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cause I cannot lie. Fancy not that I take rentheses in life, which belong neither lo us nor credit for it: I cannot, just as one cannot play to others: beautiful I name them, because they upon the flute."
give us a freedom we could not get by sound “ In the meanest hut is a romance, if you sense. Who would volunteer to have a perknew the hearts there."
vous fever? And yet it may save one's life. “So long as we do not take even the injus- I love rage; I use it, and patronize it.”-“Be tice which is done us, and which forces the not alarmed; I am commonly calmer. But burning tears from us; so long as we do not when I write to a friend's heart, it comes to pass bake even this for just and right, we are in the that the sultry laden horizon of my soul breaks thickest darkness, without dawn.”
out in lightning. Heavenly men love liglitning." “Manure with despair,—but let it be genu- “ To Varnhagen, . . One thing I must write ine; and you will have a noble harvest." to thee; what I thought of last night in Led,
“True misery is ashamed of itself: hides and for the first time in my life. That I, as a itself, and does not complain. You may know relative and pupil of Shakspeare, have, from it by that."
childhood upwards, occupied myself much “What a commonplace man! If he did not with death, thou mayest believe. But never live in the same time with us, no mortal would did my own death affect me; nay, I did not mention him.”
even thirk of this fact, that I was affected by “Have you remarked that Homer, when it. Now, last night there was something I had ever he speaks of the water, is always great; to write ; I said Varnhagen must know this as Goethe is, when he speaks of the stars." thing, if he is to think of me after I am dead.
" If one were to say, "You think it easy to And it seemed to me as if I must die; as if my be original: but no, it is difficult; it costs a heart were flitting away over this earth, and I whole life of labour and exertion,'-you would must follow it; and my death gave me pity: think him mad, and ask no more questions of for never before, as I now saw, had I thought him. And yet his opinion would be altogether that it would give anybody pity: of thee I true, and plain enough withal. Original, I knew it would do so, and yet it was the first grant, every man might be, and must be, if time in my life I had seen this, or known that I men did not almost always admit mere undi- had never seen it. In such solitude have I lived: gested hearsays into their head, and fing them comprehend it! I thought, when I am dead, out again undigested. Whoever honestly ques- then first will Varnhagen know what suñer. tions himself, and faithfully answers, is busiedings I had; and all his lamenting will be in continually with all that presents itself in life; vain; the figure of me meets him again through and is incessantly inventing, had the thing been all eternity no more; swept away am I then, as invented never so long before. Honesty be- our poor Prince Louis is. And no one can be longs as a first condition to good thinking; and kind to me then; with the strongest will, with there are almost as few absolute dunces as the exertion of despair, no one: and this geniuses. Genuine dunces would always be thought of thee about me was what at last af. original; but there are none of them genuine : fected me. I must write of this, though it afthey have almost always understanding enough flict thee never so." *** to be dishonest."
" To Rose, a younger sister, on her marriage is “He (the blockhead) tumbled out on me Amsterdam.—Paris, 1801. ..... Since thy his definition of genius; the trivial old dis. last letter I am sore downcast. Gone art thou ! tinctions of intellect and heart; as if there No Rose comes stepping in to me with true foot ever was, or could be, a great intellect with a and heart, who knows me altogether, knows mean beart!"
all my sorrows altogether. When I am sick of “ Goethe ? When I think of him, tears come body or soul, alone, alone thou comest not to into my eyes: all other men I love with my me any more; thy room empty, quite empty, own strength; he teaches me to love with his. for ever empty. Thou art away, to try thy forMy Poet!"
tune. O Heaven! and to me not even trying “Slave-trade, war, marriage, working-class. is permitted. Am not I in luck! The garden es : -and they are astonished, and keep clout-in ihe Lindenstrasse where we used to be with ing and remending ?"
Hanne and Feu-was it not beautiful? I will " The whole world is, properly speaking, a call it Rose nuw; with Hanne and Hanse will tragic embarras.”
