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Reynard is that of Lübeck, in 1498 ; of which differ essentially from Hinrek's; still more so there is a copy, understood to be the only one, does the French Roman du nouveau Renard, still extant in the Wolfenbüttel Library. This composed “by Jacquemars Gielée at Lisle, oldest Edition is in the Low-German or Saxon about the year 1290,” which yet exists in tongue, and appears to have been produced by manuscript: however, they sufficiently verify Hinrek van Alkmer, who in the Preface calls that statement, by some supposed to be seigned, himself"Schoolmaster and Tutor of that noble of the German redactor's having a sought and virtuous Prince and Lord, the Duke of Lor- rendered” his work from the Walloon and raine;" and says farther, that by order of this French; in which latter tongue, as we shall same worthy sovereign, he “sought out and soon see, some shadow of it had been known rendered the present Book from the Walloon and and popular, long centuries before that time. French tongue into German, to the praise and For besides Gielée's work, we have a Renard honour of God, and wholesome edification of Couronné of still earlier, a Renard Contrefait of whoso readeth therein." Which candid and somewhat later date: and Chroniclers inform business-like statement would doubtless have us that, at the noted Festival given by Philip continued to yield entire satisfaction; had it the Fair, in the beginning of the fourteenth not been that, in modern days, and while this century, among the dramatic entertainments, first Lübeck Edition was still lying in its dusty was a whole Life of Reynard; wherein it must recess unknown to Bibliomaniacs, another not surprise us that he “ended by becoming account, dated some hundred years later, and Pope, and still, under the Tiara, continued to supported by a little subsequent hearsay, had eat ultry.” Nay, curious inquirers bave been raked up: how the real Author was discovered on the French and German borders, Nicholas Baumann, Professor at Rostock ; some vestige of the Story even in Carlovingian how he had been Secretary to the Duke of times, which, indeed, again makes it a German Juliers, but was driven from his service by original: they will have it that a certain Reinwicked cabals; and so in revenge composed hard, or Reinecke, Duke of Lorraine, who, in this satirical adumbration of the Juliers Court; the ninth century, by his craft and exhaustless putting on the title-page, to avoid conse- stratagems worked strange mischief in that quences, the feigned tale of its being rendered region, many times overreaching King Zwentifrom the French and Walloon tongue, and the bald himself, and at last, in his stronghold of feigned name of Hinrek van Alkmer, who, for Durfos, proving impregnable to him-had in the rest, was never Schoolmaster and Tutor at satirical songs of that period been celebrated Lorraine, or anywhere else, but a mere man as a fox, as Reinhard the For, and so given rise or straw, created for the nonce, out of so many afar off to this Apologue, at least to the title of Letters of the Alphabet. Hereupon excessive it. The name Isegrim, as applied to the Wolf, debate, and a learned sharp-shooting, with vic- these same speculators deduce from an Austory-shouts on both sides; into which we trian Count Isengrin, who, in those old days, nowise enter. Some touch of human sym- had revolted against Kaiser Arnulph, and pathy does draw us towards Hinrek, whom, if otherwise exhibited too wolfish a disposition. he was once a real man, with bones and Certain it is, at least, that both designations sinews, stomach and provender-scrip, it is were in universal use during the twelfth cenmournful to see evaporated away into mere tury; they occur, for example, in one of the vowels and consonants : however, beyond a two sirventes which our Caur-de-Lion has left kind wish, we can give him no help. In Lite- us: “ye have promised me fidelity,” says he, rary History, except on this one occasion, as“ but ye have kept it as the Wolf did to the seems indisputable enough, he is nowhere men- Fox," as Isangrin did to Reinhart.* Nay, periioned or hinted at.

haps the ancient circulation of some such Leaving Hinrek and Nicolaus, then, to fight song, or Tale, among the French, is best of all out their quarrel as they may, we remark that evinced by the fact that this same Reinhart, or the clearest issue of it would throw little light Renard, is still the only word in their language on the origin of Reinerke. The victor could at for Fox; and thus, strangely enough, the Promost claim to be the first German redactor of per may have become an Appellative; and sly this Fable, and the happiest; whose work had Duke Reinhart, at an era when the French superseded and obliterated all preceding ones tongue was first evolving itself from the rubwhatsoever; but nowise to be the inventor bish of Latin and German, have insinuated thereuf, who must be sought for in a much re- his name into Natural as well as Political moter period. There are even two printed History. versions of the Tale, prior in date to this of From all which, so much at least would apLübeck: a Dutch one, at Delft in 1484; and pear: That the Fable of Reynard the Fox, which one by Caxton in English, in 1481, which in the German version we behold completed, seems to be the earliest of all. These two nowise derived its completeness from the indi

