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the white and the black cockades; in holding Guards, already getting saluted with stones, council at the Palais Royal, over the Faubourg think it reasonablest to open a passage; and, Saint Antoine, at the end of bridges, on the like waters through a broken dike, the floods quais. At the doors of the coffee houses there of the multitude inundate the Hotel de Vilie. arise free conferences between the Upper " It is a picture interesting to paint, and one House, of the coats that are within, and the of the greatest in the Revolution, this same Lower House, of jackets and wool-caps, as-army of ten thousand Judiths setting forth to sembled cxtra muros. It is agreed upon that cut off the head of Holofernes; forcing the the audacity of the aristocrats increases ra- Hotel de Ville; arming themselves with what pidly; that Madame Villepatour and the queen's ever they can lay hands on; some tying ropes women are distributing enormous white cock to the cannon-trains, arresting carts, loading ades to all comers in the Eil-de-Bæuf; that them with artillery, with powder and balls for M. Lecointre, having refused to take one from the Versailles National Guard, which is left their hands, has all but been assassinated. It without ammunition ; others driving on the is agreed upon that we have not a moment to horses, or seated on cannon, holding the relose; that ihe boat which used to bring us doubtable match ; seeking for their generalisfiour from Corbeil, morning and evening, now simo, not aristocrats with epaulettes, but Concomes only once in two days:- do they plan querors of the Bastille !"– Vol. iii. p. 110. to make their attack at the moment when they So far Camille on velo, scarcity, and the have kept us for eight-and-forly hours in a Insurrection of Women, in the end of 1789. fasting state? It is agreed upon,” &c.-Vol. We terminate with a scene of a very dif 11. p. 63.

ferent complexion, being some three years We hasten to the catastrophe, which arrives farther on, that is to say, in Septeniber, 1792 ! on the morrow. It is related elsewhere, in Félémhesi, (anagram for Mehee Fils,) in his another leading article :

* Vérité toute entière," a pamphlet really more “At break of day the women rush towards veracious than most, thus testifies, after a good the Hotel de Ville. All the way, they recruit deal of-preambling :fresh hands, among their own sex, io march “I was going to my post about half past with them; as sailors are recruited at London: two,” (Sunday, the 2d of September, tocsins there is an active press of women. The Quai all ringing, and Brunswick just ai hand;) “I de la Ferraille is covered with female crimps. was passing along the Rue Dauphine; sudThe robust kitchen-maid, the slim mantua- denly I hear hisses. I look, I observe four maker, all must go to swell the phalanx; the hackney-coaches, coming in a train, escorted ancient devotee, tripping to mass in the dawn, by the Fédéré's of the departments. sees herself for the first time carried off, and Each of these coaches contained four pershrieks help! whilst more than one of the sons: they were individuals” (priests) “aryounger sorl secretly is not so sorry at going rested in the preceding domiciliary visits. without mother or mistress to Versailles 10 Billaud-Varennes, Procureur-Substitute of the pay ber respects to the august Assembly. At Coinmune, had just been interrogating them the same time, for the accuracy of this narra- at the Hotel de Ville; and now they were prolive, I must remark that these women, at least ceeding towards the Abbaye, to be provisionthe battalion of them which encamped that ally detained there. A crowd is gathering; night in the Assembly Hall, and had marched the cries and hisses redouble: one of the priunder the flag of M. Maillard, had among soners, doubtless out of his senses, takes fire themselves a Presidentess and Staff; and that at these murmurs, puts his arm over the coachevery woman, on being borrowed from her door, gives one of the Fédéré's a stroke over mother or husband, was presented to the Pre- the head with his cane. The Fédéré, in a sidentess or some of her aids-de-camp, who rage, draws his sabre, springs on the carriageengaged to watch over her morality, and in- steps, and plunges it thrice over into the heart sure her honour for this day.