I go often thither, and none shall know of it. . . I here, Rahel the Jewess, feel Dost thou recollect that night when I was to set that I am as unique as the greatest appearance out with Fink the time before last? How in this earth. The greatest artist, philosopher thou hadst to sleep up stairs, and then to stay or poet, is not above me. We are of the same with me? O my sister, I might be as ill again element; in the same rank, and stand together. -though not for that cause : and thou too, Whichever would exclude the other, excludes what may not lie before thee! But, no, thy only himself. But to me it was appointed not name is Rose ; thou hast blue eyes, and a far to write, or act, but to live : I lay in embryo till other life than I with my stars and black ones. iny century; and then was, in outward respects,
Salute mamma a million times; tell so flung away.-It is for this reason that I tell her I congratulate her from-the heart; the you. But pain, as I know it, is a life too : and more so as I can never give her such a pleaI think with myself, I am one of those figures sure! God willed it not. But I, in her place, which Humaniiy was fated to evolve, and then would have great pity for a child so circumnever to use more, never to have more: Me stanced. Yet let her not lament for me. I no one can comfort.”—“Why not be beside know all her goodness, and thank her with my oneself, dear friend? There are beautiful pa- soul. Tell her I have the fate of nations and
of the greatest men before my eyes here: they felt herself easier than for long before, and tigo tumbling even so on the great sea of expressed an irresistible desire to be new Exis..once, mounting, sinking, swallowed up. dressed. Asshe could not be persuaded from it, From old all men have seemed to me like this was done, though with the uimost precan. spring blossoms, which the wind blows off and tion. She herself was busily helpful in it, and whirls; none knows where they fall, and the signified great conteniment that she had got it fewest come to fruit."
accomplished. She felt so well she expected Poor Rahel! The Frenchman said above to sleep. She wished me good-night, and bade she was an artist and apostle, yet had not me also go and sleep. Even the maid, Dora, ceased to be a child and woman. But we must was to go and sleep; however, she did not. stop short. One other little scene, a scene “ It might be about midnight, and I was still from her death-bed by Varnhagen, must end awake, when Dora called me: I was to come, the tragedy :
she was much worse. Instead of sleep, RaShe said to me one morning, after a hel had found only suffering, one distress added dreadful night, with the penetrating tone of that to another; and now all had combined into lovely voice of hers: ‘0, I am still happy; I decided spasm of the breast. I found her in a am God's creature still; He knows of me; I state little short of that she had passed six days shall come to see how it was good and needful ago. The medicines left for such an occurfor me to suffer: of a surety I had something rence (regarded as possible, not probable) were to learn by it. And am I not already happy tried; but this time with little effect. The in this trust, and in all the love that I feel and frightful struggle continued ; and the beloved meet with ?'
sufferer, writhing in Dora's arms, cried, several “In this manner she spoke, one day, among times, 'This pressure against her breast was other things, with joyful heartiness, of a dream not to be borne, was pushing her heart out:' which always from childhood she had remem- the breathing, 100, was painfully difficult. She bered and taken comfort from. 'In my seventh complained that it was getting into her head year,' said she, 'I dreamt that I saw God quite now, that she felt like a cloud there;' she leannear me; he stood expanded above me, and ed back with that. A deceptive hope of some his mantle was the whole sky; on a corner of alleviation gleamed on us for a moment, and this mantle I had leave to rest, and lay there then went out for ever; the eyes were dimmed, in peaceable felicity till I awoke. Ever since, the mouth distorted, the limbs lamed! In this through my whole life, this dream has return- state the doctors found her; their remedies ed on me, and in the worst times was present were all bootless. An unconscious hour and also in my waking moments, and a heavenly half, during which the breast still occasionally comfort to me. I had leave to throw myself struggled in spasmodic efforts—and this noble at God's feet, on a corner of his mantle, and life breathed out its last. The look I got then, he screened me from all sorrow there : He per- kneeling almost lifeless at her bed, stamped mitted it.'
