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by Des Maizeaux, as a letter to- ****, (intending Mr. Smith of Dartmouth,
7. The large Latin tract of Mr. Locke's DeToleratione was first introduced in
many things over again by inserting it. Perhaps it might afford matter of more curiosity to compare foine parts of his Eflay with Mr. Burridge's Version, faid to be printed in 1701, about which he and his friend Molyneux appeared so extremely anxious, but which he tells Limborch (Aug. 1701) he had not then seen; nor have we learnt the fate of this Latin Version, any more than what became of a French one, (probably that of P. Cofte, mentioned under Locke's article in the General Dictionary) in correcting which he (Mr. Locke) had taken very great pains, and likewise altered many paffages of the original, in order to make them more clear and easy to be translated *. Many of these alterations I have formerly feen under his hand in the library at Oates, where he spent the last and most agreeable part of his life in the company of Lady Maszam, and where his own conversation must have proved no less agreeable and instructing to that Lady, since by means of it, as wel} as from an education under the eye of her father, Cudworth, she appears to have profited fo much as to compose a very rational discourse, entitled, Occasional Thoughts in reference to a virtuous and Christian Life, published 1705, and frequently ascribed to Mr. Locke. (See particularly Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne, Vol. III. p. 262.] She was generally believed (as Le Clerc tells us) to be the author of another discourse on the Love of God, in answer to Mr. Norris; which has likewise been attributed to Mr. Locke, and has his name written before it in a copy now in the library of Sion College, but others give it to Dr. Whitby. Of the fame excellent Lady Mr. Locke gives the following character to Limborch : ' Ejus [i. e. Hiftoriæ Inquifitionis] lectionem fibi et utilissimam et jucundiflimam fore fpondet Domina Cudwortha, quæ paternæ benignitatis hæres omnem de rebus Religionis perfecutionem maxime averfatur.' Lett. June, 1691. • Hospes mea Tyrannidi Ecclefiafticæ inimiciffima, fæpe mihi laudat ingenium et confilium tuum, laboremque huic operi tam opportune impensum, creditque frustra de religionis reformatione et Evangelii propagatione tantum undique strepitum moveri, dum Tyrannis in Ecclesiâ, vis in rebus religionis (uti passim inos est) aliis fub nominibus utcunque fpeciofis obtinet et laudatur.' Id. Nov. 1691..
8. We cannot in this place forbear lamenting the suppression of some of Mr. Locke's Treatises, which are in all probability not to be retrieved.. His Right Method of searching after Truth, which Le Clerc mentions, is hardly to be met with ; nor can a Tract which we have good ground to be-, lieve that he wrote, in the Unitarian Controversy, be well distinguished at this distance of time; unless it prove to be the following piece, which some ingenious persons have judged to be his;, and if they are right in their con
* Biogr. Briton. p. 2999».
jarturma acl have no doubt but they are; the Address to himself that is
preo Snedste if myft have been made on purpose to conceal the true author, as a more attentive perusal of the whole Tract will convince any one, and at the fame time, thew what reason there was for fo extremely cautious a proceeding. Rast of the long title runs thus : • The Exceptions of Mr. Edwards in his Caufas,of
. Atheism, against The Reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the Scriptures, examined and found unreasonable, unscriptural, and injuria sous, &c. London, printed in the year 1695, 47 pages, 4to.
It is uncertain whether he lived to finish that System of Ethics which his friend Molineux so frequently recommended to him: but from a letter to the same person, dated April, 1698, it appears, that he had several plans by bim, which either were never executed, or never saw the light. Among the late Mr. Yorke's papers burnt in his chambers in Lincoln's Inn,, were many of Mr. Locke's Letters to Lord Sommers, but probably no copies of these remain; which must prove an irreparable loss to the public, many of them being in all likelihood written on subjects of a political nature, as that eminent patriot was well acquainted with, and seems to have availed himself
. confiderably of Mr. Locke's principles throughout his excellent Treatise, entitled; The Judgment of whole Kingdoms and Nations concerning the Rights and Prerogatives of Kings, and the Rights, Privileges, and Properties of the People. A work which seems to be but little known at prefent, tho' there was a tenth edition of it in 1771. The conclusion is taken almost verbatim from Mr. Locke.
Thirteen Letters to Dr. Mapletoft, giving some account of his friends, with a large description of a severe nervous disorder and his method of treating it, and frequent intimations of his desire to succeed the Doctor in his profefforship at Gresham College, &c. were very obligingly communicated. by a grandson of the Doctor's; but we have not room to insert them, as they contain very few matters of literature, to which our enquiries are chiefly confined at present: nor shall we be excused perhaps for taking notice of his Letter to the Earl of **, dated May 6, 1676, with a curious old MS. on the subject of Free Masonry, published in the Gentleman's Magazine for September, 1758...
