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Evil always prosper, then ? Out of all Evil Sad, truly, were our condition did we know comes Good; and no Good that is possible but but this, that Change is universal and inevi. shall one day be real. Deep and sad as is our table. Launched into a dark shoreless sea of feeling that we stand yet in the bodeful Night; Pyrrhonism, what would remain for us but to equally deep, indestructible is our assurance sail aimless, hopeless; or make madly merry, that the Morning also will not fail. Nay, al- while the devouring Death had not yet engulfed ready, as we look round, streaks of a day. us? As, indeed, we have seen many, and still spring are in the east: it is dawning; when see many do. Nevertheless so stands it not. the time shall be fulfilled, it will be day. The The venerator of the Past (and to what pure progress of man towards higher and no- heart is the Past, in that “moonlight of me. bler Developments of whatever is highest and mory," other than sad and holy?) sorrows no noblest in him, lies not only prophesied to over its departure, as one ulterly bereaved. Faith, but now written to the eye of Observa- The true Past departs not, no:hing that was tion, so that he who runs may read.

worthy in the Past departs; no 'Truth or GoodOne great step of progress, for example, we ness realized by man ever dies, or can die; should say, in actual circumstances, was this but is all still here, and recognised or not, same t'e clear ascertainment that we are in lives and works through endless changes. Il progress. About the grand Course of Provi- all things, to speak in the German dialect, are dence, and his final Purposes with us, we can discerned by us, and exist for us, in an element know nothing, or almost nothing: man begins of Time, and therefore of Mortality and Mutain darkness, ends in darkness; mystery is bility; yet Time itself reposes on Eternity: everywhere around us and in us, under our the truly Great and Transcendental has its feet, among our hands. Nevertheless so much basis and substance in Eternity; stands rehas become evident to every one, that this vealed to us as Eternity in a vesture of Time. wondrous Mankind is advancing somewhither; Thus in all Poetry, Worship, Art, Society, as that at least all human things are, have been, one form passes into another, nothing is lost: and for ever will be, in Movement and Change; it is but the superficial, as it were the body -as, indeed, for beings that exist in Time, by only, that grows obsolele and dies; under the virtue of Time, and are made of Time, might morial body lies a soul that is immortal; that have been long since understood. In some anew incarnates itself in fairer revelation; and provinces, it is true, as in Experimental Sci- the Present is the living sum-total of the whole ence, this discovery is an old one; but in most Past. others it belongs wholly to these latter days. In Change, therefore, there is nothing ter. How often, in former ages, by eternal Creeds, rible, nothing supernatural: on the contrary, eternal Forms of Government, and the like, it lies in the very essence of our lot, and life has it been attempted, fiercely enough, and in this world. Today is not yesterday: we with destructive violence, to chain the Future ourselves change; how can our Works and under the Past; and say to the Providence, Thoughts, if they are always to be the fittest, whose ways with man are mysterious, and continue always the same? Change, indeed, through the great Deep: Hitherto shalt thou is painful; yei ever needful: and if Memory come, but no farther! A wholly insane attempt; have its force and worth, so also has Hope. and for man himself, could it prosper, the Nay, if we look well to it, what is all Derangefrightfullest of all enchantments, a very Life- ment, and necessity of great Change, in itself in-Death. Man's task here below, the destiny such an evil, but the product simply of inof every individual man, is to be in turns Ap-creased resources which the old methods can no prentice and Workman; or say rather, Scholar, longer administer; of new wealth which the Teacher, Discoverer : by nature he has a old coffers will no longer contain? What is strength for learning, for imitating; but also ait