The following words, itself, glowing, for ever into my heart.” which I felt called to write down exactly as she So died Rahel Varnhagen von Ense, born spoke them on the 2d of March, are also re- Levin, a singular biographic phenomenon of markable : What a history ! cried she with this century; a woman of genius, of true deep emotion : 'A fugitive from Egypt and depth and worth, whose secluded life, as one Palestine am I here; and find help, love, and cannot but see, had in it a greatness far bekind care among you. To thee, dear August, yond what has many times fixed the public adwas I sent by this guiding of God, and thou to miration of the whole world; a woman equal me; from afar, from the old times of Jacob to the highest thoughts of her century; in and the Patriarchs! With a sacred joy I think whom it was not arrogance, we do believe, but of this my origin, of all this wide web of pre- a just self-consciousness, to feel that “the arrangement. How the oldest remembrances highest philosopher, or poet, or artist was not of mankind are united with the newest reality above her, but of a like element and rank of things, and the most distant times and places with her.” That such a woman should have are brought together. What for so long a pe- lived unknown and, as it were, silent to the riod of my life I considered as the worst igno- world, is peculiar in this time. miny, the sorest sorrow and misfortune, that I We say not that she was equal to De Staël, was born a Jewess, this I would not part with nor the contrary; neither that she might have now for any price. Will it not be even so with written De Staël's books, nor even that she these pains of sickness ? Shall I not one day might not have written far better books. She mount joyfully aloft on them, too ; feel that I has ideas unequalled in De Staël; a sincerity, could not want them for any price? 0 August, a pure tenderness and genuineness which that this is just, this is true; we will try to go on celebrated person had not, or had lost. But what thus! Thereupon she said, with many tears, then ! The subjunctive, the optative are vague • Dear August, my heart is refreshed to its in- moods: there is no tense one can found on but most; I have thought of Jesus, and wept over the preterite of the indicative. Enough for us, his sorrows; I have felt, for the first time felt, Rahel did not write. She sat imprisoned, or it that he is my Brother. And Mary, what must might be sheltered and fosteringly embowered, she have suffered! She saw her beloved Son in those circumstances of hers; she “was noi in agony, and did not sink; she slood at the appointed to write or to act, but only to live." Cross. That I could not have done ; I am not Call her not unhappy on that account, call her strong enough for that. Forgive me, God, I not useless; nay, perhaps, call her happier confess how weak I am.'
and usefuller. Blessed are the humble, are “Aț nightfall, on the 6th of March, Rahel they that are not known. It is written. “ Seek
est thou great things, seek them not;" live under ground, secretly making the ground where thou art, only live wisely, live diligently. green; it flows and flows, it joins itself with Rahel's life was not an idle one for herself or other veins and veinleis; one day it will start for others: how many souls may “the sparkles forth as a visible perennial well. Ten dumb showering from that light-fountain" have centuries had made the speaking Dante; a kindled and illuminated; whose new virtue goes well he of many veinlets. William Burnes, or on propagating itself, increasing itself, under in- Burns, was a poor peasant; could not prosper calculable combinations, and will be found in in his “ seven acres of nursery-ground," nor sar places, after many days! She left no stamp any enterprise of trade and toil; had to “thol: of herself on paper; but in other ways, doubt ita factor's snash," and read allorney letters, in adt, the virtue of her working in this world will his poor hut, “ which threw us all into tears;" survive all paper. For the working of the good a man of no money-capital at all, of no account and brave, seen or unseen, endures literally at all; yet a brave man, a wise and jusi, in for ever, and cannot die. Is a thing nothing evil fortune faithful, unconquerable to the because the morning papers have not men. death. And there wept withal among the tioned it? Or can a nothing be made some others a boy named Robert, with a heart of thing, by ever so much babbling of it there ? melting pily, of greatness and fiery wrath; and Far better, probably, that no morning or even his voice, fashioned here by this poor father, ing paper mentioned it; that the right hand does it not already reach, like a great elegr, knew not what the left was doing! Rahel might like a stern prophecy, to the ends of the world! have written books, celebrated books. And yet, “Let me make the songs, and you shall make what of books? Hast thou not already a bible the laws!" What chancellor, king, senator, to write, and publish in print, that is eternal; begirt with never such sumptuosity, dyed velnamely, a Life to lead? Silence, too, is great; vet, blaring, and celebrity, could you have there should be great silent ones, too.
named in England that was so momentous as Beautiful it is to see and understand that no that William Burns? Courage! worth, known or unknown, can die even in this We take leave of Varnhagen with true goodearth. The work an unknown good man has will, and hearily thank him for the pleasure done is like a vein of water flowing hidden and instruction he has given us.
