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attending at these stations" and pocketing the money paid for kissing a wooden crucifix held up by a servant of the priest."

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These "fallacies' are all transmuted into gold in the Roman church, where it is literally "no penny, no Pater-noster;" hence the popish clergy are the wealthiest in Great Britain, while their people are steeped in the most abject and deplorable poverty. The late Mr. Nolan, formerly a popish priest, speaking of the wealth of the Irish popish church, calls it "the pampered sanctuary of your wealthy church" and he proceeds to show by how many ingenious methods the priests

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There is no "fallacy," however, in the exorbitant exactions of the priests; these are all real substantial means of impoverishing the middle and lower classes of the people, and of enriching the priesthood; and Mr. Nolan asserts that many parishes are worth twelve hundred a year to the popish priests. They make merchandise of the dead bodies at funerals, where the priest will sometimes screw as much as forty pounds out of the party, and that without any pretence to any spiritual return. He demands two shillings and sixpence for blessing a small lump of clay to place in the coffin; and it has been known that after blessing the clay, when the money has not been forthcoming, the priest has trampled the holy clay under his feet, which shows that they prostitute divine things to the vilest purposes of extortion. Two shillings and sixpence are paid for extreme unction, and which is extorted from the most abject poverty. Five shillings each are demanded for masses for the sick or the dead, for prosperity of houses, lands, cattle, for barren women, &c. The last is the cause of much immorality, and, of course, some priests have greater celebrity than others, and whose masses are esteemed more efficacious in relieving barrenness! They exact two shillings and sixpence from the poor and ten shillings from the rich for saying a prayer on any occasion of trifling sickness or accident; two and sixpence for baptisms; one shilling for Easter confessions; and the same sum each for Christmas and Easter offerings. The poorest labourers are compelled to pay from twenty to thirty shillings in ordinary cases for marriage dues, but even the very poorest have been compelled to pay as high as three pounds for marriage, not to speak of the bishop's and other dues. But the reverend extortioner has another clever plan for wringing the vile trash from the peasant's hands: he brings a small bride cake with him to the feast, and cuts it into small pieces, which he compels the marriage company to take and each to pay him a piece of money: this is the most profitable of all their exactions, and which depends on the number and the abilities of the guests. These taxes are not voluntary offerings; they are extorted by working on the superstitious fears of the people, and by the dexterous management and application of the terrors of purgatory. But purgatory itself is a mine of wealth, of which there are clubs to supply the cupidity of the priests, who allow the poor to suffer all the torments of that imaginary place without showing any pity, unless the money is forthcoming. Besides, the different orders of monks fleece the impoverished laity for scapulars and different societies, so that the poor in that part of Ireland where popery is rampant are ground down to the pitiable state of poverty which

is to be witnessed when these barbarians come over to reap our fields and impregnate our labourers with their immorality and crime.

Popery is such a vile imposition, such a mass of corruption, that we hail with pleasure any means of relieving the Church of Rome from its degrading trammels, and these tracts seem well calculated to open the eyes of the protestants to the enormous abuses of that corruption of Christianity. They do not contain a heap of abusive epithets but calm reasoning; and the holy scripture with the corrupt doctrines of popery are placed in juxtaposition, so that the bane and antidote are seen at a glance.

Remarks on the Demonstration of Dissent in Essex. By a Layman. London: Houlston and Hughes. pp. 16. 1840. Second Edition.

A NEW meeting-house in the Independent interest was opened at Chelmsford, on Thursday, the 23rd July last; when "a mighty gathering took place from all parts of the county of Essex, to commemorate that great! that memorable!! that interesting day!!!' as one of their teachers enthusiastically described it." Our layman says he waited long for abler hands to show up the principles, if indeed they can be said to have any, and the gross inconsistencies of this " mighty gathering;"-but we rejoice that the task was left to one who has so ably and temperately executed the task. Few abler hands could have been found to enter the list against these modern Korahs, or one who better understands the constitution of the church, than the author of the tract before us. We would recommend it to the friends of the church to purchase quantities of this excellent tract for gratis distribution, and its price is only twopence, or twenty for two shillings and sixpence.

