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Ne pete connubiis natam sociare Latinis,

O mea progenies, thalamis neu crede paratis ;
Externi venient generi, qui sanguine nostrum
Nomen in astra ferant, quorumque ab stirpe nepotes
Omnia sub pedibus, qua Sol utrumque recurrens
Aspicit Oceanum, vertique regique videbunt.
Haec responsa patris Fauni monitusque silenti
Nocte datos non ipse suo premit ore Latinus,
Sed circum late volitans iam Fama per urbes
Ausonias tulerat, cum Laomedontia pubes
Gramineo ripae religavit ab aggere classem.

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96.] For connubiis' as a trisyllable see 1. 73 (which will also illustrate the construction, though connubiis' here may = "maritis") and Munro on Lucr. 3. 776. 97.]Paratis' is opposed to 'venient,' as 'Latinis' is to 'externi:' ready without the trouble of seeking: comp. " urbemque paratam 4. 75, "frui paratis" Hor. 1 Od. 31. 17. 'Credere of undertaking a new and untried thing, something like "se credere caelo" 6. 15. But the object of the verb may be 'natam.' Comp. G. 4.

48 note.

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98.] Venient' is the reading of Med., Pal., Rom., Gud., &c. Others, of less authority, with Serv. and a quotation in Prob. Inst. 1. 6. 3 have 'veniunt,' which would do very well, whether we took it literally, are on their way,' or as the prophetic present for shall come.' So Heyne and Forb. Sanguine,' by allying their blood with ours.


99.] 'Qui-ferant,' destined to raise.' Comp. 1. 19, "Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci Audierat Tyrias olim quae verteret arces;" ib. 286, "Nascetur Caesar.. famam qui terminet astris." Heins. read 'ferent from the Leyden MS., which would be neater: but perhaps we may question whether the subj. in such cases may not originally have been parallel to the future. In Enn. Alex. fr. 11 Vahlen, "Nam maxumo saltu superabit gravidus armatis equus Suo qui partu perdat Pergama ardua," it is difficult to believe that 'perdat" is not "perdet" or "perditurus est." In such cases an early writer will often throw light on a later. In astra ferant' probably refers to the superhuman glory of the race, rather than to the deification of Aeneas, in spite of the distinction made by Wagn. between "ferre ad astra" and "ferre in astra." See further on 3. 158. It signifies little whether we

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read a stirpe' with Ribbeck from Rom., or 'ab' with Wagn. from Med. and Pal. The division of the MSS. here and elsewhere (see on 8. 130) shows that there is no means of judging which Virg. is likely to have preferred.

100, 101.] The Caesars ('nepotes') and especially Augustus are here spoken of in terms applicable at once to universal empire and divinity. Comp. E. 5. 56, "Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera Daphnis," with the common metaphorical expression "sub pedibus" for subjection. 'Verti,' which denotes the natural movement of the universe (though probably with the transferred sense of absolute disposal), is more appropriate to the god; 'regi' recalls the emperor: shall see the world move beneath their feet in obedience to their sway.' 'Utrumque Oceanum,' East and West, like "utroque ab littore" G. 3. 33, uterque Neptunus "Catull. 29 (31). 3. 'Recurrens' in the language of Ps. 19. 6 (Prayer Book version), "running about unto the end of the heaven again.'


103.] Ipse' is to be taken closely with 'suo' and is pleonastic. For 'premit ore' comp. the opposite expression ěños púyev eρkos odóvτwv. "Premit mente " (" corde," "pectore") would have been the more usual phrase: but Virg. chose to combine with it the expression "premere os❞ (6. 155).

104.] "Libyae magnas it Fama per urbes" 4. 173.

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105.] Laomedontia' simply = "Troiana," as in 8. 18, not, as in 3. 248., 4. 542, conveying a reproach.

106.] "Religarat udo Litore navim" Hor. I Od. 32. 7. 'Aggere ripae' for "ripa aggesta," like "aggere viae" 5. 273 for "via aggesta," "aggeribus murorum 10. 24 for "muris aggestis."

