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in the year 1763, that they chose him agent to the court of Great Britain. In this election he had all the votes of both houses except eight.

The state of our affairs, at that period, was critical. Jasper Mauduit was unequal to the business assigned him. Bollan was left out of the agency, though every way capable and assiduous, because he was an episcopalian; Mauduit was a dissenter, but more pious than judicious; he looked upon the most important concerns of Massachusetts with frigid indifference, except his zeal was excited to convert Indians; his brother was also the tool of the ministry. Mr. Hutchinson was prevented going, by the advice of Bernard, till he could ob. tain permission to leave the province, of which he was lieut. governour. He wrote to lord Halifax, who complied with his request. But then the tide of his influence had turned, the popular gale was. changed, and the general court voted not to send an agent. He was sorely mortified, but his friends could not help him; and his enemies rejoiced at the effect it had upon him. They had exerted themselves, totis viribus, to persuade the general court, that he was a man of arbitrary notions, and would seek his own aggrandizement more than the advantage of his constituents.

The next year the stamp act passed the British parliament. Secretary Oliver was stamp master in Boston. His office was pulled down, August 14, 1765, the day the act was to be in force. Mr. H. being his brother in law, was also the object of political animosity; riots increased till the town was completely under the influence of a mob, whose fierce spirits were let loose to do mischief.

The house of the lieut. governour was torn to pieces within a fortnight of the first lawless attack upon the secretary. This excited the attention of the friends of order. The militia were called out the next evening, and they put a stop to all riotous proceedings. But those who were active in doing

the mischief were never called to account by the civil authority. There was a publick grant to Mr. H. of .3194 17s. 6d. and to other sufferers in pro portion.

Mr. Hutchinson grew still more unpopular the ensuing years. He had many friends, however, who never could harbour an ill thought of him till his letters were published, which he sent to England, wherein he advised, that "colonial privileges should be abridged." He always declared to these friends that his sentiments were contrary. Among them were clergymen of great respectability, and many sober-minded citizens. They believed him a friend to the province, as well as to the New England churches. He read to them letters, which he wrotein favour of the people, and against the arbitrary measures of the British court. But this was a mere artifice, and made his character more odious after it was fully discovered.

On the evening of the 5th of March, 1770, when a party of British soldiers fired upon the inhabitants of Boston, he had a most difficult business to manage; but he behaved with so much discretion in his advice to the commanding officer of the troops, and his address to the people, that his enemies could not speak a word against him, with all their violence against the soldiers. His prudence calmed the tumult of the people.

In 1771, Mr. H. received his commission, as governour of Massachusetts bay, and from this time he became completely subservient to the views of the British ministry. He entered into a controversy with the general court, in which he asserted and endeavoured to prove the right of the British parliament to tax America. In this he did not succeed as he expected. It was evident that the management of the argument was superiour on the other side, and it was said the ministry, instead of being pleased, were rather disgusted, that he should make it a subject of controversy. It was a thing to be

taken for granted; not to be discussed. Whoever reads the newspapers, from 1771 to the commence. ment of the war, may get a good idea of Hutchin son's character. zette or Newsletter; and the writings on the other side of the most respectable class were in the Boston Gazette, signed Marchmont Nedham, or No Banglus. The first were supposed to flow from the pen of Mr. Quincy, a lawyer of great abilities and eloquence, who unhappily for his country lived but a short time after. The letters from Novanglus were written by one of the greatest statesmen this or any country has produced.* Gov. Hutchinson was superseded by gen. Gage, in 1774, and on his