, for example, that in our own day bursts strength for acting, for knowing on his own asunder the bonds of ancient Political Sys. account. Are we not in a World seen to be tems, and perplexes all Europe with the fear Infinite; the relations lying closest together of Change, but even this: the increase of modified by those latest-discovered, and lying social resources, which the old social methods farthest asunder? Could you ever spell-bind will no longer sufficiently administer? The man into a Scholar merely, so that he had no. new omnipotence of the Steam-engine is her. thing to discover, to correct; could you ever ing asunder quite other mountains than the establish a Theory of the Universe that were physical. Have not our economical distresses, entire, unimprovable, and which needed only those barnyard Conflagrations themselves, the to be got by heart; man then were spiritually frightfullest madness of our mad epoch, their defunct, the species We now name Man had rise also in what is a real increase : increase ceased to exist. But the gods, kinder to us of Men; of human Force ; properly, in such a than we are to ourselves, have forbidden such Planet as ours, the most precious of all in. suicidal acts. As Phlogiston is displaced by creases? It is true again, the ancient methods Oxygen, and the Epicycles of Ptolemy by the of administration will no longer suffice. Must Ellipses of Kepler; so does Paganism give the indomitable millions, full of old Saxon place to Catholicism, Tyranny to Monarchy, energy and fire, lie cooped up in this Western and Feudalism to Representative Government, Nook, choking one another, as in a Blackhole -where also the process does not stop. Per- of Calcutta, while a whole fertile untenanted section of Practice, like completeness of Earth, desolate for want of the ploughshare, Opinion, is always approaching, never arrived; cries: Come and till me, come and reap me! Truth, in the words of Schiller, immer wird, nie If the ancient Captains can no longer yield est; never is, always is a-being.

guidance, new must be sought after: for the difficulty lies not in nature, but in artifice: the in the higher Literature of Germany, there European Calcutta-Blackhole has no walls but already lies, for him that can read it, the beair ones, and paper ones.-So, too, Skepticism ginning of a new revelation of the Godlike; itself, with its innumerable mischiefs, what is as yet unrecognised by the mass of the world; it but the sour fruit of a most blessed increase, but waiting there for recognition, and sure to that of Knowledge; a fruit, too, that will not find it when the fit hour comes. This age also always continue sour ?

is not wholly without its Prophets. In fact, much as we have said and mourned Again, under another aspect, if Utilitarianabout the unproductive prevalence of Meta- ism, or Radicalism, or the Mechanical Philophysics, it was not without some insight into sophy, or by whatever name it is called, has the use that lies in them. Metaphysical Specu- still its long task to do; nevertheless we can lation, if a necessary evil, is the forerunner of now see through it and beyond it: in the betmuch good. The fever of Skepticism must ter heads, even among us English, it has beneeds burn itself out, and burn out thereby the come obsolete; as in other countries it has Impurities that caused it; then again will there been, in such heads, for some forty or even be clearness, health. The principle of Life, fifty years. What sound mind among the which now struggles painfully, in the outer, French, for example, now fancies that men thin, and barren domain of the Conscious or can be governed by “Constitutions ;” by the Mechanical, may then withdraw into its inner never so cunning mechanizing of Self-inteSanctuaries, its abysses of mystery and mi- rests, and all conceivable adjustments of racle; withdraw deeper than ever into that checking and balancing: in a word, by the domain of the Unconscious, by nature infinite best possible solution of this quite insoluble and inexhaustible; and creatively work there. and impossible problem, Given a world of From that mystic region, and from that alone, Knuves, io produce an Honesty from their united all wonders, all Poesies, and Religions, and action ? Were not experiments enough of Social Systems have proceeded: the like won- this kind tried before all Europe, and found ders, and greater and higher, lie slumbering wanting, when, in that doomsday of France, there; and, brooded on by the spirit of the the infinite gulf of human Passion shivered waters, will evolve themselves, and rise like asunder the thin rinds of Habit; and burst exhalations from the Deep.

