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C Ο Ν Τ Ε Ν Τ S
ESSAY ON HUMAN UNDERSTANDING continued.
OF IDĚ A S.
16. No idea of abstract suba
stance. Of the complex ideas of substances. 17. The cohesion of solid
parts, and impulse, the SECT.
primary ideas of body. 1. Ideas of substances, how 18. Thinking and motivity made.
the primary ideas of spirit. 2. Our idea of substance in
19-21. Spirits capable of mo. general.
tion. 3, 6. Of the sorts of substances. 22. Idea of soul and body 4. No clear idea of substance
compared. in general.
23—27. Cohesion of solid parts in s. As clear an idea of spirit
body, as hard to be cona as body.
ceived, as thinking in a 7. Powers a great part of
soul. our complex idea of sub- 28, 29. Communication of motion stances.
by impulse, or by thought, 8. And why.
equally intelligible. 9. Three sorts of ideas make 30. Ideas of body and spirit our complex ones of sub.
31. The notion of spirit in, 10. Powers make a great part
volves no more difficulty of our complex ideas of
in it than that of body. substances.
32. We know nothing beyond 11. The now secondary qua
our simple ideas. lities of bodies would dis
33–35. Idea of God. appear, if we could disco- 36. No ideas in our complex ver the primary ones of
one of spirits, but those their minute parts.
got from sensation or re. 12. Our faculties of discovery
Of collective ideas of substances.
1. One idea.
7. Made by the power of CHAP. XXVII.
Of identity and diversity. 3. All artificial things are
SECT. collective ideas.
1. Wherein identity con.
sists. CHAP. XXV.
2. Identity of substances.
Identity of modes.
3. Principium individuati.
4. Identity of vegetables. 1. Relation, what.
5. Identity of animals. 2. Relations, without corre.
6. Identity of man. lative terms not easily
7. Identity suited to the perceived.
idea. 3. Some seemingly absolute
8. Same man. terms contain relations.
9. Personal identity. 4. Relation different from
10. Consciousness makes the things related.
sonal identity. 5. Change of relation may
11. Personal identityinchange be without any change in
12–15. Whether in the change of
thinking substances. things:
16. Consciousness makes the 7. All things capable of re
same person. lation.
17. Self depends on conscious8. The ideas of relation clearer often, than of the
18-20. Objects of reward and pu. subjects related
nishment. 9. Relations all terminate in
21, 22. Difference between iden. simple ideas.
tity of man and person. 10. Terms leading the mind
23--25. Consciousness alone makes beyond the subjects deno.
self. minated, are relative.
26, 27. Person a forensic term. 11. Conclusion.
28. The difficulty from ill use
29. Continued existencemakes CHAP. XXVI.
identity. Of cause and effect, and other relations.
Of other relations.
2. Natural. 3, 4. Relations of time.
3. Instituted. 5. Relations of place and
4. Moral. extension.
5. Moral good and evil. 6. Absolute terms often stand 6. Moral rules, for relations,
8. Divine law, the measure
9. Thirdly, or are mutable of sin and duty.
or undetermined. 9. Civil law, the measure of 10. Confusion, without recrimes and innocence.
ference to names, hardly 10, 11. Philosophical law, the
ways two ideas.
mendation, and discredit. 13. Complex ideas may be 13. These three laws the
distinct in one part, and rules of moral good and
confused in another. evil.
14. This, if not heeded, causes 14, 15. Morality is the relation of
confusion in our argu. actions to these rules.
16. Divisibility of mat. 17. Relacions innumerable.
1. Real ideas are conforma 20. The notion of the rela.
ble to their archetypes. tion is the same, whether
2. Simple ideas all r.al. the rule, any action is
3. Complex ideas are volun. compared to be true or
tary combinations. false.
4. Mixed modes, made of
consistent ideas, are real. CHAP. XXIX.
5. Ideas of substances are Of clear and distinct, obscure and
real, when they agree confused ideas.
with the existence of SECT.
Of adequate and inadequate
ideas. plained by sight. 3. Causes of obscurity.. SECT. 4. Distinct and confused, 1. Adequate ideas are such what.
as perfectly represent their 5. Objection.
archetypes. 6. Confusion of ideas, is in 2. Simple ideas all ado reference to their names.
quate. 7. Defaults which make con. 3. Modes are all adequate.
fusion. First, complex 4, 5. Modes in reference to set. ideas made up of too few
tled names, may be in. simple ones.
adequate. 8. Secondly, or its simple
Ideas of substances, as re. ones jumbled disorderly
ferred to real essences, not together,
adequate, A 4
1. Ideas of substances, as 15. Though one man's idea of collections of their quali.
blue should be different ties, are all inadequate.
from another's. 12. Simple ideas ixtuma, and
17. Secondly, Modes not adequate.
false. 13. Ideas of substances are 18. Thirdly, Ideas of sub. ixtura, and inadequate.
stances, when false. 14. Ideas of modes and rela.
19. Truth or falsehood always tions are archetypes, and
affirmation or necannot but be adequate.
gation. 20. Ideas in themselves nei.
ther true nor false. CHAP. XXXII.
21. But are false, First, when Of true and false ideas,
judged agreeable to ano. SECT.
ther man's idea without 1. Truth and falsehood pro.
being so. perly belongs to propo- 22. Secondly, When judged sitions.
to agree to real existence, 2. Metaphysical truth con.
when they do not. tains a tacit proposition. 23. Thirdly, When judged 3. No idea, as an appear
adequate without being so. ance in the mind, true 24. Fourthly, When judged to or false.
represent the real essence. 4. Ideas referred
25. Ideas, when false. thing, may be true or 26. More properly to be call. false.
ed right or wrong.
existence, and supposed
Of the association of ideas. 648. The cause of such references.
in reference to others of
most liable to be false in 4. A degree of madness.
5. From a wrong connexion 11. Or at least to be thought
of ideas. false.
6. This connexion how made. 12. And why.
7, 8. Some antipathies an effect 13. As referred to real exist.
of it. ences, none of our ideas 9. A great cause of errours, can be false, but those of 10--12. Instances. substances.
13. Why time cures some dis14, 16. First, Simple ideas in
orders in the mind, which this sense not false, and
reason cannot. why. 14-16. Farther instances of the