of his aggressor. I saw the blood come out in “ Once arrived on the Place de Grêve, these great jets. •Kill every one of them; they are women piously begin letting down the Lan- scoundrels, aristocrats! cry the people. The terne; as, in great calamities, you let down the Fédéré's all draw their sabres, and instantly shrine of Saint Genevieve. Next they are for kill the three companions of the one who had mounting into the Hotel de Ville. The Com- just perished. I saw, at this moment, a young mandant had been forewarned of this move- man in a white nightgown stretch hinself out ment: he knew that all insurrections have of that same carriage : his countenance, exbegun by women, whose maternal bosom the pressive, but pale and worn, indicated that he bayonet of the satellites of despotism respects. was very sick; he had gathered his staggering Four thousand soldiers presented a front strength, and, though already wounded, was bristling with bayonets; kept them back from crying still, ó Grace, grace, pardon!' but in vain the step: but behind these women there rose -a mortal stroke united bim to the lot of the and grew every moment a nucleus of men, others. armed with pikes, axes, bills; blood is about “ This coach, which was the hindmost, now to flow on the place; the presence of these held nothing but corses; it had not stopped Sabine women hindered it. The National during the carnage, which lasted about the Guard, which is not purely a machine, as the space of two minutes. The crowd increases, Minister of War would have the soldier be, crescit eundo ; the yells redouble. The coaches makes use of its reason. It discerns that are at the Abbaye. The corpses are hurled these women, now for Versailles, are going to into the court; the twelve living prisoners the root of the mischief. The four thousand dismount to enter the committee-room. Two are sacrifice on alighting; ten succeed in en-| the villains in this prison, whom other villains tering. The committee had not had time to outside will open the doors to, shall go and put the slightest question, when a multitude, kill my wife and children in the meanwhile! armed with pikes, sabres, swords, and bayonets, I have three boys, who I hope will be usefuller dashes in ; seizes the accused, and kills them. to their country one day than these rascals you One prisoner, already much wounded, kept want to save. Any way you have but to send hanging by the skirts of a Committee-member, them out; we will give them arms, and fight and still struggled against death.

them number for number. Die here or die on “Three yet remained; one of whom was the the frontiers, I am sure enough to be killed by Abbé Sicard, teacher of the deaf and dumb. The these villains, but I mean to sell them my life'; sabres were already over his head, when Mon- and, be it !, be it others, the prison shall be not, the watchmaker, flung himself before purged of these sacres gueux la. He is right! them, crying, Kill me rather, and not this responds the general cry." —And so the frightman, who is useful to our country! These ful “purgation" proceeds. words, utiered with the fire and impetuosity “ At five in the afternoon, Billaud Varennes, of a generous soul, suspended death. Profit- Procureur-Substitut, arrives; he had on his ing by this moment of calm, Abbé Sicard and sash, and the small puce coat and black wig the other two were got conveyed into the back we are used to see on him : walking over carpart of the room."

Casses, he makes a short harangue to the peoAbbé Sicard, as is well known, survived; ple, and ends thus : People, thou art sacrificand the narrative which he also published ex- ing thy enemies; thou art in thy duty.' This ists-sufficient 10 prove, among other things, cannibal speech lends them new animation. that “Félémhesi” had but two eyes, and his The killers blaze up, cry louder than ever for own share of sagacity and heart; that he has new victims :-how to staunch this new thirst mis-seen, miscounted, and, knowingly or un- of blood ? A voice speaks from beside Billaud; knowingly, misstated not a little--as one poor it was Maillard's voice: “There is nothing man, in these circumstances, might. Félémhe- more to do here; let us to the Carmes ! They si continues,--we only inverting his arrange- run thither: in five minutes more I saw them ment somewhat:

