« السابقةمتابعة »
vident taxations, their manufactures, and other articles of trade at home, nor such commodities imported from abroad, as may dispose other nations to cultivate those very articles among themselves, which they have hitherto received from us.
However populous and great, industrious and rich, the settlements in the vast continent of America may hereafter become, this the mother-country may for ever be connected with it more intimately than the southern nations, by encouraging the growth and produce of vines and olives, silk and fruits, which cannot advantageously be raised in England : and sound policy will always engage the subjects in England and America not to be rivals in trade, by setting up such manufactures in one country as must necessarily distress the other.
The wisdom of this country will instruct governors to do all that is possible to promote the linen-manufacture in Ireland ; and the wise and good in both kingdoms will never desire such use of their wool and their ports as must be directly prejudicial to England.
The most perfect harmony will subsist between Great Britain and her colonies, as long as British subjects, cemented by blood, by mutual interest and commerce, continue friends to liberty and the protestant religion, and succession in the present royal family; this is a true and lasting family-compact : all which inestimable blessings will be rendered permanent and inviolable by the fleets of England, which, whilst the British empire is united, will be superior to all other powers in the world.
The editor cannot take his leave of the reader without observing, that very important services have been done to America, by a plan of government drawn up for the province of Carolina by Mr. Locke, under the direction of that eminent and able statesman the first earl of Shaftsbury; and by the present earl of Shaftsbury, as an active and zealous trustee for the colony of Georgia ; from which, in time, we may expect a considerable quantity of raw silk will be imported into England.
Vines are natural to the soil of many parts in America; and, if olive-trees are planted in such provinces as are most proper for the growth of them, the planters will soon be enriched, and England relieved in several articles made from this profitable fruit, and which are necessary to the support of every individual, and every manufacture in the kingdom.
Temple, March, 1766.
G.S. TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE
ANTHONY, EARL OF SHAFTSBURY.
MY LORD, The country, where these observations were made, hath vanity enough to overvalue every thing it produces : and it is hard to live in a place, and not take some tincture from the manners of the people. Yet I think I should scarce have ventured to trouble your lordship with these French trifles, had not your lordship yourself encouraged me to believe, that it would not be unacceptable to you, if I took this way (for I ought all manner of ways) to express that duty and observance wherewith I am,
Your lordship's most humble,
and most obedient servant,
Ch. Ch. Feb. 1, 1679.
W I N E.
In Languedoc they plant their vineyards in February; and they choose the quarter before the full, as the fittest time of the moon to do it in.
They set the cuttings they plant exactly in quincunx, and the rows at four and a half, five, and six pans distance.--A pan is 9 inches.
About Tholoun in Provence, and also about Bourdeaux, I have seen vines and corn interchangeably; viz. two or three rows of vines, and then a ridge or two of corn.
They set their plants about a spit deep, and always leave two knots above ground.
In setting the vines, they dig the ground sometimes all over, sometimes only in trenches.
They plant their vineyards both in plains and on hills, with indifferency; but say that on hills, especially opening to the east or south, the wine is best: in plains they produce most. The soil about Frontignan, where the best muscat grows, is so stony, that one can see no earth at all. And the vine de Pontac, so much esteemed in England, grows on a rising open to the west, in a white sand mixed with a little gravel, which one would think would bear nothing; but there is such a particularity in the soil, that at Mr. Pontac's, near Bourdeaux, the merchants assured me that the wine growing in the very next vineyards, where there was only a ditch between, and the soil, to appearance, perfectly the same, was by no means so good. The same also they observe about Montpelier, where two vineyards, bounding one upon another, constantly produce the one good and the other bad wine.
A vineyard, from its planting, will last fifty, eighty, or an hundred years. The older the vineyard, the fewer the grapes, but the better the wine. New planted vineyards produce more, but the wine not so good: it is generally green, i. e. more inclining to verjuice.
The vineyard thus planted, the next year at pruning they cut them, so that (if conveniently there can) there may be four shoots next year, near the ground, at least three, spreading several ways, which may come to be so many standing branches, out of which the shoots are to sprout. There being thus left the beginnings of three or four branches spreading different ways, ever afterwards, when they come to prune, they leave about an inch of that last year's shoot, which grew straight out of the top of each of the four standing branches ; the rest they cut off clean to the old stock.
If by chance they find (when they are pruning) a vine decayed, or gone in any place, they dig a trench from the next stock to that place, and saying the old stock along in the trench, order it so that one last year's shoot of the said stock shall come out just where the laid stock grew, and another where there was one wanting: these they cut off about eight or nine inches above the ground, which being fed by the great old root (which they move not when they lay the old stock, but so loosen it only as it may let the old stock be gently bent down, and so be buried in the trench) will bear the next vintage ; whereas, if they planted a cutting in the place where they found a stock wanting, it would not bear in three or four years. By these young plants, they stick in a good strong branch, a pretty deal longer than the plant, which they leave there to defend it.
They prune their vines in December, January, February, and March: they that do it so late as the latter end of February, or the month of March, are such as have vineyards apt to shoot early in the spring; and, if cold weather nip the young shoots, they have the fewer grapes at the vintage. And in pruning their vines they