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that empire. The rest of it may almost as soon be read as characterized, and is therefore left to the reader's censure.
VI Captain John Monck's voyage into the northern parts, was performed by order of Christian IV. king of Denmark, in the years 1619 and 1620. The particular preface to it mentions the most material points, which therefore need not be repeated here. What may be added concerning the captain is, that he was one of the ablest seamen of his time; that he had excellent natural parts; was of a bold and daring spirit, proper to attempt those dangerous discoveries; and hardy to endure all the rigours of those frozen climates: but what is his greatest commendation in this place is, that he was a man of truth and integrity, as may appear by his narrative, in which all that have followed him could find nothing to contradict.
VII. To Beauplan's description of Ukraine so particular a preface is prefixed, that little more can be added. In general, the reader will find many things, both moral and natural, that are rare and remarkable. He lived in that country about the year 1640. He was excellently qualified to give this description, being a mathematician and an engineer; and he has performed it so well, that nothing seems to be wanting but the map, which he • tells us was seized with his papers by the king of Poland.
VIII. The two voyages to Congo in Afric were performed, the first by Michael Angelo of Gattina, and Denis de Carli of Piacenza, capuchins and missioners into that kingdom, in the year 1666. The first of these died there, after he had sent these particulars in letters to his friends. The other returned into Italy, where he composed a small book, from which this is translated. It begins with their voyage from Italy to Lisbon, and thence to Brasil, which introduces a brief account of that country; and thence sailing over to Afric, treats of the Portuguese town of Loando on that coast, of the behaviour and manners of the people, their way of travelling, the product of the country, of the several princes, the proceedings of those and other missioners, the state of religion; and lastly, remarks in the author's travels through Spain and France in his return home. More particulars whereof may be seen in the translator's preface before the voyage.
ix. The other voyage to the same country was performed by F. Jerome Merolla da Sorrento in the year 1682, who was also a missioner. The vessel he went in being by contrary winds carried to the southward of the Cape of Good Hope, the father delivers all that is remarkable in running along that southern coast of Afric, till his arrival at the port of Angola. Then he enters upon his business, with the discovery of Congo, and first missions to those parts; describes the river Zaire, relates the proceedings of the missioners, the superstitions and customs of the Blacks, something of the wars betwixt the Portuguese and the Blacks, and
of the attempts of the Dutch and English to breed enmity betwixt those two nations. He describes the beasts, birds, fruits, and plants of Congo, and has many curious things not taken notice of by the former missionaries.
X. The first volume concludes with sir Thomas Roe's journal, a valuable piece. He was sent ambassador by king James the First to the great Mogul, in 1615, at the charge of the East India Company, to settle peace and commerce. Being in that high post, he was the better able to give us a true account of the court of that mighty monarch, to show us all the customs and manners of it, and to instruct us in their policies, arts, and maxims of state, which common travellers are not allowed to pry into. There is no cause to suspect the truth of his relation, because his negotiations in Turkey, where he was ambassador, lately printed, show the extent of his genius, which was universal; and for integrity, that he was one of the honestest as well as ablest ministers that ever was employed by any court; and in this journal he had an eye particularly to serve those who had business to transact in India, and were to have business there in all future time. For a fuller account of this work we refer to the preface before the journal itself.
1. The second volume commences with the voyages and travels of Mr. John Nieuhoff, a Dutchman, and employed by the Dutch Company to the East and West Indies. They are divided into three parts. The first to Brasil, an. 1640, in which he went merchant supercargo to a ship of the West India Company. His description of Brasil is so exact and full, that he has left nothing for the diligence of those who came after him; for besides the general map, there are draughts of the towns of Arecite and Olinda, and cuts of all the strange beasts, birds, serpents, insects, trees, plants, and of the Indians themselves, all taken upon the spot. To which he adds the transactions in the war betwixt the Dutch and Portuguese in that country, he being there in the height of it, that is, from 1640 till 1649.
The second part contains the author's travels in the East Indies, begun in the year 1653. In the way thither he describes the islands of Cabo Verde, giving draughts of two of them, called S. Anthony and S. Vincent; and then a map of the Cape of Good Hope. Thence he sails to Amboyna, of which, and of the Molucco islands, as also of Formosa, he leaves nothing worth relating untouched. The same he performs from China all along the coast of India and Persia ; so plainly representing all things observable or strange there, that with the belp of his cuts we seem to be conversing with the people of those parts, to see all their towns and living creatures, and to be thoroughly acquainted with their habits, customs, and superstitions. But when he comes to Batavia, the metropolis of the Dutch dominions in the East, he there spares no labour or cost to express the greatness of that city; and this not only with words, but with abundance of fine draughts, representing, besides the town and harbour, the church, the markets, the town-house, the hospital, and many other places and structures. All the habits of those parts are also represented. In short, the whole work contains eighty-two cuts, which being all drawn to truth, and not fancy, illustrate the work, and render it extraordinary valuable. All this is interwoven with discourses of the wars betwixt the Dutch and Indians in several parts; and many remarks of their history, both political and natural.
The third part is a voyage to the east side of Afric, in the year 1672, which is very short and imperfect; Mr. Nieuhoff being unfortunately killed in the island of Madagascar by the natives.
II. After Nieuhoff follow Smith's adventures, travels, and observations, beginning with his travels in the Low Countries, France, and Italy, proceeding thence to the wars betwixt the Turks and Transilvanians, where the author served ; and being taken prisoner and carried into Tartary, he speaks somewhat of that country: making his escape from the Tartars, he crossed all Europe, and passed into Barbary: hence he went to Virginia, the Summer Islands, and New England, and has left us the bistory of the English settlements in those places, and their state from the year 1624 to 1629, thence he passed to the Leeward Islands, of which he likewise gives an account.
