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Verdure ? blackens over all their trees, and even hides

their verdure. deforms 16. This mofs, however, which deforms

the country, ferves for its only fupport, as

upon it alone the rein-deer can sublift. The fubft?

inhabitants, who, during the summer, lived among the mountains, drive do their herds in winter, and people the plains and woods

below. remote ? 17. Such of the Laplanders as inhabit the

woods and the plains all the year round, live remote from each other, and having been usedi

to folitude, are melancholy, ignorant, and folitude ? helpless. They are much poorer also than

the mountaineers; for, while one of those is

found to possess a thousand rein-deer at a mountain- time, none of there are ever known to rear

the tenth part of that number.. preferred. 18. The rein-deer makes the riches of

this people and the cold mountainy parts of

the country agree best with its conftitution. , exclusive? It is for this reason, therefore, that the

mountains of Lapland are preferred to the woods ;, and that many claim an exclusive right to the tops of hills, covered in almost

eternal snow. paslare.

19. As soon as summer begins to appear

the Laplander drives his deer up to the mouninfested? tains and leaves the woody country and the

low pasture, which at that season are to in

fested with gnats and fies, as to fill the whole gnats.

air, like clouds of dust in a dry and windy

day. berdfman. 20. Every morning and evening, during

the summer, the herdsman returns to the cottage with his deer to be milked, where the

women previously have kindled up a smoky previously. fire, which effectually drives off the gnals,

and keeps the rein-deer quiet while milking. 11. The female furnishes about a pint,

which though thinner than that of the cow, Paliure. is nevertheless sweeter and more nourishing. This done, the herdsman drives them back to - folds ? pasture; as he neither folds nor houses them, neither provides for their subsistence during (ubsistence. the winter, nor improves their pasture by cul. tivation.

22. Upon the return of winter, when the defolate? gpats and flies are no longer to be feared, the Laplander defcends into the lower grounds; and, as there are but few to dispute the pof- extensive? session of that desolate country, he has an extensive

range to feed them in. Their chief and almost their only food at that time, is the white moss already mentioned.

23. This is of two kinds; the woody, which defert ? covers almost all the desert parts of the country like snow; the other is black, and covers Spectator ? the branches of the trees in very great quantities. However unpleasing thełe may be to choice the spectator, the native esteems them as one of his choiceit berefits, and the most indulgent indulgent? gift of nature.

24. While his fields are clothed with moss, fertility ? he envies neither the fertility nor the verdue of the more southern landscape; dressed up landscape ? warmly in his deer-skin clothes, his shoes and gloves of the same materials, he drives his herds along the desert, fearless and at ease, materials. ignorant of any higher luxury than what their milk and smoke-dried flesh afford him.

25. Hardened to the climate, he sleeps in hardened, the midst of ice; or' awaking, dozes away his time with tobacco; while his faithful dogs dozes. supply his place and keep the herd from wardering. The deer, in the mean time, adapted? with instincts adapted to the soil, pursue their food, tho covered in the deepest snow. pursue? 26. They turn it up with their noses, like


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swine; and even though its surface be frozen and stiff, yet the hide is so hardened in that part, that they easily overcome the difficulty.

27. The rein-deer, which we have now defcribed, are fo tractable, that they are har. neffed, like horses, to a fledge by a trap, which goes

round the neck and comes down between their legs. The fledge is extremely light, shaped something like a Imall boat, and is Thod on the bottom with the skin of a young deer, the hair turned to slide on the frozen snow.

28. The person who fits on this guides the animal with a cord, fastened round the horns, and encourages it to proceed with his voice, and drives it with a goad. Some of the wild breed, tho by far the strongeft, are yet found refractory, and often turn upon their drivers, who have then no other resource but to cover themselves with their fledge, and let the animal vent its fury upon that.

29. But it is otherwise with those that are tame; no creature can be more active, patient and willing; when hard pushed, they will trot between fifty and fixty English miles, at one stretch. But, in such a case, the poor obedient creature fatigues itself to death; and if not prevented by the Laplander, who kills it immediately, it will die a day or two after.

30. In general they can go about thirty miles without halting, and this without an, great or dangerous efforts. This, which is the only manner of travelling in that country, can be performed only in the winter, when the snow is glazed over with ice; and although it be a very speedy method of conveyance, yet it is inconvenient,dangerous,and troublesome. 31.

There is scarce any part of this animal that is not converted to its particular uscs.


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As soon as it begins to grow old, it is killed, Migrale ? and the flesh dried in the air. It is also some. times hardened with smoke, and laid up for travelling provision, when the natives migrate from one part of the country to another.

32. During the winter, the rein-deer are Naughtered. slaughtered as sheep with us; and every four persons in the family are allowed one rein-deer for their week's fubfiftence. In fpring, they berd? spare the herd as much as thy can, and live

upon fresh fish.

33. In summer, the milk and curd of the autumn ? rein-deer make their chief provision; and, in autumn, they live wholly upon fowls, which they kill with a cross-bow, or catch in springs. Nor is this so scanty an allowance; fowls. since, at that time, the sea-fowls come in such abundance, that their ponds and springs are catch. covered over.

34. These are not so shy as with us, but allured? yield themselves an easy prey. They are chief ly allured to those places by the swarms of swarms. gnats which infelt the country during summer, and now repay the former inconveniencies, by infeft? inviting fuch numbers of birds, as supply the natives with food a fourth part of the year, in

great abundance.

35. The skin is even a more valuable part of! Ahoes. this animal, than either of the former. From that part of it which covered the head and feet, they make their strong snow shoes with the hair on the outside.

36. Of the other parts, they compose their compose ? garments, which are extremely warm, and which cover them all over. The hair of these also is on the outside ; and they fometimes line them within with the fur of the glutton, glutton. or some other warm-furred animal of that climate. 37. These skins also serve them for beds.




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They spread them on each side of the fire, upon some leaves of the dwarf birch-tree,and in this manner lie both soft and warm.

38. Many garments, made of the skin of the rein-deer, are sold every year to the inhabitants of the more southern parts of Europe ; and they are found so serviceable in keeping out the cold, that even the people of the first rank are known to wear them.

39. In short, no part of this animal is thrown away as useless. The blood is preserved in small casks, to make fauce with the marrow in spring. The horns are sold to be converted into glue. The finews are dried, and divided fo as to make the strongest kind of fowing thread, not unlike catgut. 40. The tongues,

which are considered as a great delicacy, are dried, and sold into the more southern provinces. The intestines themselves are washed like our tripe, and in high esteem among the natives. Thus the Laplander finds all his necessities amply supplied from this single animal ; and he who has a large herd of these animals, has no idea of higher luxury.



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Defcription of Mount Vernon.


OUNT VERNON, the celebrated



INGTON, is pleasantly situated on the Virginia bank, of the river Potomack, where it is nearly two miles wide. It is nine miles from Alexandria, and four above the beautiful seat of the late Col. Fairfax, called Bellvoir.

2. The area of the Mount is two hundred feet above the surface of the river, and after furnishing a lawn of five acres front, and


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