forth all-devouring, as in seas of Nether Fire? Of our modern Metaphysics, accordingly, Which cunningly-devised “Constitution,"conmay not this already be said, that if they have stitutional, republican, democratic, sans-culotproduced no Affirmation, they have destroyed tic, could bind that raging chasm together ? much Negation? It is a disease expelling a Were they not all burnt up, like Paper as disease: the fire of Doubt, as above hinted, they were, in its molten eddies ; and still the consuming away the Doubtful; that so the fire-sea raged fiercer than before? It is not Certain come to light, and again lie visible on by Mechanism, but by Religion ; not by Selfthe surface. English or French Metaphysics, interest, but by Loyalty, that men are governed in reference to this last stage of the speculative or governable. process, are not what we allude to here; but Remarkable it is, truly, how everywhere only the Metaphysics of the Germans. In the eternal fact begins again to be recognised, France or England, since the days of Diderot that there is a Godlike in human affairs; that and Hume, though all thought has been of a God not only made us and beholds us, but is skeptico-metaphysical texture, so far as there in us and around us; that the Age of Mirawere any Thought, we have seen no Meta- cles, as it ever was, now is. Such recogniphysics ; but only more or less ineffectual tion we discern on all hands, and in all coudquestionings whether such could be. In the tries : in each country after its own fashion. Pyrrhonism of Hume and the Materialism of In France, among the younger nobler minds, Diderot, Logic had, as it were, overshot itself, strangely enough ; where, in their loud conoverset itself. Now, though the athlete, to use tention with the Actual and Conscious, the our old figure, cannot, by much lifting, lift up Ideal or Unconscious is, for the time, without his own body, he may shift it out of a laming exponent; where Religion means not the paposture, and get to stand in a free one. Such rent of Polity, as of all that is highest, but a service have German Metaphysics done for Polity itself; and this and the other earnest man's mind. The second sickness of Specula- man has not been wanting, who could whisper tion has abolished both itself and the first. audibly : “Go to, I will make a religion.” In Friedrich Schlegel complains much of the England still more strangely; as in all things, fruitlessness, the tumult and transiency of worthy England will have its way: by the German as of all Metaphysics; and with rea- shrieking of hysterical women casting out of son : yet in that wide-spreading, deep-whirling devils, and other “gifts of the Holy Ghost." vortex of Kantism, so soon metamorphosed Well might Jean Paul say, in this his twelfth into Fichteism, Schellingism, and then as hour of the Night, “ the living dream ;" well Hegelism, and Cousinism, perhaps finally might he say, “the dead walk.” Meanwhile evaporated, is not this issue visible enough, let us rejoice rather that so much has been that Pyrrhonism and Materialism, themselves seen into, were it through never so diffracting necessary phenomena in European culture, media, and never so madly distorted; that in have disappeared; and a Faith in Religion all dialecis, though but half-articulately, this has again become possible and inevitable for high Gospel begins to be preached : “Man is the scientific mind; and the word Free-thinker still Man.” The genius of Mechanism, as no longer means the Denier or Caviller, but was once before predicted, will not always sit the Believer, or the Ready to believe? Nay, I like a choking incubus on our soul; but at


length, when by a new magic Word the old Soldiers, fighting in a foreign land; that unspell is broken, become our slave, and as fa- derstand not the plan of the campaign, and miliar-spirit do all our bidding. “We are have no need to understand it; seeing well near awakening when we dream that we what is at our hand to be done. Let us do it dream."

like Soldiers, with submission, with courage, He that has an eye and a heart can even with a heroic joy. “Whatsoever thy hand now say: Why should I falter ? Light has findeth to do, do it with all thy mighi." Become into the world; to such as love Light, so hind us, behind each one of us, lie Six Thou. as Light must be loved, with a boundless all. sand years of human effort, human conquest : doing, all-enduring love. For the rest, let before us is the boundless Time, with its as that vain struggle to read the mystery of the yet upcreated and unconquered Continents Infinite cease to harass us. It is a mystery and Eldorados, which we, even we, have to which, through all ages, we shall only read conquer, to create: and from the bosom of here a line of, there another line of. Do we Eternity shine for us celestial guiding stars. not already know that the name of the Infinite “My inheritance how wide and fair ! is Goop, is God? Here on Earth we are as Time is my fair seed-field, of Time I'm heir."


[Fraser's MAGAZINE, 1832.)

