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Aurea percussum virga versumque venenis
Fecit avem Circe, sparsitque coloribus alas.
Tali intus templo divom patriaque Latinus
Sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit;
Atque haec ingressis placido prior edidit ore :

190

Dicite, Dardanidae, neque enim nescimus et urbem 195
Et genus, auditique advertitis aequore cursum,
Quid petitis? quae caussa rates, aut cuius egentis
Litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit?/
Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti,

legend may not have been exactly the
same as Ovid's.
Otherwise we may take
capta cupidine coniux' closely together,
i. q.
like
"capta cupidine coniugii
"coniugis amore "E. 8. 18.

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190.] In Od. 10. 234 foll. Circe first gives her victims a magic potion and then strikes them with her wand. They are restored by the external application of another drug, v.392. With 'versum venenis' comp. Hor. Epod. 5. 87, "Venena magnum fas nefasque non valent convertere humanam vicem." Aurea,' dissyllable, 1. 698. Nothing is said in Hom. of the material of Circe's rod. Virg. may have thought of 'Epuns xpvσóppaπis, who tells Odysseus about Circe Od. v. 277, and is mentioned by Circe herself v. 331. Serv. makes 'aurea' nominative.

191.] Avem,' the picus Martius (see on vv. 187, 8), an important bird in augury. Sparsitque coloribus alas' i. q. "dedit ei alas sparsas coloribus." See Ov. M. 14. 393 foll., and comp. E. 2. 41, 'sparsis pellibus albo."

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192.] Intus' is generally taken as a preposition for "in:" but Hand 3. 447 cites no clear case of such a use of intus.' On the other hand intus' is frequently used with 'in' pleonastically, which rather excludes the idea of its being used for it. It seems best therefore to understand 'templo' as "in templo," and to regard 'intus' as pleonastic. Munro on Lucr. 4. 1091 cites the present passage along with several from Lucr. and one from Livy apparently as instances of intus' with abl.: but in all of them with the partial exception of the present intus' comes after its case, and may very well be understood adverbially. Patria sede'="solio avito v. 169. It is coupled by 'que' to 'tali templo; or the whole clause 'patria sedens' is coupled with 'tali templo,' not unlike "extremus galeaque ima subsedit Acestes" 5. 498.

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193.] Vocavit' by a messenger. "Intra tecta vocari Inperat❞ v. 168.

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194.] "Placido ore" 11. 251, of Diomed. 195-211.] Latinus asks the Trojans what they want, offers them hospitality, and remembers that Dardanus, their deified ancestor, originally came from Italy.' 195.] Neque followed by et " 'que" is not uncommon even in prose; Cic. 2 Cat. 13, " Perficiam ut neque bonus quisquam intereat, paucorumque poena vos omnes iam salvi esse possitis." See Freund, 'neque.' It is not clear whether Latinus means that he had heard of Troy by fame, like Dido, or that he had heard that these strangers were the Trojans. In the latter case we must understand 'advertitis aequore cursum rather widely, the thing meant being 'ye have landed on our shores: though it is conceivable that news of their coming may have been received e. g. from Cumae. Comp. however v. 167. Urbem et genus;' comp. Dido's words 1. 565, "Quis genus Aeneadum, quis Troiae nesciat urbem? 'Auditi,' heard of, like "audire magnos iam videor duces" Hor. 2 Od. 1. 21. Aequore,' over the sea, 5. 862. Cursus,' the reading before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS.

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197.] Virg. probably had in his eye the queries addressed to strangers on landing in Hom. Od. 3. 71 foll., 9. 257 foll., though he has, for obvious reasons, omitted the mention of piracy. Quae caussa rates, aut cuius egentis vexit' is a confused expression made up of "qua de caussa aut cuius egentes rates vectae sunt" and

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quae caussa aut cuius egestas vexit." Had critics dealt with the text of Virg. as they have dealt with that of the Greek dramatists, 'egestas' would doubtless have been substituted. Cuius egentis' asks more definitely what has been asked more generally by "quae caussa."

