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then in China, where he suffered much, being put to the rack, twice whipped, and then banished. Coming to Rome, he gave the pope a good account of the affairs of that country, whither he returned, and spent there the remainder of his life, dying at 70 years of age in the province of Fokien. This much has been said of him, to show that he was well acquainted with what he writ, and well deserves the general approbation he has met with.

Embaxada de D. Garcia de Silva Figueroa a la Persia. This ambassador was a man curious and knowing, and observed many considerable things which other authors have not spoke of, and made learned reflections on what ancient historians have writ of the eastern countries. He gives an account of the manners and customs of the people, and description of all places in the way he went from Goa to Ispahan, the capital of Persia. The relation of the Persians taking Ormuz from the Portuguese, a description of Chilminara, the ancient palace of Persepolis, burnt by Alexander the Great when he was drunk. This is a book of great value in the original Spanish, the French translation being vitiated by the translator, so that there is no relying on it.

Conquista y antiquedades de las islas de la Gran Canaria, su descripcion, &c. Per el licenciado Juan Nunez de la Pena, 4o. Madrid. The conquest and antiquities of the Canary islands, being perhaps the best relation we have of them, both as to their present state and antiquities.

ENGLISH Hackluyt, a minister by profession, is the first Englishman that compiled any collection of travels now extant: he himself was no traveller, but only delivers what he could gather from others. His work was published in the year 1598, and reaches down to 1597; it is divided into three parts, composing orie thick volume in folio. The first contains the following voyages : 1. K. Arthur to Iseland. an. 517. 2. K. Malgo to Iseland, Gotland, &c. an. 580. 3. K. Edwin to Anglesey and Man, an. 624. 4. Bertus to Ireland, an. 684. 5. Octher beyond Norway, an. 890. 6. Octher into the Sound. 7. Wolstan into the Cound. 8. K. Edgar round his monarchy, an, 978. 9. Edmund and Edward into Hungary, an. 1017. 10. Harald into Russia, an. 1067. 11. An Englishman into Tartary, Poland, and Hungary, an. 1243. 12. F. de Plano's wonderful voyage, an. 1246. 13. F. de Ru. bricis's journal, an. 1253. 14. F. de Linna towa rds the North Pole, an. 1860. 15. Hen. e of Derby into Prus sia, an. 1390. 16. F. of Woodstock into Prussia, an. 1391, 17. Sir H. Willoughby to Lapland, an. 1553. 18. Chancellor's discovery of Muscovy by sea, an. 1553. 19. Burrough to the river Ob, an. 1556. 20. Johnson to the Samoeds, an. 1556. 21. Burrough to Wardhouse, an. 1557. 22. Jenkinson to Russia, an. 1557. 23. Jenkinson from Moscow into Bactria, an. 1558. 24. Jenkinson through Russia into Persia, an. 1561. 25. Alcock, &c. by land to Persia, an. 1563. 26. Johnson, &c. by land to Persia, 1565. 27. Southam and Spark to Novogrod, an. 1566. 28. Jenkinson to Russia, an. 1566. 29. Edwards, &c. by land to Persia, an. 1568. 30. Banister and Ducket by land to Persia, an. 1569. 31. Burrough to Livonia, an. 1570. 32. Jenkinson to Russia, an. 1571. 33. Burrough by land to Persia, an. 1579. . 34. Pet and Jackman to the North-East, an. 1580. 35. Horsey by land from Moscow to England, an. 1584. 36. Russians to the North-East. 37. Voyage to Siberia and the river Ob. 38. Vanquishing the Spanish Armada, an. 1588. 39. Voyage to Cadiz, an. 1596. Thus far the first volume; the first 16 of which voyages are not of much moment or authority, and the two last are warlike expeditions, which were not properly placed among discoveries; the rest of the volume is filled with treaties, patents, and letters. Thus it appears all these, except the two last, are northern voyages. The second volume contains voyages to the Straits, coast of Afric, and the East Indies. Of these the greatest part are pilgrimages to Jerusalem, many of very little moment, expeditions for the Holy Land, common trading voyages, that have little or nothing of curiosity, and sea-fights; all which being great number, and of no moment, are not worth inserting here: the small remaining part are voyages to Guinea, and other coasts of Afric, and some few to the East Indies; of all which there is a much better account in Purchas and others, and therefore they are not inserted in this place. Besides, as in the first part, there are abundance of letters, discourses, patents, and such original papers. The third volume, not to mention many of no worth, has these considerable voyages. Se-' bastian Cabot's to North America, three of Sir Martin Forbisher to the North-West passage, two of Davis's to the North-Il'est, Hore and Gilbert to Newfoundland ; Granpre and others to the isle of Ramea ; three of Jacques Cartier to Newfoundland, Canada, &c. Roberval to Canada; Amadas, Balow, Greenvil, and others, to Virginia; Verazzano, Ribault, Laudonnierre, and Gourges to Florida ; Marco de Nica, Francis Vasques Coronado, and Antony de Espejo to Cibola, Culiacon, and New Galicia ; Ulloa, Alarcon, and Drake to California: Ovalle to the Philippine Islands, Lequeos, Chinn, and back to Acapulco; Tonson, Bodenham, Chilton, Hawks, Philips, and Hortop to New Spain, Peru, and Panuco; Pert sind Cabot to Brasil; Tison and Hawkins to the West Indies; Hawkins to Guinea and the West Indies; Drake to Nombre de Dios; Oxnam, Barker, Drake, Michelson to Mexico, &c. Newport to Puerto Rico, &c. May to the Straits of Magellan; Iudley, Preston, Drake, Sherley, Parker, to several parts of the West Indies; Raleigh to the island Trinidad, and to

