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act not by refraining from abusing their own Church, but by showing that there is no better. Who but a papist would be likely to utter words in such a connection as these. "In the mere principle of an establishment, I see no such reasons (weighty reasons against it.) Such an institution being common to almost all nations, would seem to have in it something congenial to the elements of our nature-to the reason, the judgment, the wants, and the sympathies of social man."...." The Bible, and the Bible only;' whatever may be pretended, is not the religion of Protestants in fact; it is not the religion of either churchmen or sectaries, or at least of the Church or the sects as such. Each, whatever it may say, provides for the preservation, propagation, and defence, not of the Bible, but of its own view of it."... "The Bible only is not trusted."......" I consider the Church to be the keeper of the Scriptures, and the living witness of what they contain."... ..." I cannot but feel, however, that I would rather, if I could, do so in connection with an august body that has something about it to inspire respect, something even to produce awe-a fair right, if any Protestant community has a right to claim as a body, a real connection with apostolic times, and a direct descent from apostolic men.".. .." Believing, as the writers does, that there is something wrong in all the churches (for "there are many Antichrists,") that some of the spirit of "the man of sin," though "in diversities of manifestation, is to be met with every where."
Such are the sophisms scattered through the fifty or sixty pages of this pamphlet, which contains a report of his sermon, and such the shallow, but most perverting presumptions, by which he seeks to poison the minds of his followers, and to afford a handle for the infidel, and the scoffer, to work with. Were the reasons which induce the ministerial member of the Church of England only of a worldly kind, Mr. Binney has materially understated the case, and this he has done, not because be lacked either the power or the will to put it stronger, but, because had he put it with the force and sufficiency of which he is capable, the representation would have been too gross a caricature even for his followers, and would have nullified its own effect in the world. He knew too well that the lives of the men whom he maligned would be too holy a commentary on his foul aspersions not to expose their digusting and heartless malevolence, and he therefore adopted the milder strain of condemnatory insinuation to effect his purpose. To have set forth the pecuniary advantages of clerical preferment would, his sound judgment told him, be an injudicious plan, for men are better informed on these subjects than they were; and if there was no other benefit resulting from the attacks on the Church in our day, the discovery would be almost invaluable, that, considering their duties, their station, their education, and their sacrifices, the clergy of the Church of England are the worst paid professional body in the world; that most of its members have some property of their own, and that there is less inducement to enter its pale than there is to enter the ranks of any other corporate body whatever. Either of these courses, therefore, would have been injudicious, and he therefore adopts a comparatively negative mode of proceeding, because, though less striking at first, its mildness, would be likely to excite less hostility, to prompt less inquiry, and consequently to remain longer, as the dross into the value of which it is not worth while to inquire, but which yet is preserved for the metal it may retain.
Having discovered that there are no more reasons against the Church in
a worldly point, as concerning spiritual things, he next proceeds to inquire what were the reasons that should prevent a man taking orders, and these he finds in the subscription to the articles and canons, assuming that they are wrong in themselves, but never troubling himself to point out where they are so. One of the main points of his vituperation, for we can call the slander by no other name, is the king's supremacy; another the declaration of the principles exhibited in the book of Common Prayer, and the verity of the truths declared in the thirty-nine articles. And thus he goes on to evince his spirit, when alluding to several doctrines of the Church, the declaration " I inquire not at present whether these things are true, it is true that there are many of the clergy that believe neither."
To enter into an inquiry into the truth of these doctrines is not our present purpose, but before he affirmed that the individuals who subscribed them-individuals who, in character, attainments, and power of mind, will well bear any comparison with Mr. Binney-have been deliberately guilty of perjury of the vilest kind, it would have been well to have inquired whether the doctrines themselves were true. By what right Mr. Binney dares thus to accuse in one sweeping assertion a whole body of men whose lives as a body are allowedly patterns of holiness, usefulness, and truth, we know not, and believe that inquiry would only enlighten us as to its being one of those spiteful developments of hatred which a spirit that can brook no control continually exhibits. It arises from that contempt of government, which, if clothed in purple and fine linen, would have donned the tiara of the Vatican, and seated itself in the place and stead of God. It is the same spirit that would have hurled the thunders of its wrath over an enslaved world, and consigned to dungeons or the stake all that was opposed to its power or that thwarted its will.
We must have some more fair and excellent champion to contend with than this organ of the dissenters ere we can consent either to yield our principles, or consent to the unreproved slander of the excellent ministers of our holy Church. If there be any thing wrong in the Church itself, as far as possible let it be mended; but it would ill become us to stand coolly by while a spirit like that developed in the discourse of Mr. Binney was uttering its falsehoods and diffusing its venom. Such attacks as these should form sufficient inducement with us all to endeavour to heal our dissensions, and apply ourselves more assiduously to the truth as it is in Jesus. Not to be slack in asserting the claims of our holy and Apostolic Church to the respect and allegiance of every member of the community, and to diffuse as speedily and as widely as possible a correct knowledge of her constitution and principles. We regret that it is not just now in our power to go more deeply into the mystery of iniquity exhibited in the pages before us, but we trust that the fact of their publication will be a sufficient impulse to rouse an activity that may counteract their baneful influence.