He had his eulogists in the Ga

Novanglus, who knew Hutchinson completely, thus describes him (Boston Gazette, Feb. 20, 1775.) "That Hutchinson was amiable and exemplary in some respects, and very unamiable and unexemplary in others, is certain truth, otherwise he never would have retained so much popularity on the one hand, nor made so pernicious a use of it on the other. His behaviour in several important offices was with fidelity and integrity in cases which did not affect his political system, but he bent all his offices to that. Had he continued steadfast to those principles in religion and government which he professed in former life, and which alone had secured him the confidence of the people, and all his importance, he would have lived and died respected and beloved, and done honour to his native country. But by renouncing those principles and that conduct which had made him and all his ancestors respectable, his character is now considered by all America, and the best part of the three kingdoms (notwithstanding the countenance he has received from the ministry) as a man who by all his actions aimed at making himself great at the expense of the liberties of his native country. He was open to flattery to such a remarkable degree that any who would flatter him were sure of his friendship; and every one who would not was sure of his enmity. He was credulous in a ridiculous degree of every thing which favoured his own plans, and equally incredulous of every thing which made against him. His natural and acquired abilities were certainly above the common standard, but were greatly exaggerated by persons whom he had admitted to power. His industry was prodigious, and his knowledge lay chiefly in the Jaws, politicks and history of this province, of which he had long experience, yet with all his advantages, he never was master of the true character of his native country, nor even of New England, and the Massachusetts Bay.

arrival at Boston, he embarked for England. He was called to give an account of his administration, or to describe the state of the colonies, which he did in such a manner as met the views and designs of the British cabinet, who took him into high favour, and made him giddy with vain expectation. Two instances, which show the imbecility of a mind once strong and vigorous, and also how ignorant a wise man may become, who neglects pure sources of information, shall be here related. The writer of this article vouches for their authenticity.

The governours Hutchinson, Carlton and Tryon were called upon for their opinion upon the question about going to war with America. Mr. H. said that the people would not, with their armies, resist the authority and power of Great Britain. "That a few troops would be sufficient to quell them if they did make opposition." Gen. Carlton spake to this purpose, "that America might easily be conquered, but they would want a considerable army for their purpose. That he would not pretend to march to New York or Boston without 10,000 men." Tryon, said, "it would take large armies. and much time to bring America to their feet. The power of Great Britain was equal to any thing; but all that power must be exerted before they put the monster in chains."

Another thing is a proof of the vanity of his mind. He wrote to a friend in Boston that his services were so acceptable to his majesty's ministers, that he was to have a peerage. He observed on his own part how small his estate was, that he could never appear in the character of a peer of the realm. But was told the honour would be accompanied with such lucrative appendages as would banish all concern of this kind from his mind. His advice was followed at the beginning of the war. The battle of Bunker hill convinced the army of Britain, that the Americans would fight, and the capture of Burgoyne opened the eyes of the ministry as well as of


the nation. Hutchinson lived retired at BrompHe received no mark of honour from the court; his literary friends visited him; he often made dinners at which were assembled the American loyalists and others attached to the same cause. In the spring of the year, 1780, he was taken ill after returning from a journey. His feelings had been deeply wounded by the death of a most amiable daughter, and of his youngest son. Each had pulmonary complaints, to which he was also subject. The daughter died, Sept. 21, 1771; his son William, Feb. 20, 1780. The father soon followed; he was very sick from the beginning of April, and died June 3d of the same year. He was buried on the 9th at Croyden; Charles Paxton, Mr. Clarke, and the rev. Dr. Chandler were three of his bearers. He left no other works than those which he published in America. His history of Massachu. setts is a most valuable collection of facts, but wants the style of an historian. It is sufficiently known to excuse our saying any thing more of it.

JAMES, REV. Mr. pastor of the church in Charles. town, arrived in New England in 1632. He was of Lincolnshire, Great Britain. He was invited to take the pastoral care of the church in Charlestown in the place of Mr. Wilson. Soon after his settlement, Mr. Zachary Symmes was chosen teacher of this church. He came over, in 1634, with Mr. Lathrop, and has left a name recorded among the worthies of the land. Mr. James' reputation is more clouded. He was involved in some disputes with the people of his society, which ended in his separation. Dif ferent accounts are given of his conduct, and per haps blame may be attached to both parties. Johnson says, "seeds of prejudices were sown against him by the enemies of the work of the Lord." Gov ernour Winthrop relates the affair differently: "The teacher, Mr. Symmes, and most of the brethren had taken offence at divers speeches of his, he being a melancholy man, and full of causeless jealousies,

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