These Essex Korahs, in their after-dinner speeches, declared the 66 cause of Christ and dissent in Essex" to be associated, and "the true apostolic succession to be amongst them." All denominations in the Dissenting Interest were long accustomed to sneer at the doctrine of the apostolic succession, usque ad nauseam, like the fox and the grapes in the fable, till lately, when they have all at once discovered that the whole dissenting interest, and each individual of the motley group, possess it. This is nearly as great a miracle as transubstantiation itself, which divides Christ into innumerable wafers and crumbs, and an incalculable number of drops of wine; so the dissenting interest divides the body of Christ into at least a thousand and one hostile and separate sects. Each sect pursuing its own interest, and they only unite and merge their interests on one point, and that is a determined and persecuting spirit of hostility to that true branch of the holy catholic and apostolic Church which is established in this kingdom. They will even condescend to fraternize with the pharisaical papist, who is himself a schismatic in this empire and a heretic everywhere, for the purpose of persecuting


We again beg leave to recommend this excellent little tract, which might be of the greatest advantage to the dissenting interest, were they to peruse it in a humble spirit; and as an antidote to their poisonous opinions and assertions it might be very beneficially circulated amongst that class of churchmen who are most liable to be led away by the fair speeches and hypocritical pretensions of the dissenting wolves in sheep's, clothing. Churchmen ought to take a lesson from their enemies. Let

them bear in mind the many thousands of the Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel's impious tract on Unity or Schism, or some such subject, which were bought up and circulated gratis by the dissenters of all denominations, because it was so admirably calculated to advance their interest. Let churchmen imitate their zeal and activity, and circulate this and similar cheap tracts amongst the faithful, and also amongst the sheep who have erred and strayed from the true fold of Christ.

The Servant Girl in London. R. Hastings, London. 18mo, pp. 59. 1840.

THIS very good and well-intentioned tract shows the dangers to which young country girls are exposed on their arrival in town; with advice to them, to their parents, to their masters, and to their mistresses: The author tells us, both in his title page and preface, that "this book is most respectfully addressed to the heads of families and all benevolent societies: it is hoped they will honour it with their support. The matter it contains is essentially calculated to promote their own good intentions and views, and is absolutely free from impure thought or expression. Although written for the guidance of servants, it will be found equally proper for women of every rank." There is much good advice given in a plain and familiar style, and we have no doubt, were it read by the class to whom it is principally addressed, it might be of essential service. The author is evidently a benevolent man, and intimately acquainted with the ways about town, or, as it is sometimes denominated, knowledge of the world.


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SIR, I do not exactly understand your correspondent "a Learner," when he accuses me of having nimbly escaped a dilemma." I supposed that Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks was to be explained by considering that one of its extremes was the crucifixion of our Saviour. If, therefore, Christ died for us A. D. 33, the date of the commencement of the seventy weeks would be 457 B. C., and, if this is taken from the whole period of 2300 years, it will bring us to A. D. 1843. And when I write this, I do not see how I make the incarnation the time of reconciliation: all the use I make of that event is, to establish it as a fixed point from which to date.

Begging your correspondent's pardon, all commentators are not agreed that the two (three ?) times and half time signify 1260 years. On the contrary, good reasons are given for supposing this is not the case, but of this I will not say more now.

It seems to me that the date A. D. 606 is exceedingly unsatisfactory for the commencement of a prophecy. If one says that the fourth Beast rose when Phocas recognised the supremacy of Boniface, why may not another say with as much plausibility, that it rose when Theodosius the Great decreed that all nations who were subject to his authority should receive the faith which had been delivered by St. Peter to the

Romans, or when Valentinian III. forbade the bishops of the empire to depart from established customs without the sanction of " the venerable man, the pope of the holy city?"

I chose the date 2300 because many of the best commentators allow it, and I am not sufficiently learned to be able to prove them wrong. I will now add a word or two respecting my proposed interpretation, begging you to remember that, in consequence of the haste in which my last letter was written, I was compelled to disclaim all pretensions to accuracy and only to contend for the correctness of principles.

Now 457 B. C. was the year from which I concluded that the period of the seventy weeks might depart; in support of which I advance the following facts and arguments. Artaxerxes Longimanus began to reign about 464 B. C. Now in the seventh year of his reign Ezra began to go up from Babylon to Jerusalem. But Ezra set off in the first month of the year, in consequence of a decree which the king of Persia had sent forth; therefore, it was in the first month of the seventh year that the decree was made, or in the first month of the year 457 B. C. Chronologers are not agreed upon the exact time when Artaxerxes commenced his reign, but the best of them place it between the end of the year 465 B. C. and the end of the year 464 B. c. Therefore, when I mention the year 457 B. C., I have as accurately as possible assigned a point of departure for the prophecy in question. But assume if you please that our received system of chronology is wrong by about four years, and that in reality, the Saviour of the world was born A. D. 4, or 757 a. u.; then the seventy weeks must take their commencement from 453 B. c., and the end of the 2300 years will be A. D. 1847, or the end of 2400 years would be A.D. 1947. In spite, however, of what I have here said, I do not think that 1843 A. D. is the exact time for cleansing the sanctuary, much less do I think that 1866 is, but I conceive that the method which I have adopted in discovering the former date is unobjectionable. Your correspondent's charge of evasion on my part is, I think, groundless. I am sorry that I cannot now write more on the subject, but if" a Learner" is inclined to continue our amicable war of words I shall be glad to take an early opportunity of recurring to it more fully. I remain, Sir, your obedient Servant,