READER! thou here beholdest the Eidolon of to be done therein. Reader! within that head Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. So looks and the whole world lies mirrored, in such clear, lives, now in his eighty-third year, afar in the ethereal harmony, as it has done in none since bright little friendly circle of Weimar, “the Shakspeare left us: even this Rag-fair of a clearest, most universal man of his time.” world, wherein thou painfully strugglest, and Strange enough is the cunning that resides in (as is like) stumblest—all lies transfigured the ten fingers, especially what they bring to here, and revealed authentically to be still holy, pass by pencil and pen! Him who never saw still divine. What alchymy was that: to find England, England now sees: from Fraser's a mad universe full of skepticism, discord, “Gallery” he looks forth here, wondering, desperation; and transmu'e it into a wise uni. doubtless, how he came into such Lichtstrasse verse of belief, and melody, and reverence! (“ light-street," or galaxy:) yet with kind recog- Was not there an opus magnum, if one ever was? nition of all neighbours, even as the moon This, then, is he who, heroically doing and enlooks kindly on lesser lights, and, were they during, has accomplished it. but fish-oil cressets, or terrestrial Vauxhall In this distracted time of ours, wherein men stars, (of clipped tin,) forbids not their shining. have lost their old loadstars, and wandered Nay, the very soul of the man thou canst like after night-fires and foolish will-o'-wisps; and wise behold. Do but look well in those forty all things, in that “shaking of the nations," volumes of “musical wisdom,” which, under have been tumbled into chaos, the high made the title of Goethe's Werke, Cotta of Tübingen, low and the low high, and ever aná anon some or Black and Young of Covent Garden-once duke of this, and king of that, is gurgled aloft, offer them a trifle of drink-money-will cheer-to float there for moments; and fancies bimfully hand thee: greater sight, or more profit self the governor and head-director of it all, able, thou wilt not meet with in this generation. and is but the topmost froth-bell, to burst again The German language, it is presumable, thou and mingle with the wild fermenting mass,knowest; if not, shouldst thou undertake the in this so despicable time, we say, there were study thereof for that sole end, it were well nevertheless—be the bounteous heavens erer worth thy while.

thanked for it! -tuo great mien sent among us. Croquis (a man otherwise of rather satirical The one, in the island of St. Helena nox turn) surprises us, on this occasion, with a fit sleeps "dark and lone, amid the ocean's ererof enthusiasm. He declares often, that here lasting lullaby," the other still rejoices in the is the finest of all living heads; speaks much blessed sunlight, on the banks of the Ilmé. of blended passion and repose; serene depths Great was the part allotted each, great the of eyes; the brow, the temples, royally arched, talent given him for the same; yet, mark the a very palace of thought;—and so forth. contrast! Bonaparte walked through the war.

The writer of these Notices is not without convulsed world like an all-levouring earthdecision of character, and can believe what he quake, heaving, thundering, hurling kingdom knows. He answers Brother Croquis, that it over kingdom; Goethe was as the mild-shining, is no wonder the head should be royal and a inaudible light, which, notwithstanding, can palace; for a most royal work was appointed again make that chaos into a creation. Thus,

too, we see Napoleon, with his Austerlitzes, * By Stieler of Munich; the copy in Fraser's Maga- Waterloos, and Borodinos, is quite gone-all zine proved a total failure and involuntary caricature,- eparted, sunk to silence like a tavern-brawl. resembling, as was said at the time, a wretched old. While this other!-he still shines with his clothesman carrying behind his back a hat which he direct radiance ; his inspired words are to abide in living hearts, as the life and inspiration of one counsel to give, the secret of his whole thinkers, born and still unborn. Some fifty poetic alchymy: GEDENKE ZU LEBEN. Yes, years hence, his thinking will be found trans- “ think of living!" Thy life, wert thou the lated, and ground down, even to the capacity “pitifullest of all the sons of earth,” is no id' of the diurnal press; acts of parliament will dream, but a solemn reality. It is thy own, vi be passed in virtue of him :-this man, if we is all thou hast to front eternity with. Work, well consider of it, is appointed to be ruler of then, even as he has done, and does—"LIKE A the world.

seemed to have stolen.

STAR UNHASTING, TET UNRESTING."-Sic va Reader! to thee thyself, even now, he has leas.