PETITION ON THE COPY-RIGHT BILL.
(THE (London) ExaminER, 1839.]
To the Honourable the Commons of Eng-, say what recompense in inoney this labour of land in Parliament assembled, the Petition of his may deserve ; whether it deserve any reThomas Carlyle, a Writer of Books,
compense in money, or whether money in any Hambly showeth,
quantity could hire him to do the like. That your petitioner has written certain That this his labour has found hitherto, in books, being incited thereto by various inno- money or money's worth, small recompense or cent or laudable considerations, chiefly by the none; that he is by no means sure of its ever thought that said books might in the end be finding recompense, but thinks, that, if so, it found to be worth something.
will be at a distant time, when he, the laborer, That your petitioner had not the happiness will probably no longer be in need of money, to receive from Mr. Thomas Tegg, or any Pub- and those dear to him will still be in need lisher, Republisher, Printer, Bookseller, Book- of it. buyer, or other the like man or body of men,
That the law does at least protect all persons any encouragement or countenance in writing in selling the production of their labour at what of said books, or to discern any chance of re- they can get for it, in all market places, to all ceiving such; but wrote them by effort of his lengths of time. Much more than this the law own and the favour of Heaven.
does to many, but so much it does to all, and That all useful labour is worthy of recom- less than this to none. pense; that all honest labour is worthy of the That your petitioner cannot discover himchance of recompense; that the giving and self to have done unlawfully in this his said assuring to each man what recompense his labour of writing books, or to have become labour has actually merited, may be said to be criminal, or have forfeited the law's protection the business of all Legislation, Polity, Govern- thereby. Contrariwise your petitioner believes ment, and Social Arrangement whatsoever firmly that he is innocent in said labour; that among men ;-a business indispensable to at- if he be found in the long run to have written tempt, impossible to accomplish accurately, a genuine enduring_book, his merit therein, difficult to accomplish without inaccuracies and desert towards England and English and wiat become enormous, unsupportable, and the other men, will be considerable, not easily estiparent of Social Confusions which never alto mable in money; that on the other hand, if his gether end.
book prove false and ephemeral, he and it will That your petitioner does not undertake to be abolished and forgotten, and no harm done. That, in this manner, your petitioner plays May it therefore please your Honourable no unfair game against the world; his stake House to protect him in said happy and longbeing life itself, so to speak, (for the penalty is doubtful event; and (by passing your Copy. death by starvation,) and the world's stake Right Bill) forbid all Thomas 'Teggs and nothing till once it see the dice thrown; so other extraneous persons, entirely unconcerned that in any case the world cannot lose. in this adventure of his, to steal from him his
That in the happy and long-doubtful event small winnings, for a space of sixty years at of the game's going in his favour, your peti- the shortest. After sixiy years, unless your tioner submits that the small winnings thereof Honourable House provide otherwise, they ilo belong to him or his, and that no other may begin to steal. mortal has justly either part or lot in them at And your petitioner will ever pray. all, now, henceforth, or for ever.
DR. FRANCI A.*
[FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW.]
Tre confused South American revolution, his fame. Melancholy lithographs represent and set of revolutions, like the South American to us a long-faced, square-browed man; of continent itself, is doubtless a great confused stern,considerate,consciously considerate aspect, phenomenon; worthy of better knowledge than mildly aquiline form of nose; with terrible men yet have of it. Several books, of which angularity of jaw; and dark deep eyes, somewe here name a few known to us, have been what too close together, (for which latter cirwritten on the subject; but bad books mostly, cumstance we earnestly hope the lithograph and productive of almost no effect. The heroes alone is to blame :) this is Liberator Bolivar :of South America have not yet succeeded in a man of much hard fighting, hard riding, of picturing any image of themselves, much less manifold achievements, distresses, heroisms any true image of themselves, in the Cis-Atlan- and histrionisms in this world; a many.coun. tic mind or memory.
