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maintain a ministry that deals constantly heavy blows and great discouragements at the Church of England, which is the mother of our liberties.

N. Yes, she is the mother of our liberties, and also of our national character for honesty, sobriety, and justice. Here is a small volume1 which shows, very distinctly, that neither personal nor national freedom are compatible with the domination of Popery. It is handsomely got up, and Mr. Saunders, the translator, deserves great credit for laying before the British public a monument of modern Popish treachery and cruelty.

R. The Ziller is a little mountain rivulet in the Tyrol, which issues from the southern Alps, and flows into the river Inn immediately below the village of Strass. On both sides of this fertile valley rich meadows alternate with heavy arable land, and which bespeak a country naturally rich in agricultural industry. The Ziller divides the two diocesses of Saltsburgh and Brixeu; in the former of which the protestant doctrines had taken deep root; but which, in the year 1729, were utterly eradicated by a forced emigration by orders of Count Firmian, then archbishop of Saltzburgh. These exiles left behind them Bibles in the vernacular tongue, and likewise the Confession of Augsburgh, which served as a guide for the understanding of the Scriptures, to the simple inhabitants of the Zillerdale. The perusal of the Bible has been an unpardonable sin in all ages of the Popish domination over the Christian faith; in consequence of their reading it," the Lutherans in and about Inspruck were sought out, and persecuted as they were in the time of the Saltzburgh emigration; but many more remained unobserved, who secretly cherished the Gospel in Zillerthal, and the surrounding less frequented valleys."

N. Popish persecution is indeed a terrible evil, and is part of the system which its father, the devil, has pursued from his first assault in Paradise to the present moment. But had the Zillerdale Protestants any hierarchy, had any of the bishops thrown off the accursed slavery of Rome, and preserved at least the frame-work of a Church?


R. I regret to think that the laity alone were endued with grace to come out of the unclean thing, and to separate from the mother of abominations. They were so persecuted by the Popish priests that they sent a deputation to wait on the emperor, and explain their affairs to him, and at same time to solicit the appointment of a Protestant pastor. emperor received them with kindness, and promised to protect them. The priests took alarm at the news of this interview, and they declared the protestations of the Zillerdalers to be "lies;" and immediately took active measures to poison the benevolent mind of the emperor, and to render their persecution more stringent. Accordingly, the emperor, under Jesuitical advice, informed them, five years afterwards, that the only freedom which could be granted them was to settle in another province of the empire, where there were Protestant congregations. This they declined, having resolved on emigrating to a foreign country, where they might enjoy rest from the implacable enemies of the Christian faith-the Romish priests.

The Zillerdalers deputed John Fleidl, one of their number to memori

1 The Protestant Exiles of Zillerthal; their persecution and expatriation from the Tyrol translated by John B. Saunders. Hatchard, 1840.

alize the good king of Prussia, who had heard of their distress, and had taken some steps for their relief. "The petitioner was graciously received in the highest quarters, and his suit was answered to the entire satisfaction both of the deputy and his constituents. The king declared himself ready to accede to the request in its full extent, which he, in his own name and in that of his associates, had presented, with the knowledge and consent of his country's government."

The Protestant exiles left their beloved valley on the 7th of September, 1837, in three divisions, the first of which attended divine service in a Protestant place of worship for the first time in their lives at the town of Wels. The priests, and people under their influence, pursued them with execrations and menaces, and refused them all assistance during their journey. On the 30th of September the last division of the exiles arrived at Schmiedeberg, where the king appointed them to reside, and where they were received with the most hospitable kindness by all ranks and conditions.

N. I hope the Protestant exiles will find that rest and blessing which we are assured will follow those who forsake all earthly affections to follow Christ. But notwithstanding the protection of a powerful and benevolent monarch, it is possible that the arm of Papal persecution may yet reach them. Hostilities have been some time begun between the Pope and the king of Prussia; and the former claims that kingdom as a province of the Papacy, and summons the Popish bishops to resist the just laws of their native sovereign, and to remember their oaths of pre-obedience to their Papal master. The Pope at this moment meddles in the internal affairs of every government as much as he did in the darkest ages, and persecution rages as fiercely. Let me quote the words of the "Country Gentleman in his tenth letter: 66 Again let me call your attention to the fact that the Protestants of the Tyrol have lately been driven from their homes by the Popish government of Austria, and that the king of Sardinia has lately made it unlawful for his peaceful and loyal subjects, the Vaudois Protestants, to be witnesses to legal deeds. Yes, persecution has been revived against these brave, loyal, and peaceable descendants of the ancient martyrs. You must not, you cannot think that Popery is altered in the minutest degree. Its doctrines are as superstitious and cruel as ever; its Pope is as insolent and tyrannical as ever, his servants are as ready as ever to execute his decrees."

