcedine movit.
Pulsus ob invidiam regno virisque superbas
Priverno antiqua Metabus cum excederet urbe,
Infantem fugiens media inter proelia belli
Sustulit exsilio comitem, matrisque vocavit
Nomine Casmillae, mutata parte, Camillam.
Ipse sinu prae se portans iuga longa petebat
Solorum nemorum; tela undique saeva premebant,
Et circumfuso volitabant milite Volsci.

Ecce, fugae medio, summis Amasenus abundans
Spumabat ripis; tantus se nubibus imber
Ruperat. Ille, innare parans, infantis amore
Tardatur, caroque oneri timet. Omnia secum

Versanti subito vix haec sententia sedit:

538.] Venire' of the accession of feelings v. 733 below, G. 1. 37. Here it harmonizes with 'novus' and 'subita.' Med. originally had 'subito.'

539.] Invidiam' is explained by 'viris superbas,' the former being occasioned by the latter. 'Superbus' of tyranny 8.

118 note.

540.] Privernum' Dict. G. Of Metabus' Serv. says, "Nomen sumptum de historia Metabus enim fuit dux Graeci agminis, qui iuxta Hadriaticum mare urbem Metapontum condidit:" see Strabo 6. 1. p. 265.

541.] Like Mezentius, Metabus, though a tyrant, has the feelings of a father. 'Fugiens media inter proelia' seems to mean in the hurry of flight from battle; though inter proelia' might explain how he came to escape, like "inter caedem confugere" 8. 492.

542.] Exsilio' dat. with 'comitem.' Pal. and originally Gud. have locavit,' which confirms the emendation of Manilius suggested Vol. 1, p. 371 (395 ed. 2).

543.] "Casmilus" is generally supposed to have been a collateral, probably an older form of "camillus,' ," the attendant of a flamen, and so inferentially "Casmila" of "Camilla." So" Casmena, "Camena." Varro L. L. 7. 34 Müller, and Statius Tullianus De Vocabulis Rerum, book 1, cited by Serv. here, and Macrob. Sat. 3. 8 declare that the word "Casmilus" is Greek, and used by Callimachus, evidently referring, as Müller observes, to the Cabeiric god known as Cadmilus, Casmilus, or Cadmus. Virg. apparently symbolizes the fact that "Casmilla" is

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an older form than "Camilla " by making one the name of the mother, the other of the daughter. No ancient author, however, appears distinctly to attest the existence of "casmilus as a Latin word apart from the name of the Cabeiric god, so that it is possible that we may be merely dealing with a conjectural attempt at antiquarian explanation, such as Varro and Virg. were fond of.

544.] Ruhkopf rightly connects 'ipse' with sinu prae se portans' rather than with 'petebat.' 'Longa' seems not to mean "longinqua," as Serv. explains it, but to denote the extent of the mountain region, in which Metabus hoped to baffle pursuit.

545.] Iuga nemorum' like "iuga silvarum" 6. 256 note.

546.] Circumfuso,' like 'undique,' is not to be taken strictly. Metabus was evidently ahead of his pursuers: but, being many against one, they hoped to overtake and surround him.

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547.] Amasenus' 7. 685. "Amnis abundans" G. 1. 115. Summis ripis' with 'spumabat,' the abl. being local. It was the overflow of the river which made it foam over the brim.

548.] Tantus' gives the reason for what goes before, as in 5. 404, &c. Se rumpere' G. 1. 446. Rumpere' with abl. v. 377 above.

550.] "Pariter comitique onerique timentem" 2. 729. Secum,' because Metabus is the real subject of the sentence.

551.] The union of 'subito' and 'vix' has given trouble to the commentators. The most natural meaning seems to be

Telum inmane, manu valida quod forte gerebat
Bellator, solidum nodis et robore cocto,
Huic natam, libro et silvestri subere clausam,
Inplicat, atque habilem mediae circumligat hastae;
Quam dextra ingenti librans ita ad aethera fatur :
Alma, tibi hanc, nemorum cultrix, Latonia virgo,
Ipse pater famulam voveo: tua prima per auras

that the thought was a sudden one, but that he did not accept it without reluctance. The necessities of his position account for the suddenness, the peril of the plan for the reluctance. Heyne thinks 'vix' expresses that the conclusion was slowly formed, 'subito' that it was rapidly executed. Wagn. explains 'vix' with reference to what follows-he had scarcely formed the plan, when &c. ; but this would leave 'haec sententia' unexplained, and in other respects would not be so natural. Some early editors, apparently following Serv., whose words however are not quite clear, connected 'subito' with 'versanti,' which Valckenaer Ammonius p. 67 thought might be equivalent to the Homeric doάoσato. 'Sedere' of a resolution 4. 15., 5. 418., 7. 611. There the prominent notion is that of fixity, here that of settling down; and so there the pres. or imperf. is used, here the perf.


552.] Telum inmane' followed by 'huic,' not unlike "urbem quam statuo vestra est" 1. 573, though here the greater length of the sentence supplies some excuse for it. Wagn. ingeniously considers it as a rhetorical artifice, intended to express Metabus' perturbation. 'Forte: his carrying the weapon was natural enough, as he had escaped from the enemy, and would of course be armed in self-defence; but it was accidental with reference to the purpose to which he had decided on applying it. Comp. 12. 206, "dextra sceptrum nam forte gerebat." Here Med. has 'gerebat' altered into 'ferebat.'

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"igni durato, praeusto:" but the "sudes praeustae" of 7. 524 had their ends hardened in the fire in default of iron points. Serv. also comp. Pers. 1. 97, "Ut ramale vetus praegrandi subere coctum," where however the fact that the branch is actually growing on the tree makes the parallel little better than a verbal one.

554.] Libro et silvestri subere' hendiadys. He gathers some cork-tree bark (the tree, Spon observes, grows plentifully about Privernum), and uses it as a swathe with which to wrap his child about the spear.

555.] "Habilem'"ita ut habilis sit," convenient for throwing.

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556.] Quam,' probably the spear. "Ingenti manu" 5. 487. 'Ad aethera fatur' 10. 459 note. Diana as a goddess is in heaven. Comp. 9. 403, where however there is a further reason for looking up, as the moon is shining.

557.] "Nemorum Latonia custos" 9. 405. "Cultor nemorum" G. 1. 14, where however cultor' is not simply an inhabitant, but a cultivator. Phaedr. 2. 4. 3 has "sus nemoricultrix," like "cerva silvicultrix" Catull. 61 (63). 72.

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558.] 'Ipse' seems to mean 'I, who have the most right, as making a vow of what is my own.' So Serv. "Bene ipse pater,' quoniam auctoramenti potestatem nisi patres non habent." Serv. takes tua' with supplex,' like ikérns oós; but this could hardly stand here unless 'prima' were constructed similarly. Tua tela,' because the weapon is dedicated to Diana, donum Triviae" v. 566. These very words contain the dedication, which is made in Virg.'s characteristically indirect manner. Metabus himself ceases to be a warrior, and becomes a wild nan, and it is not unnatural that at this moment he should speak of a war-spear as if it might be a hunting-javelin. Tua tela' will then be like "tua quercus" 10. 423 on the one hand, while on the other it may be comp. with "nostris armis " v. 536. Prima,' the first weapons she holds are thine.

553.] Bellator' gives the reason for his having the weapon with him, at the same time that it indicates the character of the weapon. It matters little whether 'robore cocto' be constructed with solidum' or taken separately as a descriptive abl. Cocto,' probably by the smoke, G. 1. 175. Serv. says that spears were actually hardened in the fire to separate them from their bark, and Heyne renders 'cocto'

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