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Aeneas primique duces et pulcher Iulus
Corpora sub ramis deponunt arboris altae,
Instituuntque dapes, et adorea liba per herbam
Subiiciunt epulis,—sic Iuppiter ille monebat-
Et Cereale solum pomis agrestibus augent.
Consumptis hic forte aliis, ut vertere morsus
Exiguam in Cererem penuria adegit edendi
Et violare manu malisque audacibus orbem
Fatalis crusti patulis nec parcere quadris,
Heus, etiam mensas consumimus! inquit Iulus,

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107-147.] As the Trojans are eating after their landing, they inadvertently fulfil an oracle which said that they should one day eat their tables in the land where they were to settle, and thence conclude that they have come to the end of their wanderings.'

107.] "Ductores primi" 9. 226. "Pulcher Iulus" 5. 570.

108.] Made up of two lines in Lucr., 1, 258., 2. 30.

109.] "Instituere convivia" occurs Suet. Tit. 7. Festus calls "ador" "farris genus, edor quondam appellatum ab edendo, vel quod aduratur, ut fiat tostum, unde in sacrificio mola salsa efficitur," and Pliny 18. 8 says "far, quod adoreum veteres appellavere," so that Virg. doubtless intentionally used an antiquarian and sacrificial word. Liba' were properly sacrificial cakes, and augent' (below v. 111) was the word for laying gifts on the altar (8. 284., 9. 407., 11. 50, Plaut. Merc. 4. 1. 11). Probably such language is used to lend dignity to a trivial subject.

110.] Liba subiiciunt epulis' for 'epulas imponunt libis." So "subiiciunt veribus prunas" 5. 103 note. Heins. restored

Iuppiter ille' from Med. (second reading) and some other MSS., supported by Serv. and Priscian. Pal., Rom., Gud., and the rest of Ribbeck's MSS. with the first reading of Med., have 'ipse.' 'Iuppiter ille' is not to be taken as the Jupiter of 3. 251, as Serv. thinks, but like "pater ille" (v. 556., 2. 779., 10. 875), and Plaut. Mostell. 2. 1. 51, "ita ille faxit Iuppiter," Id. Cur. 1. 1. 27, “nec me ille sirit Iuppiter," ‘ille'in this expression originally signifying on high (that god away from us'), though the phrase probably ceased in time to have a definite meaning. Possibly however it may be urged on the other side that in all these passages some one is speaking, which is not the case here. Monebat' is not



foretold,' for Jupiter did not foretell what is denoted by 'sic' here, but inspired.' There is reason to suppose that the custom of using cakes for platters was a religious one, as Serv. on 1. 736 says "tangit ritum Romanorum, qui paniceas sacratasque mensas habebant, in quas libabant:" comp. Id. on 3. 257.

111.] For solum' (that on which any thing rests) comp. 5. 199,"subtrahiturque solum," where it is the sea on which the ship rests, and the use of the word in Lucr. 1. 927 &c. for the sole of the foot. 'Cereale solum' is a dignified expression for a cake used as a platter.

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112.] Aliis' in the sense of " ceteri," reliqui:" see Freund. Some MSS. have morsum,' which was perhaps the first reading of Pal.

113.] Exiguam' refers to the thinness of the cakes. Edendi' is not the pass. part. ("penuria ejus quod edendum esset, comedi posset" Heyne), but the gerund, like "amor edendi" 8. 184, where "amor compressus edendi" is a translation of dnrúos ¿¿ ěpov čvтo. Penuria edendi' like "penuria cibi " Lucr. 5. 1007.

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114.] Violare' and 'audacibus' are probably used with reference to 'fatalis ;' though there is some confusion in the thought: fate so far as it was embodied in this crustum' was fulfilled, not violated. If the platters themselves were sacred, there is a further justification for the expression.

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115.] The quadrae' were squares marked on the orbis crusti.' Moret. 47, “iamque subactum Laevat opus, palmisque suum dilatat in orbem, Et notat, impressis aequo discrimine quadris." Patulis,' flat. 'Crustum' is a rarer form of "crusta."