Here is a volume of those single fugitive tracts which are doing so much good among a class of people which have not time for much reading, but who are peculiarly liable to be imposed on by the false glosses and dangerous deceits of the arch enemy of British peace.

R. I see this handsome octavo volume contains papers by the bishop of Exeter (himself a host), the Reverends Dr. Croly, Dr. Holloway, H. Melville, R. Munro, Hugh M'Neile, R. J. M'Ghee, and E. Nangle. Also by J. C. Colquhoun, Esq., M.P.; W. S. Blackstone, Esq., M.P.; J. E. Gordon, Esq.; M. T. Saddler, Esq., M.P.; and G. H. Woodward, Esq., A.B.; besides some papers which bear no name. I can recommend this volume as containing a vast mass of facts regarding the the present machinations of that restless, domineering, and Erastian thing

1 Publications of the Protestant Association: Vol. I.

called Popery, that will astonish the careless observer of the signs of the times. The tracts contained in this volume may be had separately at the office of the Association, in Exeter Hall; but they are put together for the convenience of those who wish to preserve these very interesting and instructing papers. The volume would have been greatly improved by having had a table of contents, but which can be added to others when made up. In stating its views, the Protestant Association says:

"The Association was constituted at a meeting held at Exeter Hall, in the month of June, 1835. The individuals who were concerned in its formation were afterwards enabled, by meetings held in various parts of England, and still more especially in Scotland, to diffuse an amount of information, and to excite a just and sound Protestant feeling, which could in no other way have been created or directed. All that is now desired, is its augmentation to a force capable of maintaining and of increasing this feeling, and of losing no opportunity of enforcing, both on the legislature and on the people, that great principle of 1688, that the Protestant religion, being the religion of the Bible, is the most precious possession of the British nation."

N. Here is another association with the same object in view, but conducted in another manner.1 The editors are the Rev. E. Churton, and the Rev. Wm. Gressley; two names which are a guarantee to the public for the respectability and excellence of the work. They tell us, in their prospectus, that—

"The Englishman's Library is a series of cheap publications for general reading, uniting a popular style with soundness of principle; (including also select reprints from the elder divines) adapted for presents, class-books, lending libraries, &c., &c. The library will be continued at short intervals. The several works to be included in the series will be complete in themselves, and may always be had separately. The volumes are published at the lowest price, and are neatly and uniformly bound in cloth lettered, with engravings."

R. The first volume contains " Clement Walton, or the English Citizen," by the Rev. W. Gressley, of Lichfield. Mr. Walton is of course what an English subject ought to be-perhaps more than what men generally are. The story is delightfully told, and every opportunity is taken to inculcate right principles on the various every-day circumstances which occur. The following quotation, which accidentally turned up in just now opening the volume, will bespeak the courteous reader's respect more than any recommendation from our pen :

"Mr. Walton's mode of thinking and acting will be more fully developed as we proceed. It may be as well, however, to state that in religious principles he was a sound and pious Churchman, or what is less correctly described by the name of High Churchman by which let it not be understood that he was one of those who belonged to the Church because it is by law established, and see no blemishes, or need of improvement; no, he was a true and consistent member of the Church universal-the one Catholic and Apostolical Church. Here were seen the advantages of the early training which he had received from his father. He identified himself with that Church which had been from the beginning-the Church of Christ and his Apostles, of Polycarp, Ignatius, Clemens. To this Church, and not merely to a local or separate establishment, it was his boast to belong. Hence when in Scotland he joined himself to the ancient Episcopal Communion, notwithstanding that it had been violently dispossessed and persecuted. That which was once the true Church, he conceived must ever remain so.

The Englishman's Library. Burns.

In America he found a flourishing branch of the Episcopal and Apostolic fellowship, and rejoiced to see its influence. When in the East, he recognised in the Greek Church the ancient form of Communion, much overlaid indeed with superstitious customs, but requiring only the breath of the Holy Spirit to rouse it to its ancient vitality; nay, even when resident in Roman Catholic countries, he found Christian brethren who, in spite of the grievous errors of their creed, held those vital and essential doctrines of faith which have been providentially preserved in their creeds and formularies through ages of the grossest darkness."


N. Mr. Walton is the right sort of man; and it is a pity more of his opinions, &c., cannot be given here. The woodcuts are very neat. The next volume1 is the first of a series, and contains the Old Testament History, beginning with the Creation, Fall, &c., &c. "It was originally composed," we are informed in the preface, as many parts of its structure indicate, in the form of lectures to be delivered by a parochial minister to his congregation; and to the elementary character required by such a design, as well as to its comparative state of readiness, may be attributed its early appearance in a series of volumes on every other account entitled to precedence."

