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and for this reason, we may prefume, fo much more is faid of the Turks than of the Saracens. Their chariots and their horsemen are particularly mentioned; because their armies confifted chiefly of horfe, efpecially before the inftitution of the Janizaries, and their ftandards ftill are horfe-tails. Their hips too are faid to be many; and indeed without many fhips they could never have gotten poffeffion of fo many ilands and maritime countries, nor have fo frequently vanquished the Venetians, who were at that time the greatest naval power in Europe. What fleets, what armies were employed in the befieging and taking of Conftantinople, of Negropont or Euboea, of Rhodes, of Cyprus, and lastly of Candy or Crete? The words fhall enter into the countries, and overflow, and pass over, give us an exact idea of their overflowing the weftern parts of Afia, and then paffing over into Europe, and fixing the feat of their empire at Conftantinople, as they did under their feventh emperor Mohammed the fecond.

Among his other conquefts this king of the north was to take poffeffion of the holy land, and to fubdue the neighbouring countries; but the mixed people of Arabia were to escape out of his hands. He fhall enter alfo into the glorious land, and many countries fhall be overthrown; but these fhall efcape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. (ver. 41.) Porphyry and thofe of his opinion (7) affirm, that Antiochus marching haftily against Ptolemy the king of the fouth, did not meddle with the Idumeans, and Moabites, and Ammonites, who were fituated on the fide of Judea; left his being engaged in another war fhould render Ptolemy the ftronger. Grotius faith, (8) that Antiochus fpared thefe nations because they obeyed all his commands; and therefore the Maccabees made war upon them, as the friends of Antiochus. An ancient com

(7) Antiochus, aiunt, feftinans contra Ptolemæum regem auftri, Idumæos, et Moabitas et Ammonitas, qui ex la tere Judææ erant, non tetigit; ne ccupatus alio prælio, Ptolemæum redderet fortiorem. Hieron, ibid.

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(8) His pepercit Antiochus, quod omnia imperata facerent. Vide 1 Macc. V. Ideo Maccabei his populis, ut Antiochi amicis, bellum intulere. Grot in locum.


mentator, and venerable father, Theodoret, on the contrary, (9) afferts, that neither do these things any more than the reft fit Antiochus; for having overthrown thefe nations, he conftituted rulers over them, one of whom was Timotheus the commander of the Ammonites. This Timotheus, I fuppofe, was the fame who is mentioned in the fifth chapter of the first book of Maccabees. The diverfity of these accounts demonftrates the difficulty of accommodating this paffage to Antiochus. If we believe Theodoret, it cannot be applied to Antiochus in any fenfe. If we rather follow Porphyry or Grotius, it can be applied to Antiochus only in an improper fenfe. The words are, Many countries fhall be overthrown, but thefe fhall efcape out of his hand. The manner of expreffion fufficiently implies, that he should attempt to conquer these as well as the reft, but not with the fame fuccefs. Thefe fhould not like the rest be overthrown; they thould deliver themfelves, and escape out of his hands; and we read of no fuch tranfaction in the hiftory of Antiochus. We fhall find that the whole. may be much better accommodated to the Othman empire. He shall enter alfo into the glorious land: the fame expreffion of the glorious land was used before; (ver. 16.) and in both places it is rendered by the Syriac tranflator. (1) the land of Ifrael. Now nothing is better known, than that the Turks took poffeffion of the holy land, and remain mafters of it to this day. Sultan Selim (2) entered into Jerufalem in his way to Egypt. And many countries fhall be overthrown: Aleppo, Damafcus, Gaza, and the neighbouring cities and countries were forced to fubmit, and receive the yoke of the conqueror.

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thefe fhall efcape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon: these were fome of the people who inhabited Arabia, and the Arabians the Turks have never been able with all their forces to fubdue entirely. Sultan Selim their ninth emperor, was the conqueror of the neighbouring countries, and annexed them to the Othman empire; but he could not make a complete conqueft of the Arabians. By large gifts (3) he brought over fome of their chieftains, and fo bribed them to a fubmiffion: and ever fince his time, (4) the Othman emperors have paid them an annual penfion of forty thoufand crowns of gold for the fafe paffage of the caravans and pilgrims going to Mecca: and for their farther fecurity the Sultan commonly orders the Basha of Damafcus to attend them with foldiers and waterbearers, and to take care that their number never fall fhort of fourteen thoufand. This penfion was not paid. for fome years on account of the war in Hungary: and what was the confequence? One of the Arabian princes in the year 1694, with feveral thoufand of his countrymen, attacked and plundered the caravan going in pilgrimage to Mecca, aud made them all prifoners. The neighbouring Bafhas were fent against him; but the prince defeated them all by a stratagem, and put them to flight. Among the prifoners who had been taken was the moft illuftrious Chan of Tartary, whom the Arabians difmiffed upon his parole, that he would carry their complaints to the Sultan, and procure the continuance of the penfion. He ftood to his engagement, and never ceased importuning the Othman court, till the arrears of the penfion were duly paid. But notwithftanding this penfion, the Arabians, as often as they find a lucky opportunity, rob and plunder the Turks as well as other travelers. An inftance of the fame kind happened lately, and is related in the London Gazette of

(3) Savage ibid. p. 248. Itaque Selymus per idoneos homines plures eorum duces data fide ad fe Memphim evocavit, et fumma liberalitate profecutus eft: quorum exemplo fiebat, ut cæteri quotidie accederent, acceptifque muneribus in verba ejus continuo juVOL. I.

rarent. Pauli Jovii Hift. Lib. 18. p. 1064. Edit. Gryphii. 1561.