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116.] A period or semicolon is commonly placed after Iulus,' so as to make 'nec plura (dixit) adludens' an elliptical clause

Nec plura, adludens. Ea vox audita laborum
Prima tulit finem, primamque loquentis ab ore
Eripuit pater, ac stupefactus numine pressit.
Continuo, Salve fatis mihi debita Tellus,
Vosque, ait, o fidi Troiae salvete Penates:
Hic domus, haec patria est.


by itself. But the other seems the easier punctuation. The propriety of putting this pleasantry into the mouth of Ascanius has often been remarked on. In Dion. H. 1. 55 it is said by some unknown member of the company.

117.] Adludens,' jesting, as in Cic. 1 De Or. 56, "Galba autem, adludens varie et copiose, multas similitudines afferre, multaque pro aequitate contra ius dicere." The pleasantry consists simply in perceiving the resemblance of the platter to a table and the incongruity of the notion of eating the latter. Vox' of an utterance 2. 119.

118.] Tulit finem' like "finem ferat" 3. 145, where, as here, "ferre" may have the sense of "nuntiare." But it seems better in both passages to make it = "dare:" comp. 1. 241, " quem das finem, rex magne, laborum ?" and for "dare" of the announcer of a blessing 3. 85 note. 'Prima' almost = "tandem :" comp. E. 1. 45 note, A. 9. 110. It is not easy to give a definite sense to 'primam :' it may be "ut primum omen" (comp. 3. 547, a sense which perhaps lurks in 'prima' also) it may have the force of instantly' (comp. "quam primum "): or it may be a mere repetition of 'prima,' iterating the notion that this was the dawn of hope. Comp. generally 1. 442, 450, which will illustrate these different shades of meaning, and perhaps incline us to believe that Virg. had all of them in his mind. "Narrantis ab ore" 4. 79.

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119.] Eripuit-ac-pressit,' 'snatched it from his mouth (caught it up) and stopped his utterance,' that he might not mar the omen by saying more, ' vocem' being the object both of eripuit' and 'pressit,' though in the sense of speech in one case and of speaking in the other. Comp. 2. 378, "retroque pedem cum voce repressit," 9.322, "Sic memorat vocemque premit," though the 'vox' there is that of the subject of the verb, there being nothing in the context, as here, to determine it otherwise. The objection made


Genitor mihi talia nam


by Wagn. to taking 'pressit' as Ascanii repressit," that Ascanius had done (nec plura') and did not require to be stopped, assumes that there was no fear of his beginning again. Besides loquentis' implies that Aeneas broke in before he had well got the words out. Nor does nec plura seem to denote a dead stop so much as that it was a careless and passing exclamation. Wagn.'s own interpretation," animo pressit" (pondered on it), is inconsistent with 'continuo,' and is not supported by such expressions as "dolorem," 66 curam corde premit," implying deep or suppressed emotion. Jahn apparently takes pressit' as 'followed it up,' comparing "argumentum premere:" but this would not agree well with 'stupefactus numine.' Aeneas did follow Ascanius' speech up immediately, but it was while he was recovering his bewilderment. With eripuit' Cerda comp. TроаρжάСειν λλýλwv Tà λeyóueva Plato Gorg. p. 454 c, and "arripuit omen Paullus" Val. Max. 1. 5. 3. 'Numine,' the divine power manifested in the words; nearly equivalent to "omine." Comp. 2. 123, " 'quae sint ea numina divom;" 3. 363, "cuncti suaserunt numine divi Italiam petere,' both referring to oracles, and see on 8. 78.

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120.] Continuo,' v. 68. Fatis debita :' see on 6. 67., 3. 184.

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121.] Fidi' includes fidelity to Aeneas and his race (3. 156) as well as the truth of their prediction that he should find a settlement in Latium (ib. 163). With the latter we may comp. Romeo's "O true apothecary!"

