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Ipse manu quatiens ostendit ab aethere nubem.
Diditur hic subito Troiana per agmina rumor,
Advenisse diem, quo debita moenia condant.
Certatim instaurant epulas, atque omine magno
Crateras laeti statuunt et vina coronant.

Postera cum prima lustrabat lampade terras
Orta dies, urbem et finis et litora gentis
Diversi explorant; haec fontis stagna Numici,
Hunc Thybrim fluvium, hic fortis habitare Latinos.
Tum satus Anchisa delectos ordine ab omni

rallel to the present passage, and evidently denoting a sunlit cloud. Mr. Long, remarking that the time intended is evening, says "The phaenomenon is common in southern latitudes, where darkness follows close on sunset, and a black cloud often begins on a sultry evening to discharge electricity." 'Radiis lucis et auro' is i. q. "radiis aureae lucis." Comp. 5. 87, " maculosus et auro Squamam incendebat fulgor."

143.] Ostendit' perhaps involves the sense of "ostentum," i. q. " prodigium," but in 5. 443 we have the word simply in the sense of holding up' or 'holding out.' 'Ab aethere' may denote a clear sky: but the word can hardly be pressed: comp. 1. 90, "Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus aether." In Soph. O. C. 1456 ČкTUTEV aionρ seems to refer to a thunderstorm comp. vv. 1502 foll. Ipse manu' G. 4. 329 &c.

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145.] Debita,' v. 120 above. A few MSS. have condent.' See on v. 99. 146.] Instaurant epulas ' is i. q. "vina reponite mensis" v. 134. Omine magno' may be taken separately, as a sort of abl. of circumstance: comp. vv. 249, 284. But it seems better, in spite of the position of the words, to take it with 'laeti:' comp. 10. 250, "animos tamen omine tollit." Probably Virg. did not distinguish the two constructions as sharply as we should do. 'Omine magno' like "magno augurio" 5. 522. Comp. Il. 1. 239, ó dé Toι μéyas EσσETαι Oρкоs. So "omina tanta" 9. 21. The fulfilment of the prediction, being a supernatural event, is an omen of success.

147.] For crateras statuunt' see 1. 724 (nearly identical with the present line),

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150

and for vina coronant' G. 2. 528.

148-159.] The next morning they explore. Aeneas sends an embassy to Latinus, and meantime makes a sort of camp-town.'

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148.] Cum prima' is to be taken as cum primum." With the different parts of the line comp. 5. 42., 4. 6.

149.] Orta dies,' 12. 114. With 'urbem et finis et litora gentis' comp. "moenia gentis" above v. 131.

150.] Diversi' of persons 9. 416. Comp. v. 132 above. Three parties are sent out, as this and the following line show. With haec fontis stagnat &c. comp. 2. 29, "Hic Dolopum manus &c. There seems to be no means of choosing between 'Numicî' and 'Numici,' both the forms Numicius' and 'Numicus' (Sil. 8. 179) being found: Sil. however may have altered the form to suit his metre. The position of the Numicius is much disputed (v. Heyne Excurs. 3 on this book, with Wagn.'s additions). Westphal and Bunbury, approved by Mr. Long, identify it with the Rio Torto (see Dict. G. Numicius'): others apparently make it the Rio di Turno, a smaller stream in the same neighbourhood, near Lavinium. Wagn. believes the fontis stagna Numici' to be the Stagno di Levante, not far from the ancient channel of the Tiber, partly on the strength of vv. 241, 747, where the Tiber and Numicius are mentioned together, a conjunction which may be explained by the historical connexion, without supposing immediate local proximity. It was in the Numicius that Aeneas ultimately perished in his war with the Rutuli, and on it was his shrine or tomb (Livy 1. 2); which again is in favour of a stream near Lavinium as against one close to the Tiber.