trailing corpses by the heels. A killer, (I can. “Twelve scoundrels, presided by Maillard, not say a man,) in very coarse clothes, had, as with whom they had probably combined this it would seem, been specially commissioned project beforehand, find themselves“ by chance to dispatch the Abbé Lenfant; for, apprehen. among the crowd; and now, being well-known sive lest the prey might be missed, he takes one to another, they unite themselves in the water, flings it on the corpses, washes their name of the sovereign people,' whether it were blood-smeared faces, turns them over, and of their own private audacity, or that they had seems at last to ascertain that the Abbé Len. secretly received superior orders. They lay fant is among them."-Vol. xviii. p. 169. hold of the prison registers, and turn them This is the September massacre, the last over; the turnkeys fall a-trembling; the jail- scene we can give as a specimen. Thus, in er's wife and the jailer faint; the prison is these curious records of the “ Histoire Parlesurrounded by furious men; there is shouting, mentaire,” as in some Ezekiel vision become clamouring: the door is assaulted, like to be real, does scene after scene disclose itself, now forced; when one of the Committee-members in rose-light, now in sulphurous black, and presents himself at the outer gate, and begs grow ever more fitful, dream-like,-till the audience: his signs obtain a moment's silence; Vendemiaire scene come, and Napoleon blor the doors open, he advances, gets a chair, forth his grape-shot, and Sansculoitism be no mounts on it, and speaks :-*Comrades, friends,' more! said he, you are good patriots ; your resent- Touching the political and metaphysical ment is just. Open war to the enemies of the speculations of our two editors, we shall say common good; neither truce nor mercy; it is liule. They are of the sort we lamented in a war to the death! I feel like you that they Mignet, and generally in Frenchmen of this must all perish; and yet, if you are good citi- day—a jingling of formulas; unfruitiul as zens, you must love justice. There is not one that Kalmuck prayer! Perhaps the strangestof you but would shudder at the notion of looking particular doctrine we have noticed is shedding innocent blood.' Yes, yes ! reply this: that the French Revolution was at botthe people. Well, then, I ask of you if, with. tom an attempt to realize Christianity, and out inquiry or investigation, you fling your fairly put it in action, in our world. For eighselves like mad tigers on your fellow-men- _?' teen centuries (it is not denied) men had been Here the speaker was interrupted by one of doing more or less that way; but they set the crowd, who, with a bloody sabre in his their shoulder rightly to the wheel, and gave hand, his eyes glancing with rage, cleaves the a dead-lift, for the first time then, Good M. press, and refutes him in these terms : “Tell us, Roux! and yet the good Roux does mean Monsieur le Citoyen, explain to us then, would something by this; and even something true. the sacres gueux of Prussians and Austrians, if But a marginal annotator has written on our they were at Paris, investigate for the guilty ? copy—“For the love of Heaven, Messieurs, Would they not cut right and left, as the Swiss hunez vos formules :" make away with your on the Tenth of August did? Well, I am no formulas; take off your facelted spectacles ; speaker, I can stuff the ears of no one; but open your eyes a little and look! There is, I tell you I have a wife and five children, whom indeed, here and there, considerable rumbling I leave with my section here while I go and of the rotatory calabash, which rattles and rum. fight the enemy: but it is not my bargain that bles concerning Progress of the Species, DeiCrine du Progrès, Exploitations, le Cirist, the space he takes is small. Whoever wants to Verbe, and what not ; written in a vein of deep, form for himself an image of the actual state even of intense seriousness; but profitable, of French Meditation, and under what sur. one would think, to no man or woman. In this prising shackles a French thinking man of style M. Roux (for it is he, we understand) these days finds himself gyved, and mechan. painfully composes a preface to each volume, ized, and reduced to the verge of zero, may and has even given a whole introductory his- open M. Roux's Prefaces, and see it as in an tory of France: we read some seven or eight expressive summary. of his first prefaces, hoping always to get some We wish our two French friends all speed nourishment; but seldom or never cut him in their business; and do again honestly reopen now. Fighting in that way, behind cover, commend this “Histoire Parlementaire" to any he is comparatively harmless; merely wasting and all of our English friends who take inte vou so many pence per number : happily the rest in that subjeci.