selled, much-enduring man; now dead and Iturbide, “the Napoleon of Mexico," a great gone :-of whom, except that melancholy lithoman in that narrow country, who was he? He graph, the cultivated European public knows made the thrice-celebrated “ Plan of Iguala:" | as good as nothing. Yet did he not fly hither a constitution of no continuance. He became and thither, often in the most desperate manEmperor of Mexico, most serene “ Augustin ner, with wild cavalry clad in blankets, with I. :" was deposed, banished to Leghorn, to Lon. War of Liberation, “ to the death ?" Clad in don; decided on returning ;-landed on the blankets, ponchos the South Americans call shore at Tampico, and was there met, and shot: them : it is a square blanket, with a short slit this, in a vague sort, is what the world knows in the centre, which you draw over your head, of the Napoleon of Mexico, most serene Au- and so leave hanging: many a liberative cavagustin the Firsi, most unfortunate Augustin lier has ridden, in those hot climates, without the Last. He did himself publish memoirs or further dress at all; and fought handsomely memorials,t but few can read them. Oblivion, too, wrapping the blanket round his arm, when and the deserts of Panama, have swallowed it came to the charge. this brave Don Augustin : vate caruit sacro. With such cavalry, and artillery and infantry
And Bolivar, “The Washington of Colum- to match, Bolivar has ridden, fighting all the bia,” Liberator Bolivar, he too is gone without way, through torrid deserts, hot mud swamps,
through ice-chasms beyond the curve of per* 1. Funeral Discourse delivered on occasion of celebrat- petual frost,-more miles than Ulysses ever ing the obsequies of his late Ercellency the Perpetual Dic. sailed: let the coming Homers take note of it. Gaspar Francia, by citizen the Rev. Manuel Antonia He has marched over the Andes more than Perez, of the Church of the Incarnation, on the 20th of once; a feat analogous to Hannibal's; and October, 1840.
In the British Packet and Argentine seemed to think little of it. News," No. 813. Buenos Ayres : March 19, 1812.
Ofien beaten, 2. Essai Historique sur la Révolution de Paraguay, et le banished from the firm land, he always returned Gouvernement Dictatorial du Docteur Francia. Par MM. again, truculently fought again. He gained in Rengger et Longchamp. 2de édition. Paris, 1827.
3. Letters on Paraguay. By J. P. and W. P.'Robertson. the Cumana regions the “immortal victory" 2 vols. Second edition. London, 1839.
of Carababo and several others; under him 4. Francia's Reign of Terror. By the same.
was gained the finishing “immortal victory" don, 1829.
5. Letters on South America. By the same. 3 vols.of Ayacucho in Peru, where Old Spain, for London, 1813.
the last time, burnt powder in those latitudes, 6. Travels in Chile and La Plata. By John Miers. and then fled without return. He was Dicta2 vols. London, 1826.
7. Memoirs of General Miller, in the Service of the Re-tor, Liberator, almost emperor, if he had lived. public of Peru. 2 vols. 2d edition. London, 1829. Some three times over did he, in solemn
+ A Statement of some of the principal Events in the Columbian parliament, lay down his Dictator Public Life of Augustin de Iturbide : written by Himself London, 1813.
ship with Wasnington eioquence; and as often.
con pressing request, take it up again, being as the esplanade there. The ceremonies and de man indispensable. Thrice, or at least twice, liberations, as described by General Miller, are did he, in different places, painfully construct somewhat surprising; still more the conclud. a Free Constitution; consisting of “two cham- ing civic feast, which lasts for three days, which bers, and a supreme governor for life with consists of horses' flesh for the solid part, and liberty to name his successor," the reasonables! horses' blood with ardent spirits adhibuium for democratic constitution you could well con- | the liquid, consumed with such alacrity, with struct; and iwice, or at least once, did the such results as one may fancy. However, the people, on trial, declare it disagreeable. He women had prudently removed all the arms was of old, well known in Paris; in the disso- beforehand; nay, “five or six of these poor lute, the philosophico-political and other cir- women, taking it by turns, were always found cles there. He has shone in many a gay in a sober state, watching over the rest;" so Parisian soirée, this Simon Bolivar; and he, that comparatively little mischief was done, in his later years, in autumn, 1825, rode and only “one or iwo” deaths by quarrel took triumphant into Potosi and the fabulous Inca place. Cities, with clouds of feathered Indians somer- The Pehuenches having drunk their ardent setting and warwhopping round him*-and water and horses' blood in this manner, and was the famed Cerro, metalliferous Mountain, sworn eternal friendship in San Martin, weni came in sight, the bells all pealed out, and home, and communicated 10 his enemies, there was a thunder of artillery,” says General across the Andes, the road he meant to take. Miller! If this is not a Ulysses, Polytlas and This was what San Martin had foreseen and Polymetis, a much enduring and many coun- meant, the knowing mar! He hastened his selled man; where was there one ? Truly a preparations, got his artillery slung on poles, Ulysses whose history were worth its ink,- his men equipi with knapsacks and haversacks, had the Homer that could do it, made his ap- his mules in readiness; and, in all stillness, pearance !