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152.] Tum satus Anchisa' 5. 244, 424. "Ordine ab omni:' ex omni qualitate dignitatum: quod apud Romanos in lega

Centum oratores augusta ad moenia regis
Ire iubet, ramis velatos Palladis omnis,
Donaque ferre viro, pacemque exposcere Teucris.
Haud mora, festinant iussi rapidisque feruntur
Passibus. Ipse humili designat moenia fossa,
Moliturque locum, primasque in litore sedes
Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit.
Iamque iter emensi turris ac tecta Latinorum

tione mittenda hodieque servatur," Serv. Comp. however 11. 331. Lersch § 53 remarks that the number sent here and 11. 331 is much larger than any known to have been sent by the Romans, who seem from Livy generally to have sent three: he suggests however that the number may have been taken from the hundred senators of Romulus, or may be the number ten (which he argues from Livy 33. 24., 37.55 to have been the ancient number of an embassy) multiplied into itself, and remarks generally on Virg.'s partiality for the number 100.

153.] 'Oratores,' 8. 505., 11. 100, 331. It was an old Roman word for an ambassador: see Varro L. L. 7. 3, § 41, where Ennius is quoted, Cic. 2 Legg. 9. Moenia regis,' Laurentum, v. 63.

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154.] "Velati ramis oleae" 11. 101. The expression seems parallel to iKTηpíois KλádoiσIV ¿§EOTEμμévoι Soph. O. T. 3, which is now generally understood as = κλάδους ¿EσTEμμÉVOVS EXOVTES. The token of peace was an olive-branch borne in the hand, 8. 116, 128., 11, 333, sometimes wreathed with wool (8. 128). To this wreathing ἐξεστεμμένοι is generally understood to refer and the same may be the case with ' velatos.' "Velamenta is the regular term for tokens of supplication, Livy 24. 30., 29. 16., 30. 36., 35. 34. cited by Lersch §. 52, and Plaut. Amph. 1. 1. 101 has "velatis manibus orant." But the "velatio" may be merely the covering afforded by the leaves of the boughs: an interpretation which would agree with some words in Livy 30. 36, "velata infulis ramisque oleae Carthaginiensium occurrit navis," and with the use of "velare" in Virg. (note on 2. 249). There is a sort of parallel ambiguity in the Greek use of σrépos &c.: see Conington on Aesch. Cho. 95. Rami Palladis,' G. 2. 181. 155.] Dona: comp. 11. 333. 'Viro' seems added to bring out the honour intended to Latinus. Pacem exposcere,' 3. 261. 'Pacem' to be taken strictly, not, as Heyne, i. q. "foedus et amicitiam." Landing as strangers on the coast, they VOL III.

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were liable, according to the practice of antiquity, to be treated as enemies. 156.] 'Festinant iussi,' they hasten their mission.

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157.] For the custom of solemnly tracing out the site of cities comp. 5. 755 note. Humili,' shallow. Tac. A. 1. 61 has "humili fossa" and Pliny Ep. 8. 20. 5 “humili radice." Comp. the double sense of "altus." This first settlement, distinct from Lavinium, was part of the common version of the legend: see Lewis p. 332. According to Cato ap. Serv. and Livy 1. 1 it bore the name of Troia.

158.] Molitur locum,' breaks ground, by digging entrenchments and foundation. Comp. G. 1. 494, "Agricola incurvo terram molitus aratro." 'Moliri' is used for the same thing above v. 127. 'Primas' of the first settlement, not, as Heyne, i. q. "primo litore," on the edge of the shore. So "prima tecta" v. 127 above.

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159.] Castrorum in morem,' i. e. like a Roman camp, with its fossa, agger, and vallum, and its internal divisions and arrangements, including the praetorium in the centre, 9. 230. The site chosen also seems to have been one which a Roman strategist would have approved, the camp being defended on one side and at the same time supplied with water by the river. See Lersch § 44. Virg.'s castrimetation, like his discipline and tactics, is that of his own, not of the heroic age. 'Pinnae' are taken by Lersch as i. q. "vallum;" they are distinguished from "vallum" however by Caes. B. G. 7. 72 (comp. ib. 5. 40), and appear from Varro L. L. 5. 142 (Müller) to have been the battlements of a wall or parapet. Mr. Long thinks that as Virg. does not mention the "vallum" he means the 'pinnae' to include all that is placed on the 'agger.'

160-194.] The ambassadors arrive, and are admitted to an audience of king Latinus, who is sitting in an ancient temple, adorned with figures of his divine and human ancestors.'

160.] Iter emensi,' 11. 244.