vidual there named Hinrek van Alkmer, or Canton's Edition, a copy of which is in the British from any other individual, or people : but Museum, bears title: Hystorye of Reynart the Fore: and rather, that being in old times universally cur. Whylsontyde that the wodes comynly be lusty and rent, it was taken up by poets and satirists of gladsome, and the trees clad with levys and blossoms, all countries; from each received some accesand the grounds with herbes and flowers sweete smell yng;"-where, as in many other passages, the fact that rude and symple englyssh in thabbey of Westminster, Caxton and Alkmer had the same original before them and fynnyshed the vi daye of Juyn the yere of our lord is manifest enough. Our venerable Printer says in con- 1481, the 21 yere of the regne of Kynge Edward the clusion: “I have not added ne mynnsshed but have iiijth." followed as nyghe as I can my cop whych was in * Flögel, (iii. 31,) who quotes the Histoire Litteraino dutche; and by me Willm Caxton translated in to this des Troubadours, t. I. p. 63.

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sion or improvement; and properly has no Thus has our old Fablé, rising like some single author. We must observe, however, River in the remote distance, from obscure that as yet it had attained no fixation or con- rivulets, gathered strength out of every valley, sistency; no version was decidedly preferred out of every country, as it rolled on. It is Euto every other. Caxton's and the Dutch ap- ropean in two senses; for as all Europe conpear, at best, but as the skeleton of what after- tributed to it, so all Europe has enjoyed it wards became a body; of the old Walloon Among the Germans, Reinecke Fuchs was long version, said to have been discovered ly, a House-book and universal Best-companio we are taught to cntertain a similar opinion :* it has been lectured on in Universities, quoted in the existing French versions, which are all in Imperial Council-halls; it lay on the toilette ulder, either in Gielée's, or in the others, there of Princesses, and was thumbed to pieces on is even less analogy. Loosely conjoined, there the bench of the Artisan ; we hear of grave fore, and only in the state of dry bones, was it men ranking it only next to the Bible. Neither, that Hinrek, or Nicolaus, or some Lower-Saxon as we said, was its popularity confined to whoever he might be, found the story; and home; Translations ere long appeared in blowing on it with the breath of genius, raised French, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, Engit up into a consistent Fable. Many additions lish :* nor was that same stall-honour, which and some exclusions he must have made; was has been reckoned the truest literary celebrity, probably enough assisted by personal experi. refused it here; perhaps many a reader of ence of a Court, whether that of Juliers or these pages may, like the writer of them, resome other; perhaps also he admitted personal collect the hours, when, hidden from unfeeling allusions, and doubtless many an oblique gaze of pedagogue, he swallowed The most glance at existing things : and thus was pro- pleasant and delightful History of Renard the Fox, duced the Low-German Reineke de Fos, which like stolen waters, with a timorous joy. version, shortly after its appearance, had ex

so much for the outward fortunes of this tinguished all the rest, and come to be, what it remarkable Book. It comes before us with still is, the sole veritable representative of a character such as can belong only to a very Reynard, inasmuch as all subsequent transla- few; that of being a true world's-Book, which tions and editions have derived themselves through centuries was everywhere at home, from it.

the spirit of which diffused itself into all lanThe farther history of Reinecke is easily guages and all minds. These quaint Æsopic traced. In this new guise, it spread abroad figures have painted themselves in innumeraover all the world, with a scarcely exampled ble heads; that rough, deep-lying humour has rapidity; fixing itself also as a firm possession been the laughter of many generations. So in most countries, where, indeed, in this cha- that, at worst, we must regard this Reinecke as racter, we still find it. It was printed and an ancient Idol, once worshipped, and still inrendered, innumerable times : in ihe original teresting for that circumstance, were the sculpdialect alone, the last Editor has reckoned up ture never so rude. We can love it, moreover, more than twenty Editions; on one of which, as being indigenous, wholly of our own creafor example, we find such a name as that of tion: it sprang up from European sense and Heinrich Voss. It was first translated into character, and was a faithful type and organ High-German in 1545; into Latin in 1567, by of these. Hartmann Schopper, whose smooth style and But independently of all extrinsic considerarough fortune keep him in memory with tions, this Fable of Reinecke may challenge a Scholars of a new version into short German judgment on its own merits. Cunningly converse appeared next century; in our own structed, and not without a true poetic life, we times, Goethe has not disdained to re-produce must admit it to be: great power of concepit, by means of his own, in a third shape: Op tion and invention, great pictorial fidelity, a Soltau's version, into literal doggerel, we have warm, sunny tone of colouring, are manifest already testified. Long generations before, it enough. It is full of broad, rustic mirth; inhad been manufactured into Prose, for the use exhaustible in comic devices; a World-Saturof the people, and was sold on stalls; where nalia, where Wolves tonsured into Monks, and still, with the needful changes in spelling, and printed on grayest paper, it tempts the specu- 'dedicating it to the Emperor, with doleful complaints,

lative eye.