(4) Prince Cantemir's Hift. in Ahmed II. Sect. 49. p. 393. with the note, and also in Bajazet II. Sect. 1. p. 116. with note 2. Dd


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Feb. 11, 1758. Conftantinople, December 23. The "Mecca caravan, which has been lately plundered by "the Arabs, was attacked by a numerous body of that people, fome fay, from 30 to 40,000. The action "lafted 16 hours. They firft cut off the Bafha of Sidon, "who marched out as ufual to fupply the pilgrims with provifions; he was killed in the engagement; then they turned and attacked the caravan. The Emir "Hadgé, or commanding Batha, offered them 1000 "purfes of money to defift; but they refufed any terms, being determined by a mere principle of revenge, "for their tribes having been laid afide as conductors or guards to the caravan, and others fubftituted in "their place; and it is thought the removal of their

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favourite, Ezade-Bafha, from that poft to Aleppo, "had alfo fome fhare in it. At the return to Damafcus "of the fugitive foldiery, who convoyed the caravan, "thofe in the town rofe up in arms againft them, as "traitors to their faith; a great flaughter enfued, and "continued fome time; but there are advices fince,

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that all is quieted there. The Bafha of the caravan "fled to Gaza, with about 15 or 16 of his people, and "it is thought he will lofe his head. The riches "loft to many cities of this empire, which are either "taken by the Arabs, or difperfed in the deferts, are computed to amount to an immenfe fum, as they are fupplied from India with all forts of valuable merchandize, fpices, &c. by that canal. A like accident happened in the year 1694, under Ahmed the 2d.” Other inftances of the fame kind have happened fince; and are alfo recorded in the London Gazette; but I cannot recollect the dates, and at prefent have not the collection of Gazettes to apply to upon this occafion. So conftantly have the Arabs maintained the fame fpirit in all ages; and there is no power that can effectually controll them. Armies have been fent against parties of the Arabians, but without fuccefs. Thefe freebooters have commonly been too cunning for their enemies; and when it was thought that they were well nigh furrounded and taken, they have ftill efcaped out of their hands.

So well doth this particular prediction relating


to fome of the tribes of the Arabians agree with that general one concerning the main body of the nation, (Gen. XVI. 12.) He will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him: and he jhall dzvell in the prefence of all his brethren.

But though the Arabians thould escape out of his hands, yet Egypt fhould not escape, but fall under his dominion together with the adjoining countries. He fhall stretch forth his hand alfo upon the countries, and the land of Egypt Jhall not efcape." But he fhall have power over the treafures of gold and of filver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians fhall be at his Steps. (ver. 42, 43.) We read, faith (5) Jerome, that Antiochus did thefe things in part: but what follows relating to the Lybians and Ethiopians, our doctors affert, agrees better with Antichrift; for Antiochus did not poffels Lybia and Ethiopia. Theodoret too (6) affirms, that these things alfo by no means fit Antiochus, for he neither poffeffed Lybia, nor Ethiopia, nor even Egypt itfelf. This prophecy then cannot belong to Antiochus ; and indeed the proper application is to the Othman emperor. He fhall ftretch forth his hand alfo upon the countries: This implies that his dominions thould be of large extent; and he hath ftretched forth his hand upon many, not only Afian and European, but likewife African countries. Egypt in particular was deftined to fubmit to his yoke: And the land of Egypt fhall not escape; but he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of filver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the conqueft of Egypt with the neighbouring countries follows next in order after the conqueft of Judea with the neighbouring countries, as in the prophecy, fo likewife in hiftory. The Othman emperor Selim (7) having

(5) Hæc Antiochum ex parte feciffe legimus. Sed quod fequitur, per Libyas et Ethiopias tranfibit, magis noftri afferunt Antichritto convenire. Antiochus enim Libyam quam plerique Africam intelligunt, Ethiopiamque non tenuit. Hieron. ibid.


Αιθιοπίας εκρατησαν, ετε δε αύλης The Aryule. Et hæc item minime conveniunt Antiocho: qui neque Libya, neque Ethiopia, neque etiam ipfa Ægypto potitus eft. Theod. ibid. p. 691.

(7) Prince Cantemir's Hift. in Selim I. Sect. 16. p. 156, &c. Sa. vage's Abridgment of Knolles and Dd z

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