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Turres

Ardua cernebant iuvenes, muroque subibant.
Ante urbem pueri et primaevo flore iuventus
Exercentur equis, domitantque in pulvere currus,
Aut acris tendunt arcus, aut lenta lacertis
Spicula contorquent, cursuque ictuque lacessunt:
Cum praevectus equo longaevi regis ad auris
Nuntius ingentis ignota in veste reportat
Advenisse viros. Ille intra tecta vocari
Inperat, et solio medius consedit avito.

165

Tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis, 170

ac tecta,' 12. 132. 'Et tecta' is here the first reading of Med. and Gud. For 'Latinorum' Med. from a correction and others have Latini,' obviously a change to get rid of the hypermeter: see on v. 237 below, 6. 33. So some give 'Latinum.' 'Latinorum' is supported by Serv., as well as by Med. originally, Pal., Rom. &c.

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161.] Muroque subibant,' 9. 371, where as here there is a reading 'murosque,' supported here by Rom. Serv. distinctly acknowledges the dative. Comp. 3. 292. Wagn. makes a doubtful distinction between "subire loco," to approach, and "subire locum," to enter a place. Gud. has a variant 'propinquant.'

well stand for boxing, of which "icere" is used (comp. 5. 377, 428, 444, 457, 459), and tautology would thus be avoided. 'Lacessunt (alius alium) cursu' like "provocare beneficio," "bello." So "contendere cursu."

166, 167.] Cum 'refers to 'iamque' v. 160, the words 'ante-lacessunt' being parenthetical. As they approached the city, one of a party of youths whom they found exercising before the walls galloped off to announce their arrival.' Wagn. thinks that 're' in 'reportat' and similar words denotes the representation or repetition by the messenger of what he has seen or heard; but it seems more natural to say that the words were originally ap162.] This picture was probably sug- plied to one sent to fetch tidings, and gested by the Campus Martius: but there thence to all who brought tidings, whewas a similar public ground for exercise ther they had been sent to fetch them or (πрoаστelov) before other cities. Heyne not. Praevectus' riding in advance of the comp. Hesiod, Shield 285, Tol 8' a po- rest. 'Ad auris' with 'reportat.' "Referatis Tápolle Toλnos Nŵ0' lππwv éπißávτes ad auris" E. 3. 73. On ingentis 'Serv. reἐθύνεον. marks, "Ex stupore nuntii laus ostenditur Troianorum: et bene novitatis ostendit opinionem: ingentis enim esse quos primum vidimus opinamur." In veste,' 4. 518.

163.] "Exercentur agris,” G. 4. 159, of the bees. Here equis' is abl. instr. Elsewhere (v. 782 below) the man is said to exercise the horses. 'Currus: the car is said to be broken in, as in G. 1.514, not to hear the reins. So 12. 287, "Infrenant alii currus.' ""

164,5.] Virg. first enumerates the several parties, aut-aut' (comp. G. 4. 167), then passes into a description of the various occupations of the whole, 'que-que." "Intendunt acris arcus" 9.665. The epithet seems nearly="durus," but with a greater notion of activity, as if the bow had an energy of its own. Perhaps a contrast is intended with lenta spicula' ("lenta hastilia" 11. 650., 12. 489), the darts being regarded as passive and owing their force to the arm that bends them. Lenta' itself would most naturally mean flexible. Contorquent,' 12. 490., 2. 52 note. Ictu' is commonly explained = iaculatione,” after Serv., denoting at a mark : but it might equally

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168.] Intra tecta vocari Inperat:' comp. 1. 520,"Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi." 'Tecta' is explained by v. 170.

169.] Solio avito,' as well as 'regia Pici,' seems inconsistent with v. 61 foll. where Latinus himself is made the founder of Laurentum. Medius'"mediis tectis." Comp. 1. 505 note. The description there, where Dido receives the Trojans in the temple, is closely parallel to this.