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198.] Tot vada,' 5. 615.

199.] "Pelagine venis erroribus actus"

Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto,
Fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetis,
Ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorate Latinos
Saturni gentem, haud vinclo nec legibus aequam,
Sponte sua veterisque dei se more tenentem.
Atque equidem memini-fama est obscurior annis-
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes
Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur.

6. 532. 'Errore viae,' mistake of the
way, like "errore locorum " 3. 181. Livy
24. 17 has " errore viarum."

200.] Qualia multa' is a translation of the Homeric phrase ofά TE TOλλά. Germ. cites Apoll. R. 4. 1556, which Virg. may have imitated, εἰ δέ τι τῆσδε πόρους μαίεσθ' ἁλός, οἷά τε πολλὰ ̓́Ανθρωποι χατέουσιν ἐπ ̓ ἀλλοδαπῇ περόωντες.

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201.] "Si quando Thybrim intraro" 3. 501. 'Portus' of a landing place in the mouth of a river. "Nilus Per septem portus in maris exit aquas," Ov. 2 Am. 13. 10, quoted by Forc.

202.] Comp. 11. 109, "qui nos fugiatis amicos?" ib. 113, "rex nostra reliquit hospitia," said by Aeneas to the Latins. 'Ignorate' might mean mistake their character:' but it is better to understand

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ne ignorate Latinos Saturni (esse) gentem,' like "scio me Danais e classibus unum" 3. 602. Med. has 'nec fugite.' 203.] Saturni gentem' seems to mean descendants of Saturn rather than the nation of Saturn. Haud vinclo nec legibus' is a hendiadys. The ablatives are instrumental or modal. Haud-nec' as in 1. 327., 3. 214, Hor. 1 Ep. 8. 4 foll. The picture is that of the golden or Saturnian age, Ov. M. 1. 89 foll.

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204.] Se tenentem,' that keeps itself from wrong, i. q. "se continentem.' ." There is perhaps an allusion to the common phrase "lege teneri." Veteris dei more,' the rule of the golden age when Saturn reigned. Saturn is called 'veteris' as the god of the olden time. Comp. "Quis neque mos neque cultus erat" 8. 316, of the state of Italy before Saturn. It is not said that the Latins had no laws, which would be inconsistent with 8. 322, but that they were not virtuous for fear of law. But it may be better to acknowledge some inconsistency in the poet.

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205, 206.] Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire " 1. 619, where, as here, atque' expresses the appositeness of the remark. Annis,' by reason of years.

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200

205

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Cerda comp. Ov. F. 6. 103, "obscurior
aevo Fama." Scaliger thought the sense
was "Haud ita multi sunt anni, sed fama
pervagata non est." The dimness of the
tradition accounts for the appeal to the
Auruncan elders. The 'Aurunci
Ausones) were regarded as a primitive
people, and identified with the Abori-
gines. The tradition was preserved only
by the oldest men of the oldest race.
Ut is epexegetical of 'ita.'
rythus or Cortona being in Etruria, 'his
agris' must be taken with some latitude.

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207.] Penetravit,' the reading before Heins., is restored by Ribbeck from Med., Pal., fragm. Vat. &c. for penetrarit (Rom.). It is difficult to see how the indicative could be constructed, as it clearly does not come under the cases mentioned on E. 4. 52. Heyne, writing before these constructions were understood, thought it savoured of epic gravity. Possibly it might be explained in connexion with ita: the old men told the story agreeably with his having made his way '&c.; but this would be harsh enough. The abbreviated form is constantly mistaken by transcribers, as Wagn. remarks. Idaeas Phrygiae ad urbes substantially like Bebrycia Amyci de gente 5. 373, "Euboicas Cymarum oras” 6. 2, for “Phrygiae Idae urbes."