122.] We might have expected "haec domus" but hic' "in hac tellure quae patria est." Some MSS. read hic patria est.' "Hic tibi certa domus, certi, ne absiste, Penates" 8. 39. Domus-patria ;' both his and the Penates'. 3. 167, "Hae nobis (Penatibus) propriae sedes; hinc Dardanus ortus, Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum." With the expression comp. 4. 347, "Hic amor, haec patria est," though 'hic' there is probably the pro

Nunc repeto, Anchises fatorum arcana reliquit :
Cum te, nate, fames ignota ad litora vectum
Accisis coget dapibus consumere mensas,
Tum sperare domos defessus ibique memento
Prima locare manu molirique aggere tecta.
Haec erat illa fames; haec nos suprema manebat,

Exitiis positura modum.

Quare agite et primo laeti cum lumine solis,

Quae loca, quive habeant homines, ubi moenia gentis,

noun. Heyne placed a comma after 'talia,' takingnamque' with 'nunc repeto;' but namque,' in this way, has less meaning, and beginning a clause at the end of a line, it is harsh. For the position of this particle as the fourth word in the clause comp. 5. 732., 10. 614, where as here it ends a line. Otherwise 'namque' would come in naturally in a parenthetical clause: comp. Ov. M. 15. 160, "nam memini," &c.

123.] "Nunc repeto 3. 184. 'Anchises' introduces a difficulty. Celaeno (3. 255) prophesies that they should be driven to eat their tables, and Helenus (ib. 394) confirms it, with an assurance that the fates should find a solution. The words of Celaeno, "ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas," are almost exactly the same as those which are here ascribed to Anchises, and she connects the incident with the foundation of the city, though she does not make it a token that they have found their home. The discrepancy is only one out of several which exist between the Third Book and other parts of the poem. Some have fancied that this was one of the things revealed by Anchises to Aeneas in Elysium (6.890 foll.), but reliquit' points to predictions delivered in life, perhaps altered or bequeathed on the deathbed. 'Ignota ad littora' is again inconsistent with the speech of Celaeno, who expressly mentions Italy. "Fatorum arcana 1. 262, apparently="arcana fata."

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124.] Fames coget' like "fames subigat" 3. 256. So above v. 113, "pe

nuria adegit edendi."

125.] Accisis,' running short. Hor. S. 2. 113, "Integris opibus novi non latius usum, Quam nunc accisis." Serv. explains it as if he may have read 'ancisis.'

126.] Sperare memento' is rather long-drawn: but we must not therefore



suppose that 'sperare' can stand as inf. for imperative. See on 3. 405.

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127.] "Moliri aggerem," or cingere tecta aggere" (below v. 159), would be the natural expression. Moliri aggere tecta ' combines both. To build dwellings and raise a rampart round them.' The expression is appropriate to a settlement which was not to be so much a city as a camp, v. 159. 'Prima' should be taken semi-adverbially, and connected with 'tum' and 'ibi.' 'Manu' half-pleonastically of personal exertion, G. 2. 156.

128.] "Haec illa Charybdis " 3. 558. Manebat,' was waiting for us all the time, though we knew it not, like "quanta laborabas Charybdi" Hor. 1 Od. 27. 19. One early edition gives 'monebat' (sc. Anchises), which might be supported from 3. 559. Rom. has 'manebant.' Suprema' is explained by the next line.


129.] Exitiis; for the plural, comp. Cic. pro Mil. 2, "quos P. Clodii furor rapinis et incendiis et omnibus exitiis pavit." One MS., in the library at Gotha, gives 'exiliis,' which agrees very well with the sense of v. 126, and the words of 2. 780 (comp. positura modum' with "longa"). Burm. approves it, and Wakef. and Ribbeck adopt it. The external authority is probably worthless; but the confusion is natural enough: see on 10. 850. Perhaps we may defend 'exitiis' by supposing the thought to be that unlike ordinary hunger, which is itself 'exitium,' this puts an end to 'exitia.'