170.] This edifice combines the temple and the senate-house. Virg. has also employed it as a sort of museum of Roman antiquities. Some have thought that he had in his mind the temple of Apollo built by Augustus close to his own house on the Palatine, where he often convoked the Senate. Embassies in particular were constantly received in temples, especially in

Urbe fuit summa, Laurentis regia Pici,
Horrendum silvis et religione parentum.
Hic sceptra accipere et primos attollere fasces
Regibus omen erat; hoc illis curia templum,
Hae sacris sedes epulis; hic ariete caeso
Perpetuis soliti patres considere mensis.
Quin etiam veterum effigies ex ordine avorum
Antiqua e cedro, Italusque paterque Sabinus
Vitisator, curvam servans sub imagine falcem,

that of Bellona, which was outside the
walls, Livy 30. 21, Festus s. v. "Senacula."
See Lersch § 15. 'Augustus' (con-
nected with "augurium ") is nearly equi-
valent to "sanctus," Ov. F. 1. 609. "Sub-
limibus alta columnis" Ov. M. 2. 1.

171.] Urbe summa,' ¿v tŷ åkpoπóλe, for which v TÓλEL акротάтη оccurs Il. 22.172. Some inferior MSS. and Diomedes p. 498 read media,' from 1. 441. 'Regia,' his hall of state, where he sate as king.

172.] Silvis,' the sacred grove round the temple. For such groves round temples in cities comp. 1. 441., 9. 86. Horrendum silvis et religione parentum' is equivalent to "cinctum silvis horrendis et religiosis," ' religione' probably referring to the awful antiquity of the grove. So on 8. 598, "lucus-religione patrum late sacer." For 'horrendum' comp. Lucan 3. 411, "Arboribus suus horror inest."

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173, 174.] Primos' is for "primum." • Attollere fasces, to have the fasces raised or borne before them. Comp. the opposite phrase "submittere fasces." • Omen erat, it was a custom without observing which the reign would not have commenced auspiciously: not merely, it was a lucky thing to do it. 'Here each king, as he would have a happy reign, assumed the sceptre and the fasces.' The assumption of the sceptre and fasces would of course be the coronation of a Roman king. 'Hic' is the emphatic word: the coronation, to be auspicious, was to take place here.

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175.] For hae' Rom. has haec,' which may be plural. Sacrae epulae,' otherwise "epulum," a banquet given in honour of a god, to attend to which was the business of the "epulones." Ariete caeso,' after the sacrifice. · Perpetuis mensis' is explained by Heyne as long tables, at which they sat in an unbroken row (comp. perpetui tergo bovis" 8. 183, "perpetuas ollas," a continuous row of "ollae" in a Roman tomb, Fabretti Inscr. p. 11 ed. 1699, a reference sug

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gested by Mr. Long), opposed to the triclinia." The practice appears to be primitive, as well as considere' instead of "accumbere." Ov. F. 6. 305, "Ante focos olim scamnis considere longis Mos erat, et mensae credere adesse deos." There seems no need to suppose an allusion to the daily entertainment of privileged persons as in a Prytaneum the reference is rather to an occasional sacrificial banquet.

177.] Ex ordine,' in a row, between the pillars of the portico. They are not in the order of succession. See vv. 45 foll. 178.] The reading before Heins. was ex cedro.' Some copies leave out the preposition.

Wood was the material of statues before marble, and cedar was chosen as the most durable wood. "Tunc melius tenuere fidem cum paupere cultu Stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus" Tibull. 1. 10. 19. Mr. Long refers to Pausanias 8. 17. 2, Toîs dè àveрúπоis тd åрxaîov, ὅποσα καὶ ἡμεῖς καταμαθεῖν ἐδυνήθημεν, τοσάδε ἦν ἀφ ̓ ὧν τὰ ξόανα ἐποιοῦντο, ἔβενος, κυπάρισσος, αἱ κέδροι, τὰ δρύινα, ἡ σμίλαξ, & Awrós. This mixture of the eponyms and gods of different races, Italus, Sabinus, Saturnus, Janus, goes to prove that Virg. was rather a lover of antiquity than an accurate antiquarian, as some have considered him. Italus has been referred to 1. 533: see further Lewis vol. 1. pp. 276-279. Sabinus, according to Cato ap. Dionys. H. 2. 49, was the son of Sancus, who is generally identified with the "dius Fidius.' The hiatus after 'cedro' is Greek.