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208.] Samum' is the reading of Ribbeck's MSS., except Med., which has 'Samom.' Others have 'Samon,' which Wagn. adopts, remarking (Q. V. 4) that Virg., though not consistent in his usage with respect to Greek names, generally prefers the Greek inflection in the case of islands. The island is called Záμos Opnïkíŋ in Il. 13. 12. In Hdt. 2. 51 it is Zaμolpniên. We can hardly suppose Virg. not to have known that the two names were the same, though, if he did know it, the line seems very pointless. The ordinary legend was that Iasius settled in Samothracia (note on 3. 168): but Virg. here may mean to include him.

Hinc illum Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede profectum
Aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli
Accipit et numerum divorum altaribus addit.
Dixerat; et dicta Ilioneus sic voce secutus:
Rex, genus egregium Fauni, nec fluctibus actos
Atra subegit hiemps vestris succedere terris,
Nec sidus regione viae litusve fefellit;

209.] Hinc' is explained by Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede;' Latinus means that it was from Italian antecedents that he rose to be a god. Hinc' with 'profectum' probably, not with 'accipit.' For Corythi' see on 3. 170: for 'Corythi Tyrrhena sede' note on v. 207 just above.

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210.] Stellantis,' glittering with stars; not full of stars, which would be "stellatus." Lucr. 4. 212, "caelo stellante." 'Regia caeli' G. 1. 503. With solio accipit' comp. "toro accipit" 8. 177, probably a local abl., like "gremio accipiet ' 1. 685, though it may be modal.

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211.] "Accipies caelo" (deification) 1. 290. On the other hand the deified person is said "deum vitam accipere " E. 4. 15. If the present is to be pressed, we may say that it expresses here the perpetuity of the divine life, perhaps also the daily feasting. 'Numerum-addit:' the reading before Heins. was 'numerum— auget. He introduced numero-addit' from Gud. (1st reading), the object of 'addit' being understood to be illum,' Dardanus, who is added to the number of the gods by altars, i.e. by having altars raised to him. The editors since his time have generally preferred 'numerumaddit,' supposing it to be found in Rom., if not in Med., and explaining it adds his number to (or, as some appear to have taken it, adds number to,' increases the number of) the altars of the gods.' It now appears from Ribbeck that all the uncials (fragm. Vat., Med., Pal., Rom.) read 'auget,' and all 'numerum,' except perhaps Pal., which has 'numerum' altered into 'numero.' 'Numerumaddit' is the second reading of Gud., and is found in two other of Ribbeck's cursives. 'Auget' is no doubt the easier reading: yet without saying that it is to be distrusted on that account, we may still urge, what was urged when the MS. testimony for it was unknown, that it looks like a correction by some one who did not see that divorum' belonged to 'altaribus,' not to 'numero;' and it may further be questioned whether the addition of 'altaribus,' with altars built to

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him, when he has not been mentioned in the clause, is in the manner of Virg. 'Novis altaribus,' or any other similar epithet pointing indirectly to the person intended, would have been a different thing. Numerum-addit,' on the other hand, in the sense of 'adds his number,' or adds him as an item' (in prose meratillum inter divos qui altaria habent”), seems sufficiently Virgilian, though no one has supported this use of 'numerus by any thing nearer than “sideris in numerum" G. 4. 227, where see note. 'Numero-addit' would be a possible reading: but it is not easy to estimate its external authority, especially in our ignorance of the relation which Pal. bears to Gud., and 'altaribus' "altaribus positis" would perhaps be a little harsh. Those who support auget' may quote Livy 1. 7, "Te (Herculem) mihi mater. . aucturum caelestium numerum cecinit, tibique aram hic dicatum iri."

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Consilio hanc omnes animisque volentibus urbem
Adferimur, pulsi regnis, quae maxuma quondam
Extremo veniens Sol aspiciebat Olympo.