Mar's sociality of nature evinces itself, in his own. Of these millions of living men each spite of all that can be said, with abundant individual is a mirror to us: a mirror both evidence by this one fact, were there no other: scientific and poetic; or, if you will, both nat. the unspeakable delight he takes in Biography. ural and magical;—from which one would so It is written, “ The proper study of mankind is gladly draw aside the gauze veil; and, peering man;" to which stüdy, let us candidly admit, therein, discern the image of his own natural he, by true or by false methods, applies him- face, and the supernatural secrets that proself, nothing loath. “Man is perennially inte- phetically lie under the same! resting to man; nay, if we look strictly to it, Observe, accordingly, to what extent, in the there is nothing else interesting." How inex- actual course of things, this business of Biopressibly comfortable to know our fellow-graphy is practised and relished. Define to creature ; to see into him, understand his goings thyself, judicious Reader, the real significance forth, decipher the whole heart of his mystery: of these phenomena, named Gossip, Egotism, nay, not only to see into him, but even to see Personal Narrative, (miraculous or not,) Scanout of him, to view the world altogether as he dal, Raillery, Slander, and such like; the sum. views it; so that we can theoretically construe total of which (with some fractional addition him, and could almost practically personate of a better ingredient, generally too small to be him; and do now thoroughly discern both noticeable) constitutes that other grand phenowhat manner of man he is, and what manner menon still called “ Conversation.” Do they of thing he has got to work on and live on! not mean wholly: Biography and Autobiography?

A scientific interest and a poetic one alike Not only in the common Speech of men; but inspire us in this matter. A scientific: because in all Art, too, which is or should be the conevery mortal has a Problem of Existence set centrated and conserved essence of what men before him, which, were it only, what for the can speak and show, Biography is almost the most it is, the Problem of keeping soul and one thing needful. body together, must be to a certain extent Even in the highest works of Art our interest, original, unlike every other; and yet, at the as the critics complain, is too apt to be same time, so like every other; like our own, strongly or even mainly of a Biographic sort. therefore; instructive, moreover, since we also in the Art, we can nowise forget the Artist : are indentured to live. A poetic interest still while looking on the Transformation, while more: for precisely this same struggle of studying the Iliad, we ever strive to figure to human Free-will against material Necessity, ourselves what spirit dwelt in Raphael; what which every man's Life, by the mere circum- a head was that of Homer, wherein, woven of stance that the man continues alive, will more Elysian light and Tartarian gloom, that old or less victoriously exhibit,-is that which world fashioned itself together, of which these above all else, or rather inclusive of all else, written Greek characters are but a feeble calls the Sympathy of mortal hearts into ac- though perennial copy. The Painter and the tion; and whether as acted, or as represented Singer are present to us; we partially and for and written of, not only is Poetry, but is the the time become the very Painter and the very sole Poetry possible. Borne onwards by which Singer, while we enjoy the Picture and the two all-embracing interests, may the earnest Song. Perhaps, too, let the critic say what he Lover of Biography expand himself on all will, this is the highest enjoyment, the clearest sides, and indefinitely enrich himself. Look- recognition, we can have of these. Art indeed ing with the eyes of every new neighbour, he is Art; yet Man also is Man. Had the Trans can discern a new world different for each: figuration been painted without human hand, feeling with the heart of every neighbour, he had it grown merely on the canvas, sas hy lives with every neighbour's life, even as with atmospheric influences, as lichen-pictures do

on rocks,-it were a grand Picture doubtless; *The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. : including a yet nothing like so grand as the Picture, which, Edition, with numerous Additions and Notes. By John on opening ou eyes, we everywhere in Wilson Croker, LL.D., F. R. S. 5 vols. London, 1831. Heaven and in Earth see painted; and every


where pass over with indifference,-because I could eat the wind, with ever new disappointthe Painter was not a Man. Think of this; ment. much lies in it. The Vatican is great; yet Again, consider the whole class of Fictitious poor to Chimborazo or the Peake of Teneriffe: Narratives; from the highest category of epic its dome is but a foolish Big-endian or Little or dramatic Poetry, in Shakspeare and Homer, endian chip of an egg-shell, compared with down to the lowest of froth Prose in the Fashthat star-fretted Dome where Arcturus and ionable Novel. What are all these but so Orion glance for ever; which latter, notwith many mimic Biographies? Attempts, here by standing, who looks at, save perhaps some ne. an inspired Speaker, there by an uninspired cessitous star-gazer bent to make Almanacs, Babbler, to deliver himself, more or less inefsome thick-quilted watchman, to see what wea- fectually, of the grand secret wherewith all ther it will prove? The Biographic interest hearts labour oppressed: The significance of is wanting: no Michael Angelo was He who Man's Life ;- which deliverance, even built that “Temple of Immensity;" therefore traced in the unfurnished head, and printed at do we, pitiful Littlenesses as we are, turn rather the Minerva Press, finds readers. For, obto wonder and to worship in the little toy box serve, though there is a greatest Fool, as a suof a Temple built by our like.