130.] "Primi sub lumina solis" 6. 255. 'Cum lumine' like aμ' eq. With these lines comp. generally 1. 305 foll. Laeti :'

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Vestigemus, et a portu diversa petamus.
Nunc pateras libate Iovi, precibusque vocate
Anchisen genitorem, et vina reponite mensis.
Sic deinde effatus frondenti tempora ramo
Inplicat, et Geniumque loci primamque deorum
Tellurem Nymphasque et adhuc ignota precatur
Flumina, tum Noctem Noctisque orientia Signa
Idaeumque Iovem Phrygiamque ex ordine Matrem
Invocat, et duplicis caeloque Ereboque parentes.
Hic pater omnipotens ter caelo clarus ab alto
Intonuit, radiisque ardentem lucis et auro

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132.] Et petamus' would be more naturally expressed by a participle-' let us explore, going in different directions.'

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133.] Pateras libate' like "libabant pocula 3. 354. "Animamque vocabat Anchisae" 5. 98.

134.] Vina reponite mensis:' see on G. 3. 527. The language here and in v. 146 seems to waver between an ordinary second course and a second banquet instituted in honour of the good news. Comp. 8. 283.

135.] The wreath was assumed for a religious act as well as for a religious office (comp. 5.71), and here for the prayer and libation. So Teucer in Hor. 1 Od. 7. 23 "Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona," when he said "nunc vino pellite curas," the drinking implying a libation : see further on 8. 274. Sic deinde effatus:' see on 5.14.


136.] "Genium loci" 5. 95. He prays first to the divinities of the place, then to those of the hour (Noctem Noctisque orientia signa'). Wagn. takes 'primam deorum' to mean, that prayer is made to her first: but it evidently denotes precedence among the Gods, as Serv. takes it. Comp. Aesch. Eum. 8, πρŵтоv μèv evxận TŶde πρεσβεύω θεῶν Τὴν πρωτόμαντιν Γαῖαν, Soph. Ant. 338, leŵv тàv úπeptáтav гâv. The Earth-goddess seems to be worshipped as represented by the particular land where they were settling.

137.] The nymphs and rivers are closely connected, as in 8. 71 foll., where the language about the Tiber will illustrate adhuc ignota flumina.'

138.] For the idea that the stars were animated and divine see on G. 2. 342. 'Orientia' implies that the stars were now coming out. "Nox et noctis signa severa "Lucr. 5. 1190.

139.] Iuppiter Idaeus' is probably both the Jupiter of Mt. Ida in Crete (3. 105,



"Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrae ") and of Mt. Ida in the Troad, addressed in Hom. as Ζευ πάτερ Ιδηθεν μedéwv. Ex ordine,' èpens, 'next,' implying uninterrupted series or succession: comp. G. 3. 341, totum ex ordine mensem. But we might take it="rite," as Serv. suggests, like "ordine" 3. 548., 5. 53.


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Venus Caelo'

140.] Caeloque Ereboque" 6. 247. "Duplicis'" duo," as in 1. 93. and Anchises are of course meant. ='in caelo,' not unlike "plurima caelo monstra" below v. 269.

141.] Clarus intonuit caelo 'is i. q. “intonuit claro (puro, sereno) caelo;" the epithet of the sky being here as often given to the god who is manifested in it. Thunder in a clear sky, or whatever was taken for it, was a great omen ('omen magnum' v. 146) for good or evil. Comp. 9. 630., 1. 487., Hor. 1 Od. 34. 5, and Macleane's note. Thunder however itself is an omen 2. 692, and 'clarus intonuit ' may = "clarum intonuit." The threefold repetition of course makes the preternatural character of the phaenomenon more evident.

142.] Radiisque' &c. It is not clear what this prodigy is. A cloud gilded by the sun would be no prodigy at all; nor would this agree well with ostendit' and 'quatiens,' which imply sudden appearance and quivering motion. But these words would be quite applicable to summer lightning, the broad flash of which might also agree pretty well with 'nubem.' Comp. 8. 524 foll., where the phaenomenon appears to be exactly parallel, thunder and lightning from a clear sky, and there is a similar mention of "inter nubem." On the other hand in 8. 622 we have "qualis cum caerula nubes Solis inardescit radiis longeque refulget," words sufficiently pa

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