Guiana; Hawkins, Reniger, Hare, Lancaster to Brasil; two Englishmen and Drake up the river of Plate; Drake round the world ; Silva through the Straits of Magellan ; Winter into the South Sea; Fenton to Brasil; Withrington to 44 degrees of south latitude; Candish round the world; ship Delight to the Straits of Magellan; Candish his last voyage. Thus have we briefly run over the contents of Ilackluyt's collection, precisely setting down all in the first volume, to give the reader a taste of the author's method of heaping together all things good and bad, which has been abridged in relation to the second and third volumes, to avoid being tedious. The collection is scarce and valuable for the good there is to be picked out; but it might be wished the author bad been less voluminous, delivering what was really authentic and useful, and not stuffing his work with so many stories taken upon trust, so many trading voyages that have nothing new in them, so many warlike exploits not at all pertinent to his uudertaking, and such a multitude of articles, charters, privileges, letters, relations, and other things little to the purpose of travels and discoveries.

Purchas was the next great English collector of travels after Hackluyt, whom he has imitated too much, swelling his work into five volumes in folio. The whole collection is very valuable, as having preserved many considerable voyages which might otherwise bave perished. But to particularize with him, as has been done before with Hackluyt; his first volume is divided into five books. The first contains the travels of the ancient patriarchs, the apostles and philosophers, with the warlike expeditions of Alexander the Great, and other princes; to which is added an inquiry into languages, and an account of the several sorts of religions. The second book treats of navigation in general, the discoveries made by Henry prince of Portugal, king John of Portugal, Columbus of the West and Gama of the East Indies; then follow Magellan, Drake, Candish, Noort, and Spilbergen round the world, and Le Maire's discovery of the new strait of his name. The third book is filled with some private voyages to the East Indies, and the seven first made by the East India Company, with descriptions, and an account of all those parts, their product, trade, government, religion, &c. but all, as delivered by the first that resorted there and made no long stay, imperfect, and far short of what we have had since. The fourth book contains the Sth voyage of the East India Company, capt. Saris to Japan; Finch to India, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th voyages of the Company; observations for sailors; Steel to the Mogul's court; Milward to India ; l'eyton to India; an extract of sir Thomas Roe, ambassador from king James to the Mogul, his journal; Coryat's travels. The fifth book still continues upon accounts of the East Indies, of all parts thereof, and from many several hands, upon differences between the Dutch and En

