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by Des Maizeaux, as a letter to- ****, (intending Mr. Smith of Dartmouth,
who had prepared materials for that Life) but without fpecifying either the
fubject or occafion.

7. The large Latin tract of Mr. Locke's DeToleratione was first introduced in
the late 4to edition of his works, but as we have it tranflated by Mr. Popple
to the author's entire satisfaction, and as there is nothing extraordinary in
the language of the original, it was judged unnecessary to repeat fo

many things over again by inserting it. Perhaps it might afford matter of more curiosity to compare foine parts of his Eflay with Mr. Burridge's Version, faid to be printed in 1701, about which he and his friend Molyneux appeared so extremely anxious, but which he tells Limborch (Aug. 1701) he had not then seen; nor have we learnt the fate of this Latin Version, any more than what became of a French one, (probably that of P. Cofte, mentioned under Locke's article in the General Dictionary) in correcting which he (Mr. Locke) had taken very great pains, and likewise altered many paffages of the original, in order to make them more clear and easy to be translated *. Many of these alterations I have formerly feen under his hand in the library at Oates, where he spent the last and most agreeable part of his life in the company of Lady Maszam, and where his own conversation must have proved no less agreeable and instructing to that Lady, since by means of it, as wel} as from an education under the eye of her father, Cudworth, she appears to have profited fo much as to compose a very rational discourse, entitled, Occasional Thoughts in reference to a virtuous and Christian Life, published 1705, and frequently ascribed to Mr. Locke. (See particularly Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne, Vol. III. p. 262.] She was generally believed (as Le Clerc tells us) to be the author of another discourse on the Love of God, in answer to Mr. Norris; which has likewise been attributed to Mr. Locke, and has his name written before it in a copy now in the library of Sion College, but others give it to Dr. Whitby. Of the fame excellent Lady Mr. Locke gives the following character to Limborch : ' Ejus [i. e. Hiftoriæ Inquifitionis] lectionem fibi et utilissimam et jucundiflimam fore fpondet Domina Cudwortha, quæ paternæ benignitatis hæres omnem de rebus Religionis perfecutionem maxime averfatur.' Lett. June, 1691. • Hospes mea Tyrannidi Ecclefiafticæ inimiciffima, fæpe mihi laudat ingenium et confilium tuum, laboremque huic operi tam opportune impensum, creditque frustra de religionis reformatione et Evangelii propagatione tantum undique strepitum moveri, dum Tyrannis in Ecclesiâ, vis in rebus religionis (uti passim inos est) aliis fub nominibus utcunque fpeciofis obtinet et laudatur.' Id. Nov. 1691..

8. We cannot in this place forbear lamenting the suppression of some of Mr. Locke's Treatises, which are in all probability not to be retrieved.. His Right Method of searching after Truth, which Le Clerc mentions, is hardly to be met with ; nor can a Tract which we have good ground to be-, lieve that he wrote, in the Unitarian Controversy, be well distinguished at this distance of time; unless it prove to be the following piece, which some ingenious persons have judged to be his;, and if they are right in their con

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* Biogr. Briton. p. 2999».


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jarturma acl have no doubt but they are; the Address to himself that is

preo Snedste if myft have been made on purpose to conceal the true author, as a more attentive perusal of the whole Tract will convince any one, and at the fame time, thew what reason there was for fo extremely cautious a proceeding. Rast of the long title runs thus : • The Exceptions of Mr. Edwards in his Caufas,of

. Atheism, against The Reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the Scriptures, examined and found unreasonable, unscriptural, and injuria sous, &c. London, printed in the year 1695, 47 pages, 4to.

It is uncertain whether he lived to finish that System of Ethics which his friend Molineux so frequently recommended to him: but from a letter to the same person, dated April, 1698, it appears, that he had several plans by bim, which either were never executed, or never saw the light. Among the late Mr. Yorke's papers burnt in his chambers in Lincoln's Inn,, were many of Mr. Locke's Letters to Lord Sommers, but probably no copies of these remain; which must prove an irreparable loss to the public, many of them being in all likelihood written on subjects of a political nature, as that eminent patriot was well acquainted with, and seems to have availed himself

. confiderably of Mr. Locke's principles throughout his excellent Treatise, entitled; The Judgment of whole Kingdoms and Nations concerning the Rights and Prerogatives of Kings, and the Rights, Privileges, and Properties of the People. A work which seems to be but little known at prefent, tho' there was a tenth edition of it in 1771. The conclusion is taken almost verbatim from Mr. Locke.

