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The Camel and the Dromedary.
HESEnames do not make two diftinct Camel.
kinds, but are only given to a variety of the fame animal, which has, however, fub- dromedary. fifted time in memorial. The principal, and perhaps the only sensible difference, by which immemorial? those two races are distinguished, consists in this, that the camel has two bunches apon his principal. back, whereas the dromedary has but one; the latter also, is neither fo large nor lo strong as the camel.
2. These two races, however, produce with patient. each other, and the mixed breed formed between them, is considered the beit the most indefatigapatient, and the most indefatigable of all the ble ? kind. Of the two varieties, the dromedary is, by far, the most numerous: the camel be- Turkey. ing scarcely found, except in Turkey, and the countries of the Levant, while the other is Indies. found spread over all the deserts of Arabia, the southern parts of Africa, Persia, Tartary, and a great part of the eastern Indies,
3. Neither, however, can subsist, or propa. travel. gate, in the variable climates towards the north ; they seem formed for those countries where shrubs are plenty and water Ycarce; impeded ? where they can travel along the sandy defert, without being impeded by rivers, and find food at expected distances ; such a coun- adapted ? try is Arabia, and this of all others, seems the most adapted to the support and produce tion of this animal. 4.
The camel is the most temperate of all temperate ? animals, and it can continue to tiavel several days without drinking. In those vast deserts, where the earth is every where dry and fandy, where there are neither birds nor beasts, nei- vegetables ? ther infests nor vegetables, where nothing is
Pasure. to be seen but bills of sand and heaps of bones
there the camel travels, posting forward, fuiflenance? without requiring either drink or pasture,
and is often found fix or seven days without
any sustenance whatsoever. travelling 5. Its feet are formed for travelling upon
fand, and utterly unfit for moilt or marshy animal ? places; the inhabitants, therefore, find a molt
useful aslistant in this animal, where no other conveyance! could subfilt, and by its means, cross thore
deferts with safety, which would be unpalla.
ble by any other method of conveyance. propagate ?
6. An animal, thus formed for a fandy and desert region, cannot be propagated in one
of a different nature. Many vain efforts transported ? have been tried to propagate the camel in
Spain; they have been transported into A.
merica, but have multiplied in neither. changeable
7. It is true, indeed, that they may be nefs. brought into thefe countries, and may, per
haps, be found to produce there, but the care of keeping them is fo great, and the accidents.
to which they are exposed, from the changedrgonerate ? ableness of the climate, are fo many, that
they cannot answer the care of keeping. In a few years also, they are seen to degenerate ;
their strength and their patience forfake patience. them; and, instead of making the riches,they
become the burden of their keepers.
8. But it is very different in Arubia, and
tliofë countries where the camel is turned to traffic.
useful purposes. It iş there considered as a sacred aninial, without whose help, the natives could neither fubfift, traffic, nor travel;
its milk makes a part of their nourishment; clothe. they feed upon its fleth, particularly when
Joung ; they cloilie themselves with its hair, which it is seen to moult regularly cnce a
year, and if they fcar an invading enemy, moult ? their canıels serve them in flight, and in a
fingle day, they are known to travel above a bundred miles.
9. Thus by means of the camel, an Ara. Pursuit. bian finds safety in his deserts ; all the armies upon earth might be lost in the pursuit of a refuge? flying squadron of this country, mounted upon their camels, and taking refuge in foli. interposes? tudes, where nothing interpoies to stop their fight, or to force them to await the invader.
10. Nothing can be more dreary than the drcary? aspect of the.e fandy plains, that feem entirely foriaken of life and vegetation : wherever the eye turns, nothing is presented but a sterile effea ? and duity soil, iometimes torn up by the winds, and moving in great waves along, which, when viewed from an eminence, re- fride ? sembles lets the earth than the ocean.
11. Here and there a few shrubs appear that only teach us to wish for the grove, ihat grove? reminds us of the thade in these lultry climates, without affording its refreshment ; the return of morning, which, in other places, sultry ?carries an idea of cheerfulneis,heie lei ves only to enlighten the endless and dreary: waiteg, forlorn. and to present the traveller with an unfinished prospect of his forlorn lituation ; yet, in. this chalm of nature by the help of the camel, chasm? the Arabian finds safety and subsistence.
12. Thus these deserts, which present the. stranger with nothing but objects of danger sterility ? and iterility, afford the inhabitant protection, food and liberty. The Arabian lives inde. pendent and tranquil in the midt of his fol- tranquil ? itudes; and inftead of conlidering the valt lolitudes spread around him as a reltraint upon: his happiness, he is, by experience, taught to ramparts ? regard them as the ramparts of his freedoin.
13. The camel is eally intruded in the methods of taking up and supporting his burden ; their legs, a few days after they are prc- weight. duced, are bent under their belly ; they are in this manner loaded, and taught to rise ; their burden is every day thus increased, by
Adequate? infensible degrees, till the animal is capable of
supporting a weight adequate to its force. paticnt. 14. The fame care is taken in making them
patient of hunger and thirit : while other ani. thiri. mals receive their food at stated times, the
camel is restrained for days together, and thefe Juftaining?
intervals of famine are increased in propora tion as the animal seems capable of sustaining
them. fomach. 15. By this method of education, they
live five or fix days without food or water; and their ftomach is foi med most admirably by nature, to fit them for long abstinence:
besides the four ftomachs, which all animals abstinence ? have, that chew the cud, ( and the camel is
of the number ) it lias a fth stomach, which serves as a reservoir, to hold a greater quantity of water than the animai has an immedia
ate occasion for. reservoir ? 16. It is of a sufâcient capacity to contain
a large quantity of water, where the fluid recapacity.
mains without corrupting, or without being
aduiterated by the other aliments : when the resource !
camel finds itiel prefied with thirt, it has
here an easy resource for quenching it; it adulterated? throws up a quantity of this water by a fim
pe contraction of the muscles, into the other aliments ? ftomachs, and this ferves to macerate its dry
and fimple fod. macerate?
17. In this manner, as it drinks but fel
dom, it takes in a large quantity at a time ; travellers. and travellers, when straitened for water,
have been often known to kill their camels for that which they expected to find within
them. Araitered? 18. In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, Barbary
and Egypt, their whole commerce is carried carriage. on by means of camels, and no carriage is
more fpeedy, and none less expensive in these
countries. Merchants and travellers unite Speedy, themselves into a body, furnished with cam