Ab Iove principium generis; Iove Dardana pubes
Gaudet avo; rex ipse Iovis de gente suprema,
Troius Aeneas, tua nos ad limina misit.
Quanta per Idaeos saevis effusa Mycenis
Tempestas ierit campos, quibus actus uterque
Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis,
Audiit, et si quem tellus extrema refuso
Submovet Oceano, et si quem extenta plagarum

gione viae' (to deceive in or in respect of the course) occurs again 9. 385, where see note.

216.] Contrast 1. 377, "Forte sua Libycis tempestas adpulit oris.' Omnes' expresses the national character of the movement. Comp. 3. 129, &c. Urbem adferimur' like "advehitur Teucros" 8. 136.

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218.] 'Extremo veniens Olympo' is well explained by Gossrau: "Sol si vel ab extremo caelo veniebat, non videbat maius regnum itaque maxumum erat in omni terrorum orbe." If there is any special reference in 'extremo,' it must be to the great kingdoms of the East. Comp. generally Hor. Carm. Sec. 9 foll. For the legendary greatness of the Trojan empire comp. 2. 556. Hom. Il. 24. 543 foll. is more moderate.

219.] Ab Iove principium' was probably suggested to Virg.'s ear by Aratus's 'Ek Aids aрxwμeσoa (Phaen. 1): comp. ib. 5, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἔσμεν, and see note on E. 3. 60.

220.] 'Avo,' generally an ancestor. Our king Aeneas himself, who sent us hither, is descended from Jove, i. e. more immediately through Venus. Suprema' is not i. q. "ultimus " v. 49, but means 'most exalted,' as in 10. 350, "Boreae de gente suprema." Comp. Plaut. Most. 5. 2. 20, 66

quod faciunt summis nati generibus." Supremus' is a title of Jove, like OTOS, "summus:" see Forc. s. v. Supremus.' So probably Enn. A. 184, "Nomine Burrus, uti memorant, a stirpe supremo," which Virg. perhaps imitated. "Genus ab Iove summo" 6. 123. "De gente" 5. 373.

221.] Ad limina' denotes the humility of supplicants. Comp. 6. 113, with many

other instances.

222.] For the imagery comp. 5. 693 foll.

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224.] Europae atque Asiae' explains uterque orbis,' the two divisions of the world, Europe and Asia. This view of the Trojan war as a struggle between Europe and Asia is quite un-Homeric, and arose in Greece after the Persian war. See Hdt. 1, the earlier chapters. With this image

comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 7, "Graecia Barbariae lento collisa duello."

225.] Tellus extrema refuso Oceano,' the furthest land against which Ocean beats, or, from which Ocean is beaten back :-'refuso Oceano' being taken as an ablative of quality or attributive ablative with 'tellus.' The Ocean, as in Hom., is supposed to encircle the earth, the extremity of which accordingly repels it. For 'refuso' see note on G. 2. 163, "Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso." Virg. had in his mind Britain or Thule, though of course he could not put those names into the mouth of Ilioneus. Submovet' and 'dirimit,' separate from the rest of the world: comp. with Cerda, "penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos E. 1.67; Prop. 3. 1. 17, "et si qua extremis tellus se subtrahit oris." Wagn. and Forb. think that the Ocean is said to be 'refusus,' "quatenus ambiens insulam (Britain or Thule) in semet refundi videtur;" and so Heyne, after Turnebus, interprets the expression like å¥óppoos 'Kéavos in Hom. (Il. 18. 399 &c.), the only difference being that this last view supposes the Ocean to encircle the earth. But these interpretations will not agree with the clearly parallel passage G. 2. 163.

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226.] There is no elision after 'Oceano,' the word being treated in Greek. Comp. 3. 74, G. 1. 437. For the use of the torrid zone as a type of remoteness comp.

Quattuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui.
Diluvio ex illo tot vasta per aequora vecti

Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus

Innocuum et cunctis undamque auramque patentem. 230
Non erimus regno indecores, nec vestra feretur
Fama levis, tantique abolescet gratia facti,
Nec Troiam Ausonios gremio excepisse pigebit.
Fata per Aeneae iuro dextramque potentem,
Sive fide seu quis bello est expertus et armis :
Multi nos populi, multae-ne temne, quod ultro

6. 796 foll. The sentiment is repeated
from 1. 565 foll. For the zones comp.
G. 1. 233 foll. Plagae' of the zones Ov.
M. 1. 48. Virg. may possibly have thought
of Lucr. 5. 481, "Maxuma qua nunc se
ponti plaga caerula tendit."

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228.] Diluvio' carries on the metaphor of 'tempestas ;' but we must take it of a swollen river or torrent, not of rain, which would be unpoetical. Comp. Hor. 4 Od. 14. 25, "Aufidus-saevit horrendamque cultis Diluviem meditatur agris." Campos' renders such a metaphor appropriate. Some in Serv.'s time actually took diluvio ex illo' with the preceding sentence, "ex quo mundus est constitutus, hoc est, ex quo Chaos esse desiit." "Per aequora vecti' 1. 376.

230.] Wagn. comp. the phrase "aqua et igni interdicere." The sense of the passage apparently requires 'innocuum' to be taken actively, 'where we shall hurt no one,' rather than passively, where no one will hurt us,' as Serv. and others prefer (as in 10. 302); but Virg. may have intended both senses. Ilioneus speaks of the shore, as he had already complained 1. 540, " hospitio prohibemur arenae," referring here probably to the camp settlement on the coast, which he may have thought was the destined city. See generally the passage from Cic. quoted on 1. 540. The lines are almost translated in an excellent couplet in Dean Stanley's Oxford Prize Poem, The Gipsies: "They claim no thrones, they only ask to share The common liberty of earth and air."

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231.] Indecor' or 'indecoris' is a rare word; Virg. however uses it in four other places, 11. 423, 845., 12. 25, 679. 'Regno' is probably dat., on the analogy of the construction of "decorus," which however is once found with an abl., Plaut. Mil. 3. 1. 25. Ilioneus apparently means we shall be no disgrace to your kingdom,' not we shall not be unworthy of being

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235

sovereigns.' Comp. 1. 572, "Voltis et his mecum pariter considere regnis ?" where as elsewhere what Dido offers is what Ilioneus now asks. Nec vestra feretur Fama levis.' 'Nor light will be the reputation which our praises will gain you among men.' A similar promise is made by Aeneas to their benefactress Dido 1. 607 foll. But the clause, taken in connexion with the preceding one, may refer to the glory accruing to the Latins from their union with the Trojans: in which case we may comp. 4. 47 foll., and read 'tantive' in the next line.

232.]Levis:' " neque enim leve nomen Amatae" below v. 581. 'Abolescet,' "apud nos." "Et bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ?" 4. 539. Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives have 'tantive,' which most editors prefer.

233.] Comp. 1. 68, "Ilium in Italiam portans."

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234.] Fata Aeneae' like "Priami fatorum 2. 554. Aeneas is of course throughout the Aeneid the special care of destiny. Compare the later Roman practice of swearing by the Fortune of the emperor. "Per fortunas" is an adjuration in Cic.'s letters (Att. 5. 11. 1 &c.). 'Dextram:' Dido adjures Aeneas "per dextram tuam" 4. 314.

235.] This line is apparently connected closely with 'potentem,' powerful whether tried in friendship or in war. 'Fide,' probably constructed like bello et armis' with 'expertus,' though it might go with 'potentem,' the construction being changed in the next clause. Fabricius thinks Virg. has imitated Cic.'s language to Caesar (ad Fam. 7. 5), manum tuam istam et victoria et fide praestantem." Comp. Ilioneus on Aeneas 1. 544.

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236.] 'Multi' the only offer of the kind actually mentioned in the Aeneid is that of Dido. Populi- gentes' is probably a mere verbal variation. 'Ultro,'

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