P. A.


AT the request of Lord Ashley and the subscription committee, the Rev. John Sinclair, M. A., has made the following powerful appeal to the British public in behalf of the National Society for Education. Mr. Sin

1 Ezra, vii. 8, 9.

2 For a more full and learned statement of this solution, I would refer your correspondent to "Dissertations upon the Principles and Arrangement of a Harmony of the Gospels, by the Rev. Edward Greswell;" a book in which talent and ingenuity are combined with laborious research, and which bids us hope that the author will, ere long, establish himself as one of the first theologians of the present day.

clair now writes under the more cheering auspices and anticipations of a good understanding with the committee of the privy council. Government being now friendly, this appeal is divested of the political aspect which the former position of the society compelled it to assume. A paramount object of the society is, to provide efficient teachers. On this subject Mr. Sinclair says,—

The Society will also continue to support Training-Institutions, where future masters and mistresses, boarded and lodged in part at the expense of the Society, may be instructed under efficient superintendence in the knowledge which they are afterwards professionally to diffuse. With the view of carrying on more effectually, and on a scale more proportioned to the wants of the country, the education of masters, the Society has lately purchased the estate of Stanley Grove, Chelsea, about three miles from London. The property comprises eleven acres, lying contiguous to the Fulham Road. A Principal of this new college will be appointed as soon as the Committee have been able to decide upon the comparative pretensions of the numerous and highly eligible candidates for this arduous and responsible office.

Another object which the Society has in view, is to maintain a small body of unattached masters, who may be appointed from time to time to organize or remodel schools, and spread throughout the country a practical acquaintance with the most approved methods of tuition. An efficient master, especially when assisted by one or two competent monitors, might, in the course of three or four months, bring the most undisciplined school into good order. In many such cases, also, it might be found desirable by the managers of a school to send their permanent master for instruction to the Society, where he might undergo a salutary process of re-training. A rustic teacher, who has never seen what good education is, would thus have his eyes opened to his own deficiencies, and return to his obscure locality not only better capable of teaching, but more desirous and more susceptible of self-improvement.

The appeal goes on to recommend uniformity in the books and school materials, where the teacher might subsequently teach the very books which he himself had previously learnt and taught at the central model school. There is still a very great necessity for increased exertion in the efforts for extending education by the erection of school buildings. The exertions made by the clergy, with very limited means, have been much greater than the world has ever suspected, and whose exertions in behalf of education will put to shame the negligence and parsimony of the wealthy laity.

There are not a few well-meaning persons, professedly sound members of the establishment-persons in easy circumstances, or, even possessed of great wealth—who imagine that since public grants have now for some years been made for extending education, no farther efforts can be required on the part of private individuals; that schools in sufficient numbers must, no doubt, have been built in most places; and that the deficiencies must be few and unimportant. A very natural desire to be relieved from a pecuniary burden, however small, disposes such persons to acquiesce without much inquiry in these comfortable assumptions. If, however, I could prevail upon them to investigate the truth, to see with their own eyes, and to judge from their own observation; if I could but bring them into this office, and there induce them to read only a small portion of above a thousand letters received on the subject during the last few months, and which are still pouring in daily-applications from eye-witnesses of the most unquestionable authority, men of learning, judgment, and right principle, with 'minds neither jaundiced by prejudice, nor blinded by enthusiasm, I think that some impression would be made, even upon the coldest reader, by the undoubted evidences of deplorable destitution which I should set before him. I would show him a parish containing " 20,000 souls," where there is "no free school in the whole place," and where "hundreds are totally uneducated ;"—a parish with a population of "16,000 or 17,000 hand-loom weavers," with only "a provision of £20 a-year applied to the education of thirty boys and girls;"-another with a population of 15,500, and others with 12,000, 8,000, 7,000, 2,300, 2,000, 1,600,

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