set forth from Mendoza by another road. Few of General San Martin, too, there will be things in late war, according to General Mil something to be said. General San Martin, ler, have been more noteworthy than this when we last saw him, lwenty years ago or march. The long straggling line of soldiers,
9:-through the organs of the authentic six thousand and odd, with their quadrupeds srpantat Mr. Miers,—had a handsome house and baggage, winding through the heart of the in Mendoza, and “his own portrait, as I re-Andes, breaking for a brief moment the old marked, hung up between those of Napoleon abysmal solitudes !-For you farre along, on and the Duke of Wellington." In Mendoza, some narrow roadway, through stony laby. cheerful, mudbuill, whitewashed Town, seated rinths; huge rock-mountains hanging over at the eastern base of the Andes," with its your head, on this hand; and under your feet, shady public walk well paved and swept;" | on that, the roar of mountain-cataracts, horror looking out pleasantly, on this hand, over wide of bottomless chasms ;-t the very winds and horizons of Pampa wilderness; pleasantly on echoes howling on you in an almost preierthat, to the Rocky-chain, Cordillera they call it, natural manner. Towering rock-barriers rise of the sky-piercing Mountains, capt in snow, sky-high before you, and behind you, and or with volcanic fumes issuing from them: around you; intricate the onligate! The roadthere dwelt General Ex-Generalissimo San way is narrow; footing none of the best. Sharp Martin, ruminating past adventures over half turns there are, where it will behove you to the world; and had his portrait hung up be- mind your paces; one false step, and you will tween Napoleon's and the Duke of Welling- need no second; in the gloomy jaws of the ton's,
abyss you vanish, and the spectral winds Did the reader ever hear of San Martin's howl requiem. Somewhat better are the susmarch over the Andes in Chile? It is a feat pension bridges, made of bamboo and leather, worth looking at; comparable, most likely, to though they swing like see-saws: men are Hannibal's march over the Alps, while there stationed with lassos, io gin you dexterously, was yet no Simplon or Mont-Cénis highway; and fish you up from the torrent, if you trip and it transacted itself in the year 1817. there. South American armies think little of picking Through this kind of country did San Martheir way through the gullies of the Andes; so tin march; straigit towards San Iago, lo fight the Buenos-Ayres people, having driven out the Spaniards and deliver Chile. For amtheir own Spaniards, and established the reign munition wagons he had sorros, sledges, canoe of freedom, though in a precarious manner, shaped boxes, made of dried bull's-hide. His thought it were now good to drive the Spaniards cannons were carried on the back of mules, out of Chile, and establish the reign of freedom each cannon on two mules judiciously harnessthere also instead: whereupon San Martin, ed: on the packsaddle of your foremost mule, commander at Mendoza, was appointed to do there rested with firm girths a long strong it. By way of preparation, for he began from pole; the other end of which (forked end, we afar, San Martin, while an army is getting suppose) rested, with like girths, on the packready at Mendoza, assembles “at the fort of saddle of the hindmost mule; your cannon Ban Carlos by the Aguanda river," some days' was slung with leathern straps on this pole, journey to the south, all attainable tribes of and so travelled, swaying and dangling, yer the Pehuenche Indians, to a solemn Palaver, moderately secure. In the knapsack of each wo they name it, and civic entertainment, on soldier was eight days' provender, dried beef
ground inlo snuff-powder, with a modicum of • Memoirs of General Miller.
pepper, and a slight seasoning of biscuit or