R. It is an excellent history, equally briefly and faithfully narrated, with judicious remarks interspersed.

N. The next volume of the " Englishman's Library" is a reprint from the works of Bishop Patrick.

R. Bishop Patrick's Pilgrim suggested the idea of Bunyan's more popular but less instructive allegory of the Pilgrim's Progress, which has run through so many editions. I sincerely wish that the Parable of the Pilgrim may become, as it well deserves, an equal favourite with the public. It was published during the usurpation, when men's minds were in a high state of excitement on the subject of religion. Mr. Chamberlain, the editor of the present edition, has abridged the original work considerably, and prefixed a very interesting introduction, in which he says:-

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"About the time of the last edition of the Parable (1687) of which any notice h been found, the evil consequences of the artificial excitement that had been given religion by mixing it up with party politics and worldly feeling began to appear. Profligacy was preparing the way for infidelity, as the road had been prepared for itself by hypocrisy. This tendency was likewise unfortunately hastened by political events. By the Revolution of 1688 a prince was placed upon the throne of England who was by birth and education a stranger to those peculiar and Divine characteristics, which distinguish the Church of Christ, wherever found, from its various human substitutes, by the name of whatever founder the pretending sect may be called. The Gospel, distinguished only by its negative character of opposition to Popery, had not enough in it to warm the heart. The nation sank gradually into a state of religious apathy and indifferentism miscalled liberality, from which it has only now recovered, to rally, it is to be hoped, round the ark of God."

N. The next volume of the " Library" is a compilation by the same Mr. Chamberlain, and which appears to be excellently well arranged.


1 Scripture History in Familiar Lectures. By the Hon. and Very Rev. H. E. J. Howard, D.D., Dean of Lichfield.

2 The Parable of the Pilgrim. By Simon Patrick, D.D., some time Bishop of Ely.

3 A Help to Knowledge, chiefly religious; in extracts from the most approved writers. By T. Chamberlain.

R. Yes, the list of the authors comprise some of the most illustrious names in English sacred literature, and the subjects are-The Christian Faith-The Church-The Scriptures-Prayer-The Progress and Perfection of the Christian Character-Unity-Means of Grace, &c. All the authors are so arranged that, although in detached pieces, they can be read continuously without any break in the subject.

N. The next volume is from the pen of Mr. Palmer, which is rather brief.1

R. Yes it is; yet the history of the whole Church from the beginning is complete, and compressed into the small space of 254 pages. Anything from the pen of the author of Origines Liturgica, requires no recommendation from us; indeed the whole series, so far as it has gone, is well worthy of the patronage of those who support parochial or other lending libraries. And Mr. Burns deserves great credit for publishing the Englishman's Library, which is calculated to be of such essential service to the cause of true religion. The following is an extract from Mr. Palmer's compendious work.

"In those early times the Creed was used, as it still is, as a Confession of faith, preparatory to receiving the Sacrament of Baptism. When the Ethiopian eunuch desired to be baptized, Philip said to him, "If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest.' And he answered and said, 'I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.' Here is an instance of a Creed, or confession of faith, even in the time of the Apostles. Indeed, as our Lord had required faith in his doctrines, as well as Baptism, in order to salvation, the Church was bound to ascertain, as far as possible, that those who desired baptism were believers, and therefore to require from them a confession of their faith. Creeds, in this point of view, as summaries of the Gospel, are as old as the time of the Apostles; their length and fulness varied in different churches, and sometimes new articles were added, in order to assert the truth, in opposition to prevalent heresies. The Apostles' Creed was the ancient baptismal creed of the Roman and Italian Churches; the Nicene Creed was founded on the ancient creeds of the Eastern Churches, by the Holy Synod of 318 bishops at Nice (A.D. 325), and was adopted as the rule of faith by the universal Church in all subsequent times. This creed was introduced into the liturgy or service of the Eucharist in the fifth and sixth centuries.

N. Here is another periodical publication of the standard works of divinity of former ages 2. Those already published are Bishop Taylor's Holy Living and Dying-West's Observations on the History and Evidence of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ-Bishop Watson's Apology for Christianity and for the Bible.-Jenyns' View of the Internal Evidence of the Christian Religion, and Lord Lyttleton's Observations on the Conversion and Apostleship of St. Paul-Dr. Campbell's Dissertation on MiraclesDr. Chandler's Plain Reasons for being a Christian-Lesslie's Short and Easy Way with the Deists-Guild's Moses Unveiled, and the Harmony of all the Prophets-Bishop Sherlock's Trial of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus, with the Sequel-Bishop Taylor's Course of Sermons for all the Sundays of the Year.

R. This work is published in Edinburgh, with all the advantages of Mr. Shortrede's superior typography; and there is an attention to cheapness which will make them accessible to all classes desirous of possessing

1 A Compendious Ecclesiastical History, from the earliest period to the present time. By Rev. W. Palmer.

2 Christian Literature. London: Washbourne. Large 8vo. stitched.

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