Elijah the Tishbite, Translated from the German of the Rev. F. W. KRUMMACHER, D.D., author of " Elisha." 32mo, pp. 770; and 8vo, pp. 196. Warren, Finsbury Pavement: Tyas, Paternoster Row. Ir it be true, as is generally allowed, that a man's country may be ascertained from his features, it is not less a matter of fact that mental operations have also a national characteristic. To inquire into the extent and peculiarity of this characteristic, though a most curious and interesting subject
of observation, is not our present business, and we must therefore, though very unwillingly, abstain from any speculations upon the matter, but we could not fail to allude to it when prefixing the name of F. W. Krummacher to a notice of what will become one of the most popular books in our language. He has long filled so large a space in the attention of his countrymen, and has obtained so much reputation, and exercised so great an influence, on this side of the water, that one of the first things which naturally strikes us is the nature of the quality by which such an ascendency has been acquired. This, we feel assured, arises in no small degree from the strength in which the national peculiarities of his mind have been developed, and are exhibited in this, the work for which he is most esteemed in England.
The depth and extent to which the abstruser parts of learning have been carried in the German universities had, during the last thirty, or perhaps we ought to say forty, years, been acquiring for their leading professors an increasing respect amongst us, insomuch that many of their opinions, albeit visionary and unsubstantial as they were, had taken fast hold of our literary men, and were descending from the reservoirs of knowledge, through the conduits of light literature, to the great stream from which the people drank in their notions of intellectual principles, and were infusing into the minds of those candid but mistaken inquirers after truth, who deem the mind not only the percipient but the chief faculty of human nature, mighty but vague conceptions, which were calculated alike, and to a most dangerous extent, both to astound by their magnitude and to mislead by their grandeur. The dark and intricate, but, when once entered upon, most bewitching and enslaving, inquiry into that invisible yet real world of spiritual things, into which the Scriptures alone give us any real insight, was well adapted to captivate the minds of an elevated and moral people. It presented to them objects for thought undebased by the lowness of sensual mixture, and in every way worthy of the application of man's highest faculties. The sphere for thought was illimitable; and if others before them had essayed in spirit to tread the field that, wide and broad, lay stretched out boundlessly on every side, the ground presented no mark or footstep to tell that it had been trodden, but was like the clouds riding slowly in the ether of a storm-cast sky, which feel the winds careering over their misty heights, yet receive no soil or abiding mark from its passing impress, which are as new, as free, as original, in their aspect, as when, after the deluge rains had ceased, and the waters were subsiding, the first light fleece heralded the curtains that till the end of time shall at intervals shroud the sky. Naturally bold and daring, naturally deep and solid, the German philosophers and divines found the regions of speculative metaphysics not only fit, but the most fit of any that could have been used, for the exercise of their powers. Nor were they doubtless a little prompted as to their object, and in their work of inquiry by the political and social circumstances of the mass of population which lay around them. Enjoying in many places a degree of freedom which would have been incompatible with their safety, many of the minor states felt the pressure while they enjoyed the protection of the despotisms which hedged them in, and they could consequently go on, undisturbed by the turmoil of party warfare, in their abstracted pursuits of abstruse subjects, as well almost as if they were freed entirely from the calls of social duties, and could feel as well as imagine man apart from his correlative connection with the world, and alone in his individual capacity. They looked
beyond the world in which they lived, shaping all things according to the measure of their gigantic conceptions; sympathized alone with the unseen species which we know surround the world. They lost sight of the simple but most important facts, that man has a body, which when changed, shall be as immortal as his mind; and that here he is not only in a state of preparation, but of probation also, and that therefore the gracious God who called him into existence had, in mercy to the necessity of his state, and in sympathy for his wants, provided him with a light to his feet, and a lantern to his paths," which set all their boasted philosophy at naught, and afforded to the meanest and the least informed in other respects, among their fellow beings, intimations, which, by the value of the instructions they contained, showed their metaphysical dogmata to be as wrong as the pursuits that led to them were mischievous and vain. They forgot, or knew not, that the intellectual lewdness which they committed was as abhorrent in the sight of Him with whom it they have to do, and as deeply denounced in his word, as that apparently grosser and more depraved gratification of which the bodily appetites are the cause. Satan's devices are as various as they are apt. The infidelity which existed, through the blinding of their minds, in Germany, was just of the character to be received and approved in England. It bore upon it a stamp of freedom, intrigued with the licence of revolutionary France. It was the result of large enquiry followed by learned men. It had all the curiousness and seeming purity of the results of mental operations. There was a freedom from prejudice against established religious institutions: they felt not the burden of them, and therefore cared not for their existence. Political reasons found no place in their opposition to Christianity, and therefore presented to those accustomed to find in the cavils against truth the rabid violence of democratic rage, the appearance of sound reasoning, and the consequences of deep research. The minds of Englishmen, especially of those elevated and ardent spirits who dare the depths of any thing, while they scorn the trammels of ought that should even seem to bind them, aptly looks in this old doctrine under a new phase, and many a noble spirit lies trammelled in its pride, which never never shall be free. They little think humility is the height of wisdom, that submission is the best of knowledge.