perlative in every kind; and the most Foolish Still more decisively, still more exclusively man in the Earth is now indubitably living does the Biographic interest manifest itself, as and breathing, and did this morning or lately we descend into lower regions of spiritual eat breakfast, and is even now digesting the communication; through the whole range of same; and looks out on the world, with his what is called Literature. Of History, for ex. dim horn-eyes, and inwardly forms some unample, the most honoured, if not honourable speakable theory thereof: yet where shall the species of composition, is not the whole pur- authentically Existing be personally met with! port biographic? “ History," it has been said, Can one of us, otherwise than by guess, know " is the essence of innumerable Biographies.” that we have got sight of bim, have orally Such, at least, it should be : whether it is, communed with him? To take even the nar might admit of question. But, in any case, rower sphere of this our English metropolis, what hope have we in turning over those old can any one confidently say to himself, that he interminable Chronicles, with their garrulities has conversed with the identical, individual, and insipidities; or still worse, in patiently ex- Stupidest man now extant in London ? No amining those modern Narrations, of the Phi- one. Deep as we dive in the Profound, there losophic kind, where “Philosophy, teaching is ever a new depth opens: where the ultimate by Experience," must sit like owl on house bottom may lie, through what new scenes of top, sceing nothing, understanding nothing, ut- being we must pass before reaching it, (except tering only, with solemnity enough, her per- that we know it does lie somewhere, and might petual most wearisome hoo-hoo :—what hope by human faculty and opportunity be reached,) have we, except for the most part fallacious is altogether a mystery to us. Strange, tanone of gaining some acquaintance with our talizing pursuit! We have the fullest assufellow-creatures, though dead and vanished, rance, not only that there is a Stupidest of yet dear to us; how they got along in those old London men actually resident, with bed and days, suffering and doing; to what extent, and board of some kind, in London; but that seveunder what circumstances, they resisted the ral persons have been or perhaps are now Devil and triumphed over him, or struck their speaking face to face with him: while for us, colours to him, and were trodden under foot chase it as we may, such scientific blessedness by him; how, in short, the perennial Battle will too probably be for ever denied !-But the went, which men name Lise, which we also in thing we meant to enforce was this comfortathese new days, with indifferent fortune, have ble fact, that no known Head was so wooden, to fight, and must bequeath to our sons and but there might be other heads to which it grandsons to go on fighting,till the Enemy were a genius and Friar Bacon's Oracle. Of one day be quite vanquished and abolished, or no given Book, not even of a Fashionable else the great Night sink and part the combat- Novel, can you predicate with certainty that ants; and thus, either by some Millennium or its vacuity is absolute; that there are not other some new Noah's Deluge, the Volume of Uni- vacuities which shall partially replenish themversal History wind itself up! Other hope, in selves therefrom, and esteem it a plenum. How studying such Books, we have none: and that knowest thou, may the distressed Novelwright it is a deceitful hope, who that has tried knows exclaim, that I, here where I sit, am the Fool. not? A feast of widest Biographic insight is ishest of existing mortals; that this my Long, spread for us; we enter full of hungry antici- ear of a Fictitious Biography shall not find pation : alas! like so many other feasts, which one and the other, into whose still longer ears J.ife invites us to, a mere Ossian's “ feast of it may be the means, under Providence, of inshells,"—the food and liquor being all emptied stilling somewhat? We answer, None knows, out and clean gone, and only the vacant dishes none can certainly know: therefore, write on, and deceitful emblems thereof left! Your worthy Brother, even as thou canst, as it has modern Historical Restaurateurs are indeed been given thee. little better than high-priests of Famine; that Here, however, in regard to “ Fictitious Biokeep choicest china dinner-sets, only nó din graphies,” and much other matter of like sort, ner to serve therein. Yet such is our Biogra- which the greener mind in these days inditeth, phic appetite, we run trying from shop to we may as well insert some singular sep. shop, with ever new hope; and, unless we tences on the importance and significance of

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