AMERICAN Cooper asserts, in one of his , what farther ocular survey you find useful, and books, that there is “an instinctive tendency speech is not needed at all. O Fenimore in men to look at any man who has become Cooper, it is most true there is “an instinctive distinguished." True, surely; as all observa- tendency in men to look at at any man that has lion and survey of mankind, from China to become distinguished;” and, moreover, an inPeru, from Nebuchadnezzar to Old Hickory, stinctive desire in men to become distinguished will testify! Why do men crowd towards the and be looked at ! improved drop at Newgate, eager to catch a For the rest, we will call it a most valuasight? The man aboui to be hanged is in a ble tendency this; indispensable to mankind. distinguished situation. Men crowd to such Without it where were star-and-garier, and extent, that Greenacre's is not the only life significance of rank ; where were all ambition, choked out there. Again, ask of these leathern money-getting, respectability of gig or no gig; vehicles, cabriolets, neat-flies, with blue men and, in a word, the main impetus by which and women in them, that scour all thorough society moves, the main force by which it fares, Whither so fast? To see dear Mrs. hangs together? A tendency, we say, of mani. Rigmarole, the distinguished female! Great fold results: of manifold origin, pot ridiculous Mr. Rigmarole, the distinguished male. Or, only, but sublime ;—which some incline to consider the crowuing phenomenon, and sum- deduce from the mere gregarious purblind mary of modern civilization, a soirée of lions. nature of man, prompting him to run, “ as dimGlittering are the rooms, well-lighted, thronged; eyed animals do, towards any glittering object, bright flows their undulatory flood of blonde were it but a scoured tankard, and mistake it gowns and dress-coats, a soft smile dwelling for a solar luminary,” or even," sheep-like, to on all faces; for behold there also flow the run and crowd because many harc already lions, hovering distinguished : oracles of the run!” It is, indeed, curious to consider how age, of one sort or another. Oracles really men do make the gods that themselves worship. pleasant to see ; whom it is worth while to go for the most famed man, round whom all the and see: look at them, but inquire not of them, world rapturously huzzahs, and venerates as depart rather and be thankful. For your lion if his like were not, is the same man whom all soirée admits not of speech; there lies the spe- the world was wont to jostle into the kennels; ciality of it. A meeting together of human not a changed man, but in every fibre of him creatures; and yet (so high has civilization the same man. Foolish world, what went ye gone) ine primary aim of human meeting, that out to see ? A tankard scoured bright; and do soul might in some articulate utterance unfold there not lie, of the self-same pewter, whole itself to soul, can be dispensed with in it. barrowfuls of tankards, though by worse fortune Utterance there is not: nay, there is a certain all still in the dim state ? grinning play of tongue-fence, and make-believe And yet, at botlom, it is not merely our gre of utterance, considerably worse than none. garious sheep-like quality, but something better, For which reason it has been suggested, with an and indeed best; what has been called “the eye to sincerity and silence in such lion-oirées, perpetual fact of hero-worship;” our inborn Might not each lion be, for example, ticketed, sincere love of great men! Not the gilt as wiue-decanters are ? Let him carry, slung farthing, for its own sake, do even fools cover, round him, in such ornamental manner as but the gold guinea which they mistake it for. seemed good, his silver label with name en Veneration of great men is perennial in the graved; you lift his label, and read it, with nature of man; this, in all times, especially in

these, is one of the blessedest facts predicable • Menoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Beronet. of him. In times, even in these seemingly Vol. i.-Ví. Cadell. Edinburgh, 1837.

so disobedient times, “it remains a blessed fact, so cunningly has nature ordered it, that evil or to do no evil; will depend not on the whatsoever man ought to obey he cannot but cbcy. multiude, but on himsell. One thing he did Bhow the dullest clodpole, show the hanghtiest decidedly wish; at least to wait till the featherhead, that a soul higher than himself is work were finished: for the six prcmised actually here; were his knees stiffened into volumes, as the world knows, have flowed brass, he must down and worship.” So it has over into a seventh, which wiil out for some been written; and may be cited and repeaied weeks yet see the light. But the editorial till known to all. Understand it well, this of powers, wearied with waiting, have become "hero-worship” was the primary creed, and has peremptory; and declare thai, finished or not intrinsically been the secondary and ternary, finished, they will have their hands washed of and will be the ultimate and final creed of man- it at this opening of the year. Perhaps it is kind; indestructible, changing in shape, but in best. The physiognomy of Scott will not be essence unchangeable; whereon politics, re- much altered for us by the seventh volume; ligions, loyalties, and all highest human inte the prior six have altered it but little ;-as, inrests have been and can be built, as on a rock deed, a man who has writien some two hundred that will endure while man endures. Such is volumes of his own, and live i for thirty years hero-worship; so much lies in that our inborn amid the universal speech of friends, inust have sincere love of great men !-In favour of which already left some likeness or himself. Be ii unspeakable benefits of the reality, what can as the peremptory editorial powers require. we do but cheerfully pardon the multiplex First, therefore, a word on the Life" itself. ineptitudes of the semblance,-cheerfully wish Mr. Lockhart's known powers justify strict even lion-soirées, with labels for their lions or requisition in his case. Our verdici in general without that improvement, all manner of pros- would be, that he has accomplished the work perity ? Let hero-worship flourish, say we; he schemed for himself in a creditable work. and the more and more assiduous chase after manlike manner. It is true, his notion of gilt farthings while guineas are not yet forth- what the work was does not seem to have been coming. Herein, at lowest, is proof that very elevated. To picture forth the life of Scott guineas exist, that iney are believed to exist, according to any rules of art or composition, and valued. Find great men if you can; if you so that a reader, on adequalely examining il cannot, still quit not the search; in defect of might say to himself, “ 'There is Scotl, there great men, let there be noted men, men, in is the physiognomy and meaning of Scott's apsuch number, to such degree of intensity as the pearance and transit on this earth; such was public appetite can tolerate.