We hail, therefore, the translation of this, the work of one of the most renowned men of his time, with peculiar pleasure. It contains all the peculiar characteristics of the country, exhibited in the most pleasing of modes, and for the best of purposes. To condemn its faults would be to condemn the style of the country itself. The continual intermixture of the imaginative with the real, the adding to the descriptions of Scripture, and the filling out its scenes, is not, we must acknowledge, to our taste, and is we think what ought to be avoided. But we very much question whether the utility of the work itself would not be impeded by its absence; and we are inclined to believe that its existence here will go far to counteract the evil of the introduction of that philosophy of which we have spoken above; not by the eradication of false principles from the minds of those who have imbibed them, but by the raising up of an antagonist force of thoughts and feelings in the hearts of others, of those, who in the purity of their thoughts, the warmth of their affections, and their devotion to God, are among the most valuable of all the members of our community.
The original was delivered as sermons, and consequently allowed a
latitude of illustration, and a mode of management, which makes the work peculiarly pleasing to the contemplative spirit, while the bealty of the reflections, the force of the thoughts, and the sweetness of the language, are as captivating as they are instructive. The book before us contains the translation of the whole of the work; one fifth it appears, or nearly so, having been omitted in the volume put out by other parties as the translation of the Elijah of Krummacher. With what sort of conscience these parties mangle a book for the purpose of obliterating every thing contained in it contrary to their own views, is out of our power to tell. Sure we are that the circumstance is evidence of a position, and of principles, which as Christian men it little behoves them to hold. There is a meanness and a deception in such a course of which we should be sorry to speak mildly, and are unwilling to speak otherwise; harsh condemnation is far from our desire, and most unpleasant to our feelings; but we could not suffer such an instance to pass without utter reprobation of such a dishonest proceeding. Will they meanly lay hold of the authority of a man of power to promulgate one set of opinions which may suit their views or their interest, and yet keep back others which he entertains with equal fervour and propounds with equal confidence? or are they required to adapt truth to the taste of their readers, and thus turn religion and charity into a trade by devising just such things as will sell, and only such? But we gladly turn from such a subject to introduce to our readers one of our author's most characteristic passages, though it may perhaps be one of the least elevated. The magnitude of his topic breaks down his imagination, till,—as what imagination is there that would not ?-till it is abraded under the weight of his subject. It is an introduction to the account of the Transfiguration of our Saviour, when Elias appeared with him.
"After six days,' relates the evangelist, Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart.' These three disciples, therefore, whom he had often distinguished above the rest, whom also he afterwards took with him to Gethsemane, as into the holy of holies, there to behold the priestly altar and flame of sacrifice; here, however, in the character of a king, to view his splendour and glory. It seems almost as if the Saviour moreover in this respect felt as a human being, that, amidst his love for the mass, he was also susceptible of individual affection; that affection when one heart finds itself in a nearer connection with another, and, by means of a wondrous chain of the gentlest chords of men's minds; that lovely bond of tenderness which we call mutual sympathy winds itself around the soul, and, in the influence of which, we say, with Jacob, My life is bound up in Benjamin's life.' It is assuredly true, his children were all precious and dear alike to him; he loved them collectively and individually, even as the Father loved him, and was not less willing to lay down his life for one than for another. But one or two of them seem to have stood nearer to his natural human feelings than the rest; the nearest of all without doubt was John, who lay on his breast, and who, referring to this intimate connection, styles himself emphatically the disciple whom Jesus loved;' next to John were his brother, James, and Simon Peter. Now it cannot but be perceived that these very three exist as quite singularly attractive phenomena in the circle of the apostles. Simon Peter, how amiable does he not appear, even amidst his errors and mistakes; from his ardent zeal for his master, and his upright mind, without falsehood and guile! And James, again, who could not have been forced to love him—that holy and deeply zealous man, with the mighty, unchangeable resolution in his soul, in no manner of condition to desert his Lord again; and, if it should so chance, to be the first of the twelve to drink after him the cup of the blood-stained martyrdom; and which he actually has done. And now John, that young and noble branch upon the vine of God, that eagle spirit, who, justly named a son of thunder, like the thunder utters his voice on earth, but comes not forth himself from the clouds above; John, that purest mirror of the Saviour's self and whose character is so full of tenderness and love; that man, all around whose