fruitless or not is unknown. For now poor Hartmann, no longer an Autobiographer, quite vanishes, and we

can understand only that he laid his wearied back ono • See Scheller ; (Reineke de Fos, To Brunswyk, 1825 ;) day in a inost still bed, where the blanket of the Night Vorrede.

sonly enwrapped him and all his woes.--His Book is + While engaged in this Translation, at Freiburg in entitled Opus poeticum de admirabili Fallaciâ et Astutia Baden, he was impressed as a soldier, and carried, ap- | Vulpecule Reinekes, &c. &c.; and in the Dedication and parently in fetters, to Vienna, having given his work to Preface contains all these details. another to finish. At Vienna he stood not long in the * Besides Caxton's original, of which little is known ranks; having fallen violently sick, and being thrown among us but the name, we have two versions ; one in out into the streets to recover there. He says, "he was 1667, " with excellent Morals and Expositions," which without bed, and had to seek quarters on the muddy was reprinted in 1681, and followed in 1684 by a conpavement, in a Barrel.". Here too, in the night, some tinuation, called the Shifts of Reynardine the Son of Rey. excessively straitened individual stole from him his nard, of English growth; another in 1708, slightly altercloak and sabre. However, men were not all hyenas ; ed from the former, explaining what appears doubtful or one Josias Hufnagel, unknown to him, but to whom by allegorical ; "it being originally written," his writings he was known, took him under roof, pro- brave editor elsewhere, “by an eminent Statesman of cured medical assistance, equipped him anew ; so that the German Empire, to show some Men their Follies, “ in the harvest season, being half-cured, he could re- and correct the Vices of the Times he lived in." Nos turn or rather re-crawl to Frankfort on the Mayn." Only Reynardine but a second Appendix, Cawood the Rook, There too " a Magister Johann Cuipius, Christian Egen- appears here ; also there are curious Devices, or Pieolph's son-in-law, kindly received him," and encouraged tures."--or editions “ printed for the Flying-Siation bim to finish his Translation; as accordingly he did, lors,” we say nothing.

says the

Sic hominis et ratio

nigh starved by short commons, Foses pilgrim-| at heart, and furnished even with shoes, cut ing to Rome for absolution, Cocks pleading from the living hides of Isegrim and Isegrim's at the judgment-bar, make strange mummery. much-injured spouse, his worst enemies. How, Nor is ihis wild Parody of Human Life with the 'Treasures not making their appearance, out its meaning and moral: it is an Air-pa- but only new misdeeds, he is again haled to geant from Fancy's Dream-grotto, yet Wis- judgment; again glozes the general ear with dom lurks in it; as we gaze, the vision be sweetest speeches; at length, being challenged comes poetic and prophetic. A true Irony | to it, lights Isegrim in knightly tourney, and by mus: have dwell in the Poet's heart and head ; the cunningest, though the most unchivalrous here, under grotesque shadows, he gives us method, not to be farther specified in polite the saddest picture of Reality; yet for us with writing, carries off a complete victory; and out sadness; his figures mask themselves in having thus, by wager of battle, manifested his uncouth, bestial vizards, and enact, gambolo innocence, is overloaded with royal favour; ing: their Tragedy dissolves into sardonic created Chancellor, and Pilot to weather the grins. He has a deep, hearifelt Humour, Storm ; and so, in universal honour and ausporting with the world and its evils in kind thority, reaps the fair fruit of his gifts and la. mockery: this is the poetic soul, round which bours. the outward material has fashioned itself into living coherence. And so, in that rude old Whereby shall each to wisdom turn, Apologue, we have still a mirror, though now

Evil eschew, and virtue learn, tarnished and time-worn, of true magic reality;

Therefore was this same story wrote, and can discern there, in cunning reflex, some

That is its aim, and other not.

This Book for little price is sold, image both of our destiny and of our duty : But image clear of world doth hold; for now, as then, “ Prudence is the only virtue Whoso into the world would look, sure of its reward,” and cunning triumphs My counsel is,-he buy this book. where Honesty is worsted; and now, as then,

So endeth Reynard's For's story: it is the wise man's part to know this, and

God help us all to heavenly glory! cheerfully look for it, and cheerfully defy it:

It has been objected that the animals in RieUt vulpis adulatio

necke are not Animals, but Men disguised; to Here through his own world moveth,

which ubjection, except in so far as grounded

on the necessary indubitable fact that this is Most like to Reynard's proveth.*

an Apologue or emblematic Fable, and no If Reinecke is nowise a perfect Comic Epos, it Chapter of Natural History, we cannot in any has various features of such, and, above all, a considerable degree accede. Nay, that very genuine Epic spirit, which is the rarest fea contrast between Object and Effort, where the ture.

Passions of men