glish, wars of the natives, engagements of the English and Portuguese,

and
many other

passages and occurrences to the same purpose. The sixth book, being the first in the second volume, begins with collections of John Leo's history of Afric, and R. c.'s history of Barbary: then follow Nicholay's description of Argier; an expedition to Argier under sir Robert Mansel; and some relations of Afric. The seventh book begins Jobson's voyage to Guinea; Battle's account of Angola is next, then Pigasetta's relation of Congo, Alvarez's voyage to Ethiopia ; D. John de Castro from India to Suez; Bermudez the patriarch to Ethiopia, and Nunhes Barreto of the same country. The eighth contains several pilgrimages to Jerusalem, Christian expeditions to the Holy Land; Barton's (q. Elizabeth's ambassador to the great Turk) account of his voyage and the adventures of J. Smith. The ninth book consists of Sherley's travels into Persia ; Benjamin the son of Jonas his peregrination; Terrey's voyage to the Mo gul; Barthema's to Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, and India; collections of Asia out of Arabic; Meneses's account of India; Figueroa to Ispahan, J. de Santos to Ethiopia; Jobson on Gambra river; account of the grand signior's seraglio; Sanderson's voyages in the straits : Timberley from Cairo to Jerusalem: Newberry of the eastern parts of the world; Fran. Pyrard de la Vol to the East Indies. The tenth book has a collection of Spanish and Portuguese voyages out of Galvan ; Trigautius his voyage to India; letter touching Japan; Frederick's Indian observations; Balbi to Pegu ; Fitz to Goa, and other parts of India; Pimenta's observations of India ; Linschoten's voyages to India; relation of Ormuz; sir Rob. Sherley to Persia; Coryate's travels; Lithgow Scot to the Holy Land, &c. Intelligence out of Turkey; Brown's Indian voyage; Dutch proceedings at Amboyna ; and description of the bay of Todos os Santos. The third volume, book the first, contains as follows: W. de Rubricis' travels into the East; relations of Bacon, and Balvacensis; Wendover of the Tartars; Mr. Paulus Venetus his voyages; S.J. Mandeville's travels; extracts of an Arabic history of Tamerlan; travels of Chaggi Memet, a Persian; treatise of China, of F. Gaspar da Cruz; Pereira of China. The second book has, Sir H. Willoughby, Chanceller, and Jenkinson's voyages to the North-East; Extracts of Fernan Mendez Pinto's travels, discovery and planting of the Philippine islands; Goes' travels from Lahor to China by land; Jesuits first entrance into China and Japan ; Pantoja's account of China ; Discourse of China out of Riccius and T'rigautius. The third book, Fletcher's treatise of Russia ; Edge's northern voyages; Barents into the North Sea ; Gerart de Veer's northern voyages; Iver Boty of Iceland and Greenland; description of Siberia, Samoieda, and Tingoesia ; Gourdon to Pecora; Logan to Pecora, and his wintering there ; Pusglove to Pecora, and wintering there; Gourdon wintering at Pustozra ;

Voyages to Cherry island; Hudson's northern voyages; discovery of Nicholas and Anthony Zeni; Quirino's shipwreck; Barkley's travels in Europe, Asia, Afric, and America ; Broniovius embassador to the Crim Tartar; Blefken's voyages and history of Iceland and Greenland; Angrim Jonas's history of Iceland. The fourth book sir T. Smith to Cherry island ; Poole to Greenland; Baffin to Greenland; Fosterby to Greenland ; several northern voyages; revolutions in Russia; Cossac's travels out of Siberia to Catay; discovery of the river Ob; Cabot, Thorn, and Weymouth's voyages to the south-west; Hall to discover Greenland; Knight to the north-west passage. Other northern voyages. The fifth book, Herrera's description of the West Indies, Acosta and Oviedo of the West Indies, Mexican history in cuts, conquest of Mexico by Cortes, other particulars of America. The fourth volume begins with the sixth book, and in it as follows: the first book, earl of Cumberland's voyage, Cabot, Pert, Hawkins, and Drake's voyages and sea-fights, Carder living among the savages in Brasil, Candish's unfortunate voyage to the straits of Magellan, Knivet's adventures with Candish, Turner in Brasil, Parker taking Puerto Bello, Middleton and Geare to the West Indies. Description of the island Trinidad, country of Guiana, and river Oronoko, by F. Sparrey. Leigh's voyages to Guiana, massacre of English in Guiana, Wilson's relation of Guiana, Harcourt to Guiana, description of the river of the Amazons. The seventh book, a treatise of Brasil written by a Portuguese; extracts of Leri's history of Brasil; Schnirdel's 20 years' travels, Hawkins to the South Sea, Ellis of the same voyage, relation of an Englishman 13 years prisoner in Peru, Ursino of the coast of the firm land, and secrets of Peru and Chili; notes of the West Indies out of Peter Ordonez de Cevallos. New discovery in the South Sea by Peter Fernandez Quiros, Lope Vas of American affairs, extracts of Benzo of the new world, and of Garcilasso incas of Peru; Pizarro's conquest of Peru, occurrences in Peru after the conquest. The eighth book, Alvar Nunez of Florida, Soto to Florida, discoveries to the northward of Mexico by Nuno de Guzman, Marco de Nica, D. Fr. Vasquez Coronada, and D. Ant. de Espejo; Casas of the cruelties of the Spaniards, voyages and plantations of French in North America, Gosnol to Virginia, other voyages to Virginia. Description of the Azores. The ninth book, description of Virginia, and proceeding of the English colonies there, wreck of sir Thomas Gate, and account of the Bermudas; Argol from Virginia to Bermudas, affairs relating to Virginia, fight of an English and two Spanish ships, voyages to the Summer Islands, and history of them. The tenth book, discovery and plantation of New England, Chalton's voyage for North Virginia, extracts of Smith of New England's trials, other accounts of New England ; New Scotland, the first planting of it, Newfoundland, the first settle

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VOL. X.

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