he by nature, so did the world act on him, so

he on the world, with such result and signifiWhether Sir Walter Scott was a great man, cance for himself and us:" this was by no is still a question with some; but there can be manner of means Mr. Lockhart's plan. A plan no question with any one that he was a most which, it is rashly said, should preside over noted and even notable man. In this gene- every biography! It might have been fulfilled ration there was no literary man with such a with all degrees of perfection from that of popularity in any country; there have only the “Odyssey” down to “ Thomas Ellwood" or been a few with such, taking in all generations lower. For there is no heroic poem in the and all countries. Nay, it is farther to be ad- world but is at bottom a biography, the life of mitted that Sir Walter Scott's popularity was a man: also, it may be said, there is no life of a select sort rather; not a popularity of the of a man, faithfully recorded, but is a heroic populace. His admirers were at one time poem of its sort, rhymed or unrhymed. It is a almost all the intelligent of civilised countries; plan one would prefer, did it otherwise suit; and to the last, included and do still include a which it does not in these days, Seven volumes great portion of that sort. Such fortune he had, sell so much dearer than one; are so much and has continued to maintain for a space of easier to write than one. The “Odyssey," for some twenty or thirty years. So long the instance, what were the value of the “Odys. observed of all observers; a great man, or only sey," sold per sheet? One paper of " Picka considerable man; here surely, if ever, is a wick;" or say, the inconsiderable fraction of singularly circumstanced, is a “distinguished” one. This, in commercial algebra, were the man! In regard to whom, therefore, the “in- equation : "Odyssey" equal to “ Pickwick” di stinctive tendency” on other men's part can- vided by an unknown integer. not be wanting. Let men look, where the There is a great discovery still to be made world has already so long looked. And now, in literature, that of paying literary men by while the new, earnestly expected“ Life by his the quantity they do not write. Nay, in sober Son-in-law and literary executor" again sum- truth, is not this actually the rule in all writing; mons the whole world's attention round him, and, moreover, in all conduct and acting ? Not probably for the last time it will ever be so what stands above ground, but what lies unsummoned; and men are in some sort taking seen under it, as the root and subterrene element leave of a notability, and about to go their way, it sprang from and emblemed forth, determines and commit him to his fortune on the flood of value. Under all speech that is good for any things,—why should not this periodical publi- thing there lies a silence that is better. Silence cation likewise publish its thought about him ? is deep as eternity; speech is shallow as time Readers of miscellaneous aspect, of unknown Paradoxical does it seem? Wo for the age, quantity and quality, are waiting to hear it wo for the man, quack-ridden, bespeeched, bedone. With small in ward vocation, but cheer- spouted, blown about like barren Sahara, to fully obedient to destiny and necessity, the whom this world-old truth were allogether present reviewer will follow a multitude to do strange !-Such we say is the rule, acted on or not, recognised or not; and he who departs time be composed, if necessary, by whosoever from it, what can he do but spread himself has call to ihat. As it is, as it was meant to into breadth and length, into superficiality and be, we repeat, the work is vigorously done. saleability; and, except as filigree, become Sagacity, decision, candour, diligence, good comparatively useless? One thinks, had but sense: these qualities are throughout observa the hogshead of thin wash, which sours in a ble. The dates, calculations, s'aiements, we week ready for the kennels, been distillest, been suppose to be accurate; much laborious in concentrated! Our dear Fenimore Cooper, quiry, some of it impossible for another whom we started with, might, in that way, man, has been gone into, the results of which have given us one Nulty Leatherstocking, one are imparted with due brevity. Scott's letters, melodious synopsis of man and nature in the not interesting generally, yet never absolutely West, (for it lay in him to do it,) almost as a without interest, are copiously given; copiously, Saint Pierre did for the islands of the East; but with selection; the answers to them sul and the hundred incoherences, cobbled hastily more select. Narrative, delineation, and at together by order of Colburn and Company, length personal reminiscences, occasionly of had slumbered in Chaos, as all incoherences much merit, of a certain rough force, sincerity, ought if possible to do. Verily this same ge- and picturesqueness, duly intervene. The nius of diffuse-writing, of diffuse-acting, is a scattered members of Scoul's Life do lie here, Moloch; and souls pass through the fire to and could be disentangled. In a word, ibis him more than enough. Surely if ever disco- compilation is the work of a manful, clearvery was valuable and needful, it were that seeing, conclusive man, and has been executed above indicated, of paying by the work not vi- with the facully and combination of faculties sibly done !—Which needful discovery we will the public had a right to expect from the name give the whole projecting, railwaying, know- attached to it. ledge-diffusing, march-of-intellect, and other- One thing we hear greatly blamed in Mr. wise promotive and locomotive societies in the Lockhart: that he has been too communicaOld and New World, any required length of tive, indiscreet, and has recorded much that centuries to make. Once made, such disco ought to have lain suppressed. Persons are very once made, we too will fling cap into the mentioned, and circumstances, not always of air, and shout Io Pæan, the Devil is conquered; an ornamental sort. It would appear there is and in the meanwhile study to think it nothing far less reticence than was looked for! Varimiraculous that seven biographical volumes ous persons, name and surname, have "reare given where one had been better; and that ceived pain:" nay, the very hero of the bioseveral other things happen, very much as graphy is rendered unheroic; unornamental they from of old were known to do, and are facts of him, and of those he had to do with, like to continue doing.

