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THE

C Ο Ν Τ Ε Ν Τ S

OF THE

ESSAY ON HUMAN UNDERSTANDING continued.

BOOK II.

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OF IDĚ A S.
CHA P. XXIII.

16. No idea of abstract suba

stance. Of the complex ideas of substances. 17. The cohesion of solid

parts, and impulse, the SECT.

primary ideas of body. 1. Ideas of substances, how 18. Thinking and motivity made.

the primary ideas of spirit. 2. Our idea of substance in

19-21. Spirits capable of mo. general.

tion. 3, 6. Of the sorts of substances. 22. Idea of soul and body 4. No clear idea of substance

compared. in general.

23—27. Cohesion of solid parts in s. As clear an idea of spirit

body, as hard to be cona as body.

ceived, as thinking in a 7. Powers a great part of

soul. our complex idea of sub- 28, 29. Communication of motion stances.

by impulse, or by thought, 8. And why.

equally intelligible. 9. Three sorts of ideas make 30. Ideas of body and spirit our complex ones of sub.

compared. stances.

31. The notion of spirit in, 10. Powers make a great part

volves no more difficulty of our complex ideas of

in it than that of body. substances.

32. We know nothing beyond 11. The now secondary qua

our simple ideas. lities of bodies would dis

33–35. Idea of God. appear, if we could disco- 36. No ideas in our complex ver the primary ones of

one of spirits, but those their minute parts.

got from sensation or re. 12. Our faculties of discovery

flection.
suited to our state.

37. Recapitulation.
13. Conjecture about spirits.
14. Complex ideas of sub-

CHAP. XXIV.
stances.
15. Idea of spiritual sub-

Of collective ideas of substances.
stances, as clear as of SECT.
bodily substances.

1. One idea.

A 3

2. Made

7. Made by the power of CHAP. XXVII.
composing in the mind.

Of identity and diversity. 3. All artificial things are

SECT. collective ideas.

1. Wherein identity con.

sists. CHAP. XXV.

2. Identity of substances.

Identity of modes.
Of relation.

3. Principium individuati.

onis. SECT.

4. Identity of vegetables. 1. Relation, what.

5. Identity of animals. 2. Relations, without corre.

6. Identity of man. lative terms not easily

7. Identity suited to the perceived.

idea. 3. Some seemingly absolute

8. Same man. terms contain relations.

9. Personal identity. 4. Relation different from

10. Consciousness makes the things related.

per

sonal identity. 5. Change of relation may

11. Personal identityinchange be without any change in

of substances.
the subject.
6. Relation only betwixt two

12–15. Whether in the change of

thinking substances. things:

16. Consciousness makes the 7. All things capable of re

same person. lation.

17. Self depends on conscious8. The ideas of relation clearer often, than of the

18-20. Objects of reward and pu. subjects related

nishment. 9. Relations all terminate in

21, 22. Difference between iden. simple ideas.

tity of man and person. 10. Terms leading the mind

23--25. Consciousness alone makes beyond the subjects deno.

self. minated, are relative.

26, 27. Person a forensic term. 11. Conclusion.

28. The difficulty from ill use

29. Continued existencemakes CHAP. XXVI.

identity. Of cause and effect, and other relations.

CHAP. XXVIII.
SECT.

Of other relations.
1. Whence their ideas got. SECT.
2. Creation, generation,

1. Proportional.
making alteration.

2. Natural. 3, 4. Relations of time.

3. Instituted. 5. Relations of place and

4. Moral. extension.

5. Moral good and evil. 6. Absolute terms often stand 6. Moral rules, for relations,

7. Laws.

8. Divine

ness.

of names.

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8. Divine law, the measure

9. Thirdly, or are mutable of sin and duty.

or undetermined. 9. Civil law, the measure of 10. Confusion, without recrimes and innocence.

ference to names, hardly 10, 11. Philosophical law, the

conceivable,
measure of virtue and 11. Confusion concerns al.
vice.

ways two ideas.
12. Its inforcements, com. 12. Causes of Confusion,

mendation, and discredit. 13. Complex ideas may be 13. These three laws the

distinct in one part, and rules of moral good and

confused in another. evil.

