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ment. At no time did party spirit rage with more violence; but he could only mingle his voice with the friends who visited him.

Some mortifications
In public life great

every one must meet with. men are not without their cares: in the evening of their days when they seek for rest, every want of attention in their old acquaintance is a thorn in their pillow. Many of the old friends of gov. Adams who had gone hand in hand with him during the revolution now forsook him, though he yet received the respect, attentions and caresses of those, who thought him not more venerable for age, than he was for his attachment to republican principles. He was the decided friend of the Jeffersonian administration. Several letters which passed between him and president John Adams discovered his opinion of the politicks of the day, and his general ideas of government. He died in a good old age, and in full belief of those religious principles in which he had been educated, and which he was free to defend even against Thomas Paine himself.

The letter Paine wrote to him in answer to one, which was certainly well meant, discovered that man as much a stranger to good manners as to pure sentiments, and moral worth.

His character may be summed up with saying, that he was a respectable politician, though too much influenced by local prejudices. He never appeared to so much advantage in Congress as in Fanieul Hall. He never liked the habits of the people in the southern states. In the latter part of his life he coalesced with their politicks, but the Puritans of New England were the men to set an example to the world. He never swerved from these ideas which imbued his mind at a tender age. His moral sentiments were ever mingled with his politicks, and he perhaps thought too highly of the forms of religion. He was a poor man, who despised riches, and possessed as proud a spirit as those who roll in afAuence or command armies. He had three topicks

of conversation upon which he always dwelt-British thraldom-the manners, laws and customs of New-England-the benefit of publick schools to the rising generation. By publick schools he meant such as there are in every town in Massachusetts, which diffuse knowledge equally among all classes of people; for he set his face against academies.In his zeal he often repeated his opinion, and perhaps in his conversation exhibited more the character of a true New England man, than any one of his contemporaries, on which account he was revered still more by his old friends who cease not to mention this, when they describe his worth, his talents, and his exertions in the cause of his country. ADAMS ZABDIEL, was minister of the church in Lunenburgh and was graduated at Harvard College, 1759.

He was born at Quincy. His father was brother to the father of the late president of the United States, and his mother, whose maiden name was Anne Boylstone, was sister to the president's mo ther. Mr. Adams was respectable for his abilities. His sermons were sensible and plain, and he delivered them with animation. He also discovered acuteness in managing a controversy upon a question that was agitated in 1774: "Whether a negative power be allowed to the pastor over the proceedings of the people, in the formation of our churches." He took a position which could not be maintained by the platform, or any just sentiments of religious freedom, though many pastors of churches have adopted it, and some reduced it to practice, viz. That the pastor has a negative, in the proceedings of the church, in the same manner as the governor of Massachusetts negatived acts of the general court.* He was provoked to write this pamphlet from an attack made upon a sermon he had printed, by an anonymous writer, who calls himself a neighbour.

The governors under the crown had a complete negative.


His antagonist answered Mr. Adams' book; and gained the advantage, though he was by no means so fair a disputant. He had the voice of the people, and common sense on his side; yet he seemed to prefer the glory of a partizan to that of defending the truth. He asserts that a minister is primus inter pares; or the moderator of a meeting, which very term explains his power. And he was fortunate enough to find a civil magistrate to answer to this station. The governor of Connecticut has no power of negativing, nor had the governor of Massachusetts till the charter of William and Mary. The old charter had been inhumanly murdered by one of the Stuart race, all of whom were enemies to civil and religious liberty. If ministers or ruling elders, says this anonymous writer, have a negative upon the brethren they must be a distinct branch, or act in distinct bodies and branches, and then the minister or eldership cannot have the moderatorship, according to any acting bodies whatever, or according to the reason and nature of things. The king is not president, nor moderator of the house of lords; nor the governor of the province president of the council in legislative proceedings, where he is a distinct branch. Several ministers in the county of Worcester adhered to the principles advanced in Mr. Adams' book, and lost their parishes.*

Upon several publick occasions, Mr. Adams was

• From this militant state of the churches arose contentions and contests at our courts of justice. One of the clergy who was dismissed without calling a council, prosecuted for his salary. The question was argued. John Adams defended the minister in the supreme court. The question of negative power was not introduced. The people had gone to another extreme in opposition to the platform : more so than the pastor they accused.They meant to reduce it to a mere piece of parchment, according to the insurgent spirit that was then raging. The ravens of discord were let loose against all form and order. The state of publick affairs prevented a final decision. Since the revolution the question has been revived and urged in a more popular manner; and several ministers lost their salaries when the opinion of the court was unanimous in their favour.


elected to preach discourses, and he always did himself honour, and gratified the hearers. preached the Dudlean lecture, 1794, upon Presbyterian ordination: which was not printed, but in the opinion of the president of the University, it was one of the very best that had been delivered. He died March 1, 1801, in the 62d year of his age, and 37th of his ministry.

His printed discourses are, the election sermon,' 1783. Several at the ordination of young men to the ministry, in some of which subjects of controversy are handled with independence of spirit, acrimony of speech and generous sentiments. He was always highly esteemed by the more liberal part of the clergy.

ADDINGTON ISAAC, an eminent magistrate of Massachusetts. He was one of those worthies who opposed the administration of sir Edmund Andross; and was appointed secretary of the province, by those who adhered to the old charter. He also received the same appointment from the crown when the charter of William and Mary was brought over. He was chosen for many years one of the council, and was very active as a justice of the peace. He died 1714, leaving a character very respectable for integrity, wisdom and industry.

Judge Dudley, who was then attorney general, and who married one of his daughters, took the seals till Mr. Woodward the next secretary was appointed.

ALDEN JOHN, one of the worthies who first came over to Plymouth in the year 1620. He was then a young man. He settled in Duxbury, on a farm which is now the best in the town, and has been always in possession of one of his descendants. All of the name are descended from him. And many

of his posterity have been useful and distinguished members of society. This gentleman lived to the age of 88. For many years he was one of the assistants in the old colony. Two of his grand chil

dren were living in 1774. Col. Alden who was killed at Cherry valley, was his great grandson. His father was capt. Samuel Alden, who was alive when the revolution commenced.-He saw a new empire peopled with three millions where his grandfather saw nothing but a savage wilderness. Aldens Gent. Sermon.


ALLEN THOMAS, minister of the church in Charlestown, was born in the city of Norwich, in 1608; was graduated at Caius College, Cambridge University; and ordained minister of St. Edmunds, in the same city. In 1636, when the clergy were required to read the book of sports, he refused, and lost his parish by order from bishop Wren. sailed from England, and arrived at Boston in 1638. He was invited to settle at Charlestown, and continued their pastor till the year 1651. He then returned to England and spent the remainder of his days at Norwich, where the people highly respected him. Dr. Mather speaks of him as a pious and laborious minister, and a man greatly beloved; which he says is the original of the name Allen, or Alwine, as it is in the Saxon.

While he was in this country he composed a book entitled an "invitation to thirsty sinners to come unto their saviour," which was printed twice, and prefaced by Mr. Higginson. He also composed another, called "The scripture chronology" which was printed in England, 1659.

Dr. Calamy mentions two other publicationsThe "way of the Spirit in bringing souls to Christ," and a number of sermons upon the necessity of faith." He is in the list of ejected ministers, 1662, but he continued to preach till his death, Sept. 1673, etat. 65. Magnalia, page 215. Calamy's Account of ejected ministers, vol. II.

ALLEN JOHN, first minister of the gospel in Dedham, Massachusetts, A. D. 1737.

He is styled a courteous man by the author of Wonder working providences, who says likewise that

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