Thirteen Letters to Dr. Mapletoft, giving some account of his friends, with a large description of a severe nervous disorder and his method of treating it, and frequent intimations of his desire to succeed the Doctor in his profefforship at Gresham College, &c. were very obligingly communicated. by a grandson of the Doctor's; but we have not room to insert them, as they contain very few matters of literature, to which our enquiries are chiefly confined at present: nor shall we be excused perhaps for taking notice of his Letter to the Earl of **, dated May 6, 1676, with a curious old MS. on the subject of Free Masonry, published in the Gentleman's Magazine for September, 1758...

We are informed, that there is a great number of original Letters of
Mr. Locke, now in the hands of the Rev. Mr. Tooke, chaplain to the British
factory at Petersburgh; but have no proper means of applying for them.
110. Forty Letters to Edward Clarke, Esq; M. P. are among Dr. Birch's
papers in the Museum, but of like unimportance. Perhaps some readers
think that the late editions of Mr. Locke's Works are already clogged with
too many of that kind; however I Mall give one of these for a specimen, on
raising the yalue of Coin, as the same method which he there recommends,
via of weighing it, has of late been practised. See the Letter in Vol. IV.
of this edition, p. *649. The two Letters from Lord Shaftesbury and Sir
Peter King, will speak for themselves.

11. It may likewise be observed, that our Author has met with the
fate of most eminent writers, whose names give a currency to whatever
passes under them, viz. to have many fpurious productions fathered on him..




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Beside those above mentioned, there is a Common-place Book to the Bible, first published in 1693, and afterwards swelled out with a great deal of matter, ill digested, and all declared to be Mr. Locke's; but whatever hand he might be supposed to have in the original book itself, it is plain he had none in that Preface, which is neither sense nor Englim. A puerile edition of Æsop's Fables has likewise his name prefixed to it, and was in all probability ascribed to him for no better reason than the frequent mention made of that book in his Thoughts on Education. The title runs thus: Æsop's Fables in English * and Latin, interlineary, for the benefit of those who, not having a Master, I would learn either of those Tongues. The second edition, with Sculptures. By John Locke, Gent. Printed for A. Bettesworth, 1723.

12. But it is high time to conduct the reader to Mr. Locke's more authentic and capital Productions, the constant demand for which shews that they have stood the test of time, and their peculiar tendency to enlarge and improve the mind, must continue that demand while a regard to virtue or religion, science or common sense remains amongst us. I wish it were in my power to give so clear and just a view of these as might serve to point out their proper uses, and thereby direct young unprejudiced readers to a more beneficial study of them.

The Ejay on Human Understanding, that most distinguifhed of all his works, is to be considered as a system, at its first appearance absolutely new, and directly opposite tò the notions and persuasions then established in the world. Now as it seldom happens that the person who first suggests a difcovery in any science is at the same time solicitous, or perhaps qualified to lay open all the consequences that follow from it; in fuch a work much of "course is left to the reader, who must carefully apply the leading principles to many cases and conclusions not there specified. To what else but a neglect of this application shall we impute it that there are still numbers amongst us who profess to pay the greatest deference to Mr. Locke, and to be weil acquainted with his writings, and would perhaps take it ill to have this. pretension questioned; yet appear either wholly unable, or unaccustomed, to draw the natural consequence from any one of his principal positions ? Why, for instance, do we still continue so unsettled in the first principles and foundation of Morals? How came we not to perceive that by the very


arguments which that great Author used with so much success in extirpating innate Ideas, he most effectually eradicated all-innate or connate senses, instincts,. &c. by not only leading us to conclude that every such fente must, in the very nature of it, imply an object correspondent to and of the same standing with itself, to which it refers (as each relative implies its correlate], the real existence of which object he has confuted in every Thape; but also by Thewing that for each moral proposition men actually want and may demand a reason or proof deduced from another science, and founded on natural good and evil; and consequently where no such reason can be assigned, these same. senses, or instincts, with whatever titles decorated *, whether stiled sympa

* See a very accurate explanation of Mr. Loeke's doctrine on this head and some others, in a Philosophical Discourse on the Nature of Human Being, prefixed to fome Remarks upon Bp. Berkley's Treatise on the same subject. Printed for Dodsley, 1776.