being set forth in plain English: hence “perMr. Lockhart's aim, we take it, was not that sonality,” “indiscretion," or worse, " sanctities of producing any such highflown work of art of private life," &c. &c. How delicate, decent as we hint at: or indeed to do much other than is English biography, bless its mealy mouth! to print, intelligibly bound together by order of A Damocles' sword of Respectubili!y hangs for time, and some requisite intercalary exposition, ever over the poor English life-writer, (as it all such letters, documents, and notices about does over poor English life in general,) and Scott as he found lying suitable, and as it reduces him to the verge of paralysis. Thus seemed likely the world would undertake to it has been said, “ there are no English lives read. His work, accordingly, is not so much worth reading except those of Players, who by a composition, as what we may call a compila- the nature of the case have bidden Respectabition well done. Neither is this a task of no dif- lity good day.” The English biographer has ficulty; this too is a task that may be performed I long felt that if in writing his Man's Biography, with extremely various degrees of talent: from he wrote down any thing that could by possithe “Life and Correspondence of Hannah | bility offend any man, he had written wrong. More,” for instance, up to this “Life of Scott,” | The plain consequence was that, properly there is a wide range indeed! Let us take the speaking, no biography whatever could be proseven volumes, and be thankful that they are duced. The poor biographer, having the fear genuine in their kind. Nay, as to that of their not of God before his eyes, was obliged to retire being seven and not one, it is right to say that as it were into vacuum; and write in the most the public so required it. To have done other melancholy, straitened manner, with only would have shown little policy in an author. vacuum for a result. Vain that he wrote, and Had Mr. Lockhart laboriously compressed that we kept reading volume on volume ; there himself, and instead of well-done compilation, was no biography, but some vague ghost of a brought out the well-done composition in one biography, white, stainless; without feature volume instead of seven, which not many men or substance; vacuum, as we say, and wind and in England are better qualified to do, there can shadow,-which indeed the material of it was. be no doubt that his readers for the time had No man lives without jostling and being been immeasurably fewer. If the praise of josiled; in all ways he has to elbow himself magnanimity be denied him, that of prudence through the world, giving and receiving of must be conceded, which perhaps he values fence. His life is a battle, in so far as it is an more.

entity at all. The very oyster, we suppose, The truth is, the work, done in this manner, comes in collision with oysters : undoubtedly too, was good to have: Scott's Biography, if enough it does come in collision with Necesuncomp ed, lies printed and indestructible sity and Difficulty; and helps itself througla, here, in the elementary state, and can at any not as a perfect ideal oyster, but as an imper

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