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any officer thereunto authorised by each church or profession respectively, shall cease to be a member of that church or profession.
CVI. No man shall use any reproachful, reviling, or abusive language, against any religion of any church or profession; that being the certain way of disturbing the peace, and of hindering the conversion of any to the truth, by engaging them in quarrels and animosities, to the hatred of the professors and that profession, which otherwise they might be brought to assent to. :
CVII. Since charity obliges us to wish well to the souls of all men, and religion ought to alter nothing in any man's civil estate or right, it shall be lawful for slaves, as well as others, to enter themselves, and be of what church or profession any of them shall think best, and thereof be as fully members as any freeman. But yet no slave shall hereby be exempted from that civil dominion his master hath over him, but be in all other things in the same state and condition he was in before.
CVIII. Assemblies, upon what pretence soever of religion, not observing and performing the abovesaid rules, shall not be esteemed as churches, but unlawful meetings, and be punished as other riots.
CIX. No person whatsoever shall disturb, molest, or persecute another for his speculative opinions in religion, or his way of worship.
CX. Every freeman of Carolina shall have absolute power and authority over his negro slaves, of what opinion or religion soever.
CXI. No cause, whether civil or criminal, of any freeman, shall be tried in any court of judicature, without a jury of his peers.
CXII. No person whatsoever shall hold or claim any land in Carolina by purchase or gift, or otherwise, from the natives or any other whatsoever ; but merely from and under the lords proprietors ; upon pain of forfeiture of all his estate, moveable or immoveable, and perpetual banishment.
CXIII. Whosoever shall possess any freehold in Carolina, upon what title or grant soever, shall, at the farthest from and after the year one thousand six hundred eighty-nine, pay yearly unto the lords proprietors, for each acre of land, English measure, as much fine silver as is at this present in one English penny, or the value thereof, to be as a chief rent and acknowledgment to the lords proprietors, their heirs and successors for ever. And it shall be lawful for the palatine's court by their officers, at any time, to take a new survey of any man's land, not to out him of any part of his possession, but that by such a survey the just number of acres he possesseth may be known, and the rent thereupon due may be paid by him. · CXIÙ. All wrecks, mines, minerals, quarries of gems, and precious stones, with pearl-fishing, whalefishing, and one half of all ambergris, by whomsoever found, shall wholly belong to the lords proprietors.
CXV. All revenues and profits belonging to the lords proprietors, in common, shall be divided into ten parts, whereof the palatine shall have three, and each proprietor one; but if the palatine shall govern by a deputy, his deputy shall have one of those three-tenths, and the palatine the other two-tenths.
CXVI. All inhabitants and freemen of Carolina above seventeen years of age, and under sixty, shall be bound to bear arms, and serve as soldiers whenever the grand council shall find it necessary.
CXVII. A true copy of these Fundamental Constitutions shall be kept in a great book by the register of every precinct, to be subscribed before the said register. Nor shall any person of what condition or degreesoever, above seventeen years old, have any estate or possession in Carolina, or protection or benefit of the law there, who hath not, before a precinct register, subscribed these Fundamental Constitutions in this form :
“ I A. B. do promise to bear faith and true alle
giance to our sovereign lord King Charles the Second, his heirs and successors; and will be true and faithful to the palatine and lords proprietors of Carolina, their heirs and successors; and with my utmost power will defend them, and maintain the government according to this establishment in these Fundamental Constitutions."
CXVIII. Whatsoever alien shall, in this form, before any precinct register, subscribe these Fundamental Constitutions, shall be thereby naturalized.
CXIX. In the same manner shall every person, at his admittance into any office, subscribe these Fundamental Constitutions.
CXX. These Fundamental Constitutions, in number a hundred and twenty, and every part thereof, shall be and remain the sacred and unalterable form and rule of government of Carolina for ever. Witness our hands and seals, the first day of March, 1669.
RULES OF PRECEDENCY.
I. The lords proprietors; the eldest in age first, and so in order.
II. The eldest sons of the lords proprietors; the eldest in age first, and so in order.
III. The landgraves of the grand council; he that hath been longest of the grand council first, and so in order.
IV. The cassiques of the grand council; he that hath been longest of the grand council first, and so in order.
V. The seven commoners of the grand council that have been longest of the grand council; he that hath been longest of the grand council first, and so in order.
VI. The younger sons of the proprietors; the eldest first, and so in order.
VII. The landgraves; the eldest in age first, and so in order.
VIII. The seven commoners, who next to those be
fore-mentioned have been longest of the grand council, he that hath been longest of the grand council first, and so in order.
IX. The cassiques; the eldest in age first, and so in order.
X. The seven remaining commoners of the grand council; he that hath been longest of the grand council first, and so in order.
XI. The male line of the proprietors.
The rest shall be determined by the chamberlain's court.
L ET TER
A PERSON OF QUALITY
FRIEND IN THE COUNTRY;
An Account of the Debates and Resolutions of the House of
Lords, in April and May, 1675, concerning a Bill, entitled, “ An Act to prevent the Dangers which may arise from Persons disaffected to the Government."
SIR, This session being ended, and the bill of test being finished at the committee of the whole house; I can now give you a perfect account of this state masterpiece. It was first hatched (as almost all the mischiefs of the world have hitherto been) amongst the great churchmen; and is a project of several years standing, but found not ministers bold enough to go through with it, until these new ones, who wanting a better bottom to support them, betook themselves wholly to this; which is no small undertaking, if you consider it in its whole extent.