We are informed, that there is a great number of original Letters of
11. It may likewise be observed, that our Author has met with the
Beside those above mentioned, there is a Common-place Book to the Bible, first published in 1693, and afterwards swelled out with a great deal of matter, ill digested, and all declared to be Mr. Locke's; but whatever hand he might be supposed to have in the original book itself, it is plain he had none in that Preface, which is neither sense nor Englim. A puerile edition of Æsop's Fables has likewise his name prefixed to it, and was in all probability ascribed to him for no better reason than the frequent mention made of that book in his Thoughts on Education. The title runs thus: • Æsop's Fables in English * and Latin, interlineary, for the benefit of those who, not having a Master, I would learn either of those Tongues. The second edition, with Sculptures. By John Locke, Gent. Printed for A. Bettesworth, 1723.
12. But it is high time to conduct the reader to Mr. Locke's more authentic and capital Productions, the constant demand for which shews that they have stood the test of time, and their peculiar tendency to enlarge and improve the mind, must continue that demand while a regard to virtue or religion, science or common sense remains amongst us. I wish it were in my power to give so clear and just a view of these as might serve to point out their proper uses, and thereby direct young unprejudiced readers to a more beneficial study of them.
The Ejay on Human Understanding, that most distinguifhed of all his works, is to be considered as a system, at its first appearance absolutely new, and directly opposite tò the notions and persuasions then established in the world. Now as it seldom happens that the person who first suggests a difcovery in any science is at the same time solicitous, or perhaps qualified to lay open all the consequences that follow from it; in fuch a work much of "course is left to the reader, who must carefully apply the leading principles to many cases and conclusions not there specified. To what else but a neglect of this application shall we impute it that there are still numbers amongst us who profess to pay the greatest deference to Mr. Locke, and to be weil acquainted with his writings, and would perhaps take it ill to have this. pretension questioned; yet appear either wholly unable, or unaccustomed, to draw the natural consequence from any one of his principal positions ? Why, for instance, do we still continue so unsettled in the first principles and foundation of Morals? How came we not to perceive that by the very
arguments which that great Author used with so much success in extirpating innate Ideas, he most effectually eradicated all-innate or connate senses, instincts,. &c. by not only leading us to conclude that every such fente must, in the very nature of it, imply an object correspondent to and of the same standing with itself, to which it refers (as each relative implies its correlate], the real existence of which object he has confuted in every Thape; but also by Thewing that for each moral proposition men actually want and may demand a reason or proof deduced from another science, and founded on natural good and evil; and consequently where no such reason can be assigned, these same. senses, or instincts, with whatever titles decorated *, whether stiled sympa
* See a very accurate explanation of Mr. Loeke's doctrine on this head and some others, in a Philosophical Discourse on the Nature of Human Being, prefixed to fome Remarks upon Bp. Berkley's Treatise on the same subject. Printed for Dodsley, 1776.
theticsiek Ventimental;. common or intuitive, ought to be looked upon as
: fubtance, or substratum, [words, by the bye, so far as they have a meaping, taken entirely from matter, and terminating in it] any more than motion, under its various modifications, can be judged essential to the body, or to a purely material system *. Of that same substance or substratum, wliether
„Vide Defence. of Locke's Opinion concerning Personal. Identity. Appendix to the Theory of Religion, p. 431, &c. and Note I. to Abp. King's Or. of E. Sir Ijuac Newton had the very lainferentiments with those of our Author on the present subject, and more particularly on that State, to which he was approaching; as appears froni a conversation held with him a little before his death, of which I have been informed by one whe took down Sir Isaac's words at the time, and since read them to me..
material or immaterial, Mr. Locke has farther Thewn us that we can form
The abovementioned Ejay contains some more refined speculations which are daily gaining ground among thoughtful and intelligent persons, notwithstanding the neglect and the contempt to which studies of this kind are frequently exposed. And when we consider the force of bigotry, and the prejudice in favour of antiquity which adheres to narrow minds, it must be matter of surprise to find so small a number of exceptions made to some of his disquisitions which lie out of the common road.
Thatwell-known chapter of Power has been termed the worst part of his whole Eslay *, and seems indeed the least defensible, and what gave himself the least satisfaction, after all the pains he and others took to reform it; (v. Letters between him and Molyneaux and Limborch. To which may be added Note 45 to King's Or. of E. p. 220, 4th Ed.] which might induce one to believe that this most intricate subject is placed beyond human reach ; since fo penetrating a genius confesses his inability to see thro' it. And happy are those enquirers who can discern the extent of their faculties! who have learnt in time where to stop and suspend a positive determination ! you will argue,' says he, for or against Liberty from consequences, I will not undertake to answer you ; for I own freely to you the weakness of my understanding, that though it be unquestionable that there is Omnipotence and Omniscience in God our Maker, yet I cannot make freedom in man consistent with Omnipotence and Omniscience in God, though I am as fully persuaded of both as of any truths I most firınly afsent to; and therefore I have long left off the consideration of that question, resolving all into this short conclusion : that if it be poffible for God to make a free agent, then man is free; though I see not the way of it. Letter to M. Jan. 20, 169}
13. Connected in some sort with the forementioned Effay, and in their way equally valuable, are his Tracts on Education and the early Conduet of the Understanding, both worthy, as we apprehend, of a more careful perufal than is commonly bestowed upon them, the latter more especially, which seems to be little known and less attended to. It contains an easy popular
* Biogr. Brito tho' others are pleased to file it the finest.