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America on the eighteenth of June, arrived on the SECT. twenty-eighth of July, at the English harbour of Portsmouth. Thus terminated the first English colony planted in America.
vessels to Roanoke, to bring away a few persons, who were left there with the baggage, "the weather was so boisterous, and the pinnaces so often on ground, that the most of all we had, with our cards, books, and writings, were by the sailors, cast overboard." This accident may have deprived us of a more full and accurate account of the proceedings and discoveries of this colony, during its year's residence in Virginia, than we otherwise have.
Attempts to relieve the first colony under governour Lane-A second colony at the same place under governour White-Sir Walter Raleigh assigns his patent-The whole of the second colony lostGosnold's voyage to New England-Sir Walter Raleigh's endeavours to find out the second colony at Roanoke-captain Pring's expedition-Captain Bartholomew Gilbert's voyage-Captain Wey
SOME writers* think it proper to apologize SECT. for Sir Walter Raleigh, on account of the misfortune of the first colony, by observing, that it was not at 1586. all owing to any negligence in him; for he continuAttempt ally pressed the company or those concerned with to relieve him in interest, to reflect on the necessity of sup- colony unporting the colony in time; and so solicitious was he in this business, that finding the fleet, which was preparing for that purpose under the command of Sir Richard Grenville, went on but slowly, he proposed that the first ship, that was completely manned and equipped, should be sent without staying for the rest; which was done; but when she arrived at the island of Roanoke, which was within a few days after Drake had departed, they found it deserted. The master of the vessel, not being able to get any information concerning them, returned to England. In a fortnight after this, Sir Richard Grenville arrived with his squadron of three small ships, but to his great disappointment found not a man upon the
• Oldmixon's British Empire in America, Vol. 1. p. 214. Harris's Voyages, Vol. 2. p. 202.
SECT. island. After searching in vain for the colony he had left the year before without being able to learn 1586. what had befallen it, he resolved to try the experiment of another settlement, and accordingly placed fifteen men, (some authors say fifty,) on the island. He left them furnished with all necessaries for two years, and gave them the strongest assurances, that they should be constantly and regularly supplied. But this handful of unfortunate men was soon after over-powered and destroyed by the Indians.
1587. A second
Not discouraged by these abortive efforts to plant a colony in America, Sir Walter Raleigh, with a perseverance natural to great minds in arduous under gov. dertakings, resolved to attempt at making another
colony at the same place un
settlement. By an indenture of grant bearing date the 17th of January, 29th of Eliz. 1587 (new style) he granted unto John White," and twelve others, (therein mentioned,) "free libertie to carrie with them into the late discovered barbarous land, and countrie, called Assamacomock, alias Wingandacoia, alias Virginia, there to inhabit with them, such and so many of her Majestie's subjects, as shall willingly accompany them, and also divers and sundrie other prerogatives, jurisdictions, royalties and preheminencies."-By this indenture also, it would seem, he constituted a corporation by the name of the governour and assistants of the city of Raleigh in Virginia, "a city intended to be erected and builded in Virginia aforesaid."* Captain John White was made governour, and the twelve assistants formed his council, in whom conjointly were vested the
* See the recital of the Indenture in Sir Walter Raleigh's indenture of assignment, in Hazard's collections, Vol. 1, p. 42.
legislative and executive powers for the government SECT. of the colony. A small fleet of three ships was fitted out and placed under the command of the 1587. governour captain White. About one hundred and seventeen adventurers and settlers, consisting of men, women, and children,* with a plentiful supply of provisions, were embarked on board the fleet. They were directed by Sir Walter to fix their plantation and erect a fort at the bay of Chesapeake, which had been discovered by goverǹour Lane the preceding year. Thus prepared for a permanent settlement, they arrived on the 22d of July, 1587, at Hatteras. The governour, with forty of his best men, went on board the pinnace, intending to pass up to the island of Roanoke, in the hope of fintling the fifteen Englishmen, whom Sir Richard Grenville had left there the year before; and, after a confer ence with them concerning the state of the country and of the Indians, to return to the fleet, and proceed along the coast to the bay of Chesapeake, according to the orders of Raleigh. But no sooner had the pinnace left the ship, than a gentleman, instructed by Fernando, the principal naval commander, who was destined to return soon to England,† called to the
* See a list of their names in Hazard's collections, Vol. 1. p. 40. Although these adventurers composed in reality the third English colony attempted to be settled in America, consisting the before-mentioned fifteen men as one, yet as Robertson and other historians speak of these above under White as the second colony sent out, their authority is here followed.
In the Indenture of Jan. 7th, 1587, above-mentioned, (under which this colony was attempted to be planted) mention is made of "Simon Fernando of London," as one of the