14. This, if not heeded, causes 14, 15. Morality is the relation of

confusion in our argu. actions to these rules.

ings.
16. The denominations of ac. 15. Instance in eternity.
tions often mislead us.

16. Divisibility of mat. 17. Relacions innumerable.

ter.
18. All relations terminate in

simple ideas.
19. We have ordinarily as

CHAP. XXX.
clear (or clearer) notions Of real and fantastical ideas.
of the relation, as of its SECT.
foundation.

1. Real ideas are conforma 20. The notion of the rela.

ble to their archetypes. tion is the same, whether

2. Simple ideas all r.al. the rule, any action is

3. Complex ideas are volun. compared to be true or

tary combinations. false.

4. Mixed modes, made of

consistent ideas, are real. CHAP. XXIX.

5. Ideas of substances are Of clear and distinct, obscure and

real, when they agree confused ideas.

with the existence of SECT.

things.
1. Ideas, some clear and
distinct, others obscure

CHAP. XXXI.
and confused.
2. Clear and obscure, ex-

Of adequate and inadequate

ideas. plained by sight. 3. Causes of obscurity.. SECT. 4. Distinct and confused, 1. Adequate ideas are such what.

as perfectly represent their 5. Objection.

archetypes. 6. Confusion of ideas, is in 2. Simple ideas all ado reference to their names.

quate. 7. Defaults which make con. 3. Modes are all adequate.

fusion. First, complex 4, 5. Modes in reference to set. ideas made up of too few

tled names, may be in. simple ones.

adequate. 8. Secondly, or its simple

Ideas of substances, as re. ones jumbled disorderly

ferred to real essences, not together,

adequate, A 4

6, 7:

to any

1. Ideas of substances, as 15. Though one man's idea of collections of their quali.

blue should be different ties, are all inadequate.

from another's. 12. Simple ideas ixtuma, and

17. Secondly, Modes not adequate.

false. 13. Ideas of substances are 18. Thirdly, Ideas of sub. ixtura, and inadequate.

stances, when false. 14. Ideas of modes and rela.

19. Truth or falsehood always tions are archetypes, and

supposes

affirmation or necannot but be adequate.

gation. 20. Ideas in themselves nei.

ther true nor false. CHAP. XXXII.

21. But are false, First, when Of true and false ideas,

judged agreeable to ano. SECT.

ther man's idea without 1. Truth and falsehood pro.

being so. perly belongs to propo- 22. Secondly, When judged sitions.

to agree to real existence, 2. Metaphysical truth con.

when they do not. tains a tacit proposition. 23. Thirdly, When judged 3. No idea, as an appear

adequate without being so. ance in the mind, true 24. Fourthly, When judged to or false.

represent the real essence. 4. Ideas referred

25. Ideas, when false. thing, may be true or 26. More properly to be call. false.

ed right or wrong.
s. Other men's ideas, real 27. Conclusion.

existence, and supposed
real essences, are what
men usually refer their CHAP. XXXIII.

Of the association of ideas. 648. The cause of such references.

SECT.
9. Simple ideas may be false 1. Something unreasonable in

in reference to others of
the same name, but are 2. Not wholly from self-
least liable to be so.

love.
10. Ideas of mixed modes 3. Nor from education.

most liable to be false in 4. A degree of madness.
this sense.

5. From a wrong connexion 11. Or at least to be thought

of ideas. false.

6. This connexion how made. 12. And why.

7, 8. Some antipathies an effect 13. As referred to real exist.

of it. ences, none of our ideas 9. A great cause of errours, can be false, but those of 10--12. Instances. substances.

13. Why time cures some dis14, 16. First, Simple ideas in

orders in the mind, which this sense not false, and

reason cannot. why. 14-16. Farther instances of the

effects

ideas to,

most men.

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