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WALKER'S

CRITICAL PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY,

AND

EXPOSITOR

OF THE

ENGLISEL LANGUAGE.

ABRIDGED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.

TO WHICH IS ANNEXED, AN ABRIDGMENT OF

WALKER'S KEY

TO THE PRONUNCIATION OF

GREEK, LATIN, AND SCRIPTURE PROPER NAMES.

Boston:

PUBLISHED BY LINCOLN & EDMANDS, CHARLES EWER,

AND J. H. A. FROST.
Stereotyped at the Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry, late T. H. Carter & Co.

и в

B

COLLEGE

HARVARD

3,1930

11**ÁKY W. R. Seas DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS,-to wit :

District Clerk's Office. BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twenty-ninth day of July, A. D. 1823, and in the forty. eighth year of the Independence of the United States of America, LINCOLN & EDMANDS, SAMUEL T. ARMSTRONG, and CHARLES EWER, of tho said District, have deposited in this office, the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words following, to wit : Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, and Expositor of the English Language. Abridged for the use of Schaols. To which is annexed, an abridgment of Walker's Key to the Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names.” In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned:” and also to an Act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, ontitled, An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.”

JNO. W. DAVIS, {

Clerk of the District of

Massachusetts.

PREFACE.

FEW subjects have of late years more employed the pens of every class of criticks, than the improvement of the English Language. The gr st abilities in the nation have been exerted in cultivating and reforming it; nor have a thousand minor criticks been wanting to add their mite of amendment to their native tongue. Johnson, whose large mind and just taste made him capable of enriching and adorning the Language with original composition, has condescended to the drudgery of disentangling, explaining, and arranging it, and left a lasting monument of his ability, labour, and patience; and Dr. Lowth, the politest scholar of the age, has availed his superiority in his short Introduction to English Grammar. The ponderous folio has gravely vindicated the rights of analogy; and the light ephemeral sheet of news has corrected errours in Grammar, as well as in Políticks, by slyly marking them in Italicks.

Nor has the improvement stopped here. While Johnson and Lowth have been insensibly operating on the orthography and construction of our Languago, its pronunciation has not been neglected. The importance of a consistent and regular pronunciation was too obvious to be overlooked; and the want of this consistency and regularity has induced several ingenious men to endeavour at a reformation; who, by exhibiting the regularities of pronunciation, and pointing out its analogies, have reclaimed some words that were not irrecoverably fixed in a wrong sound, and prevented others from being perverted by ignorance or caprice.

Among those writers who deserve the first praise on this subject, is Mr. Elphinston; who, in his Principles of the English Language, has reduced the chaos to a system; and, by a denp investigation of the analogies of our tongue, has laid the foundation of a just and regular pronunciation.

After him, Dr. Kenrick contributed a portion of improvement by his Rhetorical Dictionary; in which the words are divided into syllables as they are pronounced, and figures placed over the vowels, to indicate their different sounds. But this gentleman has rendered his Dictionary extremely imperfect, by entirely omitting a great number of words of doubtful and difficult pronunciation-those very words for which a Dictionary of this kind would be most consulted.

To bim succeeded Mr. Sheridan, who not only divided the words into syllables, and placed figures over the vowels, as Dr. Kenrick had done, but, by spelling these syllables as they are pronounced, seemed to complete the idea of a Pronouncing Dictionary, and to leave but little expectation of future improvement. It must, indeed, be confessed, that Mr. Sheridan's Dictionary is greatly superiour to every other that preceded it; and his method of conveying the sound of words, by spelling them as they are pronounced, is highly rational and useful.—But here sincerity obliges me to stop. Numerous instances of impropriety, inconsistency, and want of acquaintance with tho analogies of the Language, sufficiently show that his Dictionary is upon the whole imperfect, and that ample room was left for attempting another, which might better answer the purpose of a Guide to Pronunciation.

The last writer on this subject is Mr. Nares, who, in his Elements of Orthoepy, has shown a clearness of method and an extent of observation which deserve the highest encomiums. His Preface alone proves him an elegant writer, as well as a philosophical observer of Language; and his Alphabetical Index, referring near five thousand words to the rules for pronouncing them, is a new and useful method of treating the subject; but he seems, on many occasions, to have mistaken the best usage, and to have paid too little attention to the first principles of pronunciation.

The work I have offered on the subject has, I hope, added something to the publick stock; as I have endeavoured to unite the science of Mr. Elphinston, the method of Mr. Nares, and the general utility of Mr. Sheridan.

With respect to the explanation of words, except in very few instances, I have scrupulously followed Dr. Johnson. His Dictionary has been deemed lawful plunder by every subsequent lexicographer; and so servilely bas it been copied, that such words as he must have omitted merely by mistake, as Predilection, Respectable, Descriptive, Sulky, Inimical, Interference, and many others, are neither in Mr. Sheridan's, Dr. Kenrick's, nor several other Dictionaries. N. B. The above Prosaco is extracted from that originally prefixed to the quarto Dictionary by Mr. Walker.

A TABLE

OF

THE SIMPLE AND DIPHTHONGAL VOWELS REFERRED TO BY THE FIGURES

OVER THE LETTERS IN THIS DICTIONARY.