III. Next to Smith's adventures, the reader will find two journals of men left in the frozen regions of Greenland and Spitzbergen, to winter there, and make some observations on those countries.
The first of these is of seven sailors, who voluntarily consented to stay in the isle of Maurice, on the coast of Greenland. These kept an exact diary, setting down the wind, weather, and all other particulars they could observe, from the twenty-sixth of August, 1633, till the twenty-ninth of April, 1634. The method is plain, and such as might be expected from sailors; and as there is nothing in the relation that seems incredible, so neither is there any ground to call the truth of it in question, because they all died one after another, and left this journal behind them without any alteration : and doubtless as they felt themselves de clining, they would have no inclination to impose on the world.
The second journal is of seven other Dutch sailors, left to winter at Spitzbergen in the year 1634, where they also kept & diary from the eleventh of September, till the twenty-sixth of February, when being spent with the scurvy, and their limbs benumbed with the winter's cold, they could not help themselves, and, like the others, were all found dead at the return of the Dutch fleet in 1635.
IV. The next is a very brief relation of a shipwreck in Spitzbergen in 1646, and of the taking up of four of the men who escaped, after a wonderful manner; yet three of them died soon after, and only one returned home.
V. The descriptions of Iceland and Greenland were written about the year 1645, by Mr. la Peyrere, a learned Frenchman, author of the book about the Præ-Adamites, secretary to the French embassy at Copenhagen, at the request of the ingenious Mons. de la Mothe la Vayer, and sent to him: of Iceland, a country long inhabited, though so cold and northerly, he delivers something of ancient history, besides the description of the land, the manners of the people, and other things remarkable. In Greenland he follows much the same method, and both of them are well worthy to be read with attention, as delivering one of the most accomplished narratives we have of those parts, and esteemed as such by Mons. de la Mothe la Vayer, who was a very competent judge.
VI. The next in order is captain Thomas James's voyage, an, 1631, for the discovery of the north-west passage into the South Sea : setting sail in May, he ran into the latitude of 63 degrees and upwards. It is very observable throughout the voyage, that we shall scarce meet with so continual a series of storms, and all sorts of hardships, miseries, and calamities, as this captain run through ; who after struggling till September with tempests, cold and uninhabited shores, at last was driven upon a desert frozen island, and there forced to winter in miserable distress. The account he gives of the extremity of the cold in those quarters, and his observations on it, are curious, and were very useful to Mr. Boyle, in the experiments he made about cold. But the general esteem his relation is in among the ingenious will sufficiently recommend it. He returned safe home with most of
VII. The Muscovite ambassador's journey by land from Moscow to China in 1645 is so short that it requires little to be said of it, but that it describes the way from Moscow to Peking, and shows us that the city is the same with the so much talked of and little known Cambalu, mistakenly supposed to be in Tartary. This ambassador being never admitted to audience, could learn nothing of the Chinese court, and therefore does not pretend to inform us of any thing that relates to it.
VIII. Wagner's travels in Brasil and the East Indies about 1633, which are annexed to this embassy, are as short, and may so soon be read over, that it is needless to give a character of them.
IX. The life of Christopher Columbus has a short preface to it, partly the author's, and partly the translator's, which is sufficient to inform the reader both of the contents of the book, and the value of it above others that treat of the same subject, And indeed nothing can be described more authentic, if we will give credit to original papers, and those from so good a hand as the admiral himself and his own son, who bore part with him in some of his enterprises. But we must not omit to observe, that under the title of his life is contained the narration of all that was done in the discovery of the West Indies in his time, about 1492, besides abundance of curious remarks, scarce to be found in any other author that writes upon this subject.
X. Greaves's account of the pyramids, needs little to be said of it. The universal approbation it has received is a greater character than can be here given of it; the judicious Mons. Thevenot set such a value upon it, that he translated it into French. In a word, it is the most accomplished narrative we have of those wonderful piles, and may spare all other travellers the trouble of writing of them. He has said all that can be expected: he instructs us who were the founders of the pyramids, the time of erecting them, the motive and design of them, and then describes them exactly, and gives draughts of them.
XI. His Roman foot and denarius added to his pyramids, is another piece of excellent literature, to give light into the weights and measures of the ancients.
XII. Christopher Borri's account of Cochin-china, where he lived about the year 1620, closes the second volume. It is short, but contains many curious things, being full of matter, without superfluity of words to swell it to a volume.
1. The historical relation of the kingdom of Chili, by Alonso de Ovalle, about the year 1646, has the first place in the third volume. It is the only good account of that kingdom; the author, being a Jesuit, inserted the relations of several miracles in this work, which the translator has in great measure retrenched; for the rest, his veracity is unquestioned. The author himself is so modest, as to excuse any fault that may be found with this work, alleging its being written at Rome, where he was procurator for those of his order in Chili; and, being so far from home, ill-provided with papers and all materials for composing a history of this sort: but whosoever reads it, will find more ground for commendation than need of excuse, nothing of the kind being more complete, full, and accurate. Something might be here sid as to the particulars contained in this book, but that the author and translator have done it already in two several prefaces before the book. The translator gives the author and his work that honourable character they deserve. The author in his preface sums up the contents of his book, declares how sincerely he has dealt, in order to deliver nothing but the truth; gives his reasons for what he says relating to Peru and Mexico, and lastly demonstrates how this work may be diverting and useful to all sorts of readers.
II. After Ovalle, follow sir William Monson's naval tracts. Sir William was a gentleman well descended, but of small fortune, as he confesses, which made him take to the sea, where he served many years in several capacities, till merit raised him to the degree of an admiral, first under queen Elizabeth, and then under king James