theticsiek Ventimental;. common or intuitive, ought to be looked upon as
Agrimare cthan, mere HABITS; under which familiar name their authority
isifoon discovered, and their effects accounted for.
i From the same principles it may be collected that all such pompous
theories of morals, however seemingly diversified, yet amount ultimately to
the same thing; being all built upon the fame false bottom of innate notions;
and: from the history of this science we may see that they have received no
manner of improvement (as indeed by the supposition of their innateness
they become-incapable of any) from the days of Plato to our own; but must
always take the main point, the ground of obligation, for granted: which is in
truth the shortest and safest way of proceeding for such self-taught philofo-
phersgi-and: faves: a deal of trouble in seeking reasons for what they advance,
where, none are to be found. Mr. Locke went a far different way to work,
at the very, entrance on his Effay, pointing out the true origin of all our paf-
figns and affections, i. e, sensitive pleasure and pain; and accordingly di-
tecting us to the proper principle and end of virtue, private happiness, in
each individual; as well as laying down the adequate rule and only folid
ground of moral obligation, the Divine Will. From whence also it may
well be concluded that moral propositions are equally capable of certainty,
and that such certainty is equally reducible to strict demonstration here as
in, other sciences, since they consist of the very fame kind of ideas, (viz. ge-
neral-abstract ones, the true and only ground of all general knowledge];
provided always that the terms be once clearly settled, in which lies the
chjef difficulty, and are constantly applied (as surely they may be) with
equab steadiness and precision : which was undoubtedly Mr. Locke's meaning
in, that affertion of his which drew upon him so many solicitations to set
abgpt.. such a systematic demonstration of morals.
:. In the same plain and popular Introduction, when he has been proving that
meg: think not always, [a position which, as he observes, Letter to Molineux,
A48441:1696, was then admitted in a Commencement Act at Cambridge for
probable, and which few there now a-days are found weak enough to quef-
tion] how come we' not to attend him thro' the genuine consequences of that
proof? This would soon let us into the true nature of the human conflitu-
tion, and enable us to determine whether thought, when every mode of it is
fuspended, tho' but for an hour, can be deemed an eisential property of our
immaterjal principle, or mind, and as such infeparable from some ima-

: fubtance, or substratum, [words, by the bye, so far as they have a meaping, taken entirely from matter, and terminating in it] any more than motion, under its various modifications, can be judged essential to the body, or to a purely material system *. Of that same substance or substratum, wliether

„Vide Defence. of Locke's Opinion concerning Personal. Identity. Appendix to the Theory of Religion, p. 431, &c. and Note I. to Abp. King's Or. of E. Sir Ijuac Newton had the very lainferentiments with those of our Author on the present subject, and more particularly on that State, to which he was approaching; as appears froni a conversation held with him a little before his death, of which I have been informed by one whe took down Sir Isaac's words at the time, and since read them to me..


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may derire

material or immaterial, Mr. Locke has farther Thewn us that we can form
but a very imperfect and confuled idea, if in truth we have any idea at all,
of it, tho' custom and an attachment to the established mode of philosophi-
Jing still prevails to such a degree that we scarcely know how to proceed with-
out it, and are apt to make as much noise with such logical terms and dis-
tinctions, as the schoolmen used to do with their principle of individuation,
substantial forms, &c. Whereas, if we could be persuaded to quit every ar-
bitrary hypothesis, and trust to fact and experience, a sound neep any night
would yield sufficient satisfaction in the present case, which thus
light even from the darkest parts of nature ; and which will the more merit
our regard, since the same point has been in some measure confirmed to us
by Revelation, as our Author has likewise shewn in his Introduction to the
Reafonableness of Christianity.

The abovementioned Ejay contains some more refined speculations which are daily gaining ground among thoughtful and intelligent persons, notwithstanding the neglect and the contempt to which studies of this kind are frequently exposed. And when we consider the force of bigotry, and the prejudice in favour of antiquity which adheres to narrow minds, it must be matter of surprise to find so small a number of exceptions made to some of his disquisitions which lie out of the common road.

Thatwell-known chapter of Power has been termed the worst part of his whole Eslay *, and seems indeed the least defensible, and what gave himself the least satisfaction, after all the pains he and others took to reform it; (v. Letters between him and Molyneaux and Limborch. To which may be added Note 45 to King's Or. of E. p. 220, 4th Ed.] which might induce one to believe that this most intricate subject is placed beyond human reach ; since fo penetrating a genius confesses his inability to see thro' it. And happy are those enquirers who can discern the extent of their faculties! who have learnt in time where to stop and suspend a positive determination ! you will argue,' says he, for or against Liberty from consequences, I will not undertake to answer you ; for I own freely to you the weakness of my understanding, that though it be unquestionable that there is Omnipotence and Omniscience in God our Maker, yet I cannot make freedom in man consistent with Omnipotence and Omniscience in God, though I am as fully persuaded of both as of any truths I most firınly afsent to; and therefore I have long left off the consideration of that question, resolving all into this short conclusion : that if it be poffible for God to make a free agent, then man is free; though I see not the way of it. Letter to M. Jan. 20, 169}

13. Connected in some sort with the forementioned Effay, and in their way equally valuable, are his Tracts on Education and the early Conduet of the Understanding, both worthy, as we apprehend, of a more careful perufal than is commonly bestowed upon them, the latter more especially, which seems to be little known and less attended to. It contains an easy popular

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* Biogr. Brito tho' others are pleased to file it the finest.



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