179.] Vitisator' is applied to Bacchus in a fragment of Accius quoted by Macrob. Sat. 6. 5. "Vitis sator" Lucr. 2. 1168. The pruning-hook is elsewhere the familiar attribute of Saturn, G. 2. 406, and Peerlkamp wishes to re-arrange the passage so as to invest him with it here. But the Sabines were wine-growers. 'Curvam servans sub imagine falcem,' holding as a statue ('sub imagine' comp. 6. 293) the pruning-hook which he held in life.

Saturnusque senex Ianique bifrontis imago,
Vestibulo adstabant, aliique ab origine reges,
Martiaque ob patriam pugnando volnera passi.
Multaque praeterea sacris in postibus arma,
Captivi pendent currus, curvaeque secures,

Et cristae capitum, et portarum ingentia claustra,
Spiculaque clipeique ereptaque rostra carinis.
Ipse Quirinali lituo, parvaque sedebat
Succinctus trabea, laevaque ancile gerebat
Picus, equum domitor; quem capta cupidine coniunx

180.] For Saturnus and Janus see Dict. M.

181.] This and what follows open a vista of previous history far more extensive than what is sketched in vv. 45 foll. It is probably not without reference to the feelings of Augustus that Virg. gave this picture of national and patriotic glory and senatorial dignity under a monarchical rule. 'Ab origine,' 1. 642. Comp. the word "Aborigines."

182.] This line is nearly a repetition of 6. 660, "Hic manus ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi." Martiaque' fragm. Vat. (2nd reading), Pal., Rom., Gud., Martia qui' fragm. Vat. (1st reading), Med. Comp. 6. 772. The former reading is more harmonious and better suited to the sense, distinguishing the warriors from the kings, who seem to have been mainly peaceful. With 'Martia volnera' comp. Αρηίφατος.

183.] 'Sacris in postibus arma.' 3. 287., 5. 360. 'In postibus' bus."

Comp. "in fori

184.] Captivi pendent currus.' The ancient chariots were so light that Diomed (II. 10. 505) thinks of carrying off that of Rhesus on his shoulder. Captivi' of things 2.765. The 'securis,' battleaxe, was the weapon of Asiatic nations ("Amazonia securis" Hor. 4 Od. 4. 20) and of the primitive nations of Europe, in whose barrows it is often found. It is the weapon of the Italian shepherds, below vv. 510., 12. 306, and of Camilla 11. 696. 'Curvae' from the shape of the axehead.

185.] 'Cristae capitum' like "iubas capitis" 9. 638. Portarum,' the gates of captured cities. Claustra portarum' ="portae."

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186.] Ereptaque rostra carinis.' It is remarked that these naval spoils are an anachronism: though Hector (Il. 9. 241) threatens to cut off the ǎкра kóрvμßa of

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187, 188.] Heyne is probably right in taking succinctus trabea et lituo' as a zeugma, though it is a strong one. Forb. considers Quirinali lituo' as an abl. of quality, or an attributive abl. Virg. may have intended the latter construction to help out the former. Romulus was an augur, and founded the city by help of the art. Hence the lituus (augur's staff or crook) is called Quirinalis." Ov. F. 6. 375, "lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus.” But the epithet comes in rather strangely here. Gossrau wishes to take Quirinali' of Mars, comp. Dion. H. 2. 48, supposing Virg. to refer to some unknown story which associated the 'lituus' with Mars. He remarks that the pie into which Picus was turned is known as "picus Martius" (Pliny 10. 18, Ov. F. 3. 37), and that Picus is represented as a Salian priest with the 'ancile.' The 'trabea,' a toga with horizontal stripes of purple, was the garment both of the kings and of augurs, though it seems to have been purple and white for the kings, purple and saffron for augurs. The epithet 'parva' probably refers to the scanty size of the primitive, compared with the more luxurious, toga. For the ancilia, see Dict. A.

189.] Equum domitor' is the Homeric irπódaμos. Picus is called "utilium bello studiosus equorum "Ov. M. 14. 321, in the story of Circe's love for him, and ib. 343 he is represented as on horseback. Circe appears from Ov. 1. c. to have been only in love with Picus, and to have turned him into a bird because he preferred the nymph Canens. But possibly Virg.'s view of the

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