ENGLISH SOUNDS.

FRENCH SOUNDS. 1. a. The long slender English a, as in fàte, pa-per, &c. é in fée, épée. 2. &. The long Italian a, as in får, få-ther, pa-pă, mam-må a in fable, table. 3. å. The broad German a, as in fåll, wåll, wå-ter

â in age, Châlons. 4. å. The short sound of the Italian a, as in fåt, måt, mår-ry a in fat, matin. 1. è. The long e, as in me, hère, mé-tre, mé-dium

i in mitre, epitre. 2. é. The short e, as in mết, lết, get

e in mettre, nette. 1. 1. The long diphthongal i, as in plne, tl-tle

at in laique, naif. 2. 1. The short simple i, as in pin, tỉt-tle

i in inné, titré. 1. d. The long open o, as in no, note, no-tice

o in globe, lobe. 2. 0. The long close o, as in móve,

prove

ou in mouvoir, pouvoir. 3. 8. The long broad o, as in nor, för, 8r; like the broad å o in or, for, encor. 4. 8. The short broad 6, as in nôt, hôt, gốt

o in hotte, cotte. 1. ú. The long diphthongal u, as in tube, Cd-pid

iou in Cioutat,chiourme. 2. ú. The short simple u, as in tůb, củp, súp

eu in neuf, deuf. 3. ú. The middle or obtuse u, as in båll, fall, påll

ou in boule, foule poule. di. The long 8, and the short I, as in 811

os in cycloid, heroiqnie. 68. The long broad 8, and the middle obtuse å, as in thdů, pòind aoû in Aoûte.

Th. The acute or sharp th, as in think, thin.
TH. The grave or flat Tu, as in This, That.

O

When G is printed in the Roman character, it has its hard sound in get, gone, &c. as go, give, gecse, &c. ; when it has its soft sound, it is spelled in the notation by the consonant J, as giant, ginger, ji-ant, jin-jer. The same may be observed of S: the Roman character denotes its hard sound in sin, sun, &c. as so, sit, sense, &c. its soft sound is spelled by 2, as rose, raise, &c. roze, raze, &c.

SCHEME OF THE VOWELS.

A,

Fate, far, fall, fåt-me, mét-plne, pin-nd, move, ndr, not-tåbe, tåb, ball-31-poind

-thin, this. ABB

ABE an article set before nouns of the sin- Abbot, ab båt.s.the chief of a convent of men.

gular number; as, a man, a tree. Abbreviate, åb-brè've-ate. 0. a. to shorton. Before a word beginning with a vowel, it is Abbreviation, åb-bre-ve-d'shản. s. the act written An, as an ox. A is sometimes a of shortening,

[abridges. noun, as great A. A is placed before a Abbreviator, ab-bré-ve-d'tår. s. one who participle, or participial noun; as a hunt- Abbreviature, åb-brė/vė-d-tshúre, s. a mark ing, a begging. A has a signification de- used for shortening.

[to resign noting proportion; as, the landlord has a Abdicate, åb de-kåte, 29. a. to give up right, hundred a year.

Abdication, åb-de-kå'shủn. s. the act of abAbaft, å-bäft'. ad. from the fore part of the dicating. ship, towards the stern.

[desert. Abdicative, ab'de-ka-tiv. a. that causes or Abandon, a-bån'dün. 0, a. to give up; to implies an abdication.

[the belly. Abandoned, å-bån'důnd. par. given up. Abdomen, åb-do'mėn. s. the lower part of Abandonment, å-bån'důn-mênt. s. the act Abdominal, åb-dôra'me-nál.}

a. relating of abandoning. Abarticulation, åb-år-tik-u-ld'shủn. 3. that to the abdomen.

species of articulation that has manifest Abduce, åb-duse'. 0. a. to withdraw one motion.

part from another. Abase, å-båse'. 0. a. to depress, to bring low. Abducent, åb-důésént. a. muscles abducent Abasement, å-båse'ment. s. the state of serve to open or pull back divers parts of being brought low; depression.

the body. Abash, å-båsh'. o. a. to make ashamed. Abductor, ab-důk'tür. s. the muscles which Abate, &-båte'. v. a. to leseen, to dinžinish, draw back the several members. Abatement, a-båte'mênt. s. the act of abat- Abed, å-bed'. ad. in bed.

ing; the sum taken away by abating. Aberrance, åb-ér'rânse. s. a deviation from Abater, å-bå'tür. s. cause by which an the right way, an errour. abatement is procured.

Aberrant, áb-ér’rânt. a. wandering from the Abb, åb. s. the yarn on a weaver's warp. right way. Abbacy, ab'bå-sť. s. the possessions or privi- Aberration, åb-er-ra'shủn. s. the act of deleges of an abbot.

[nery. viating from the common track. Abbess, ab'bëss. s. the superiour of a nun- Aberring, åb-êr'ring. part. going astray. Abbey, or Abby, ab'bė. s. a monastery of Aberuncate, áb-é-růn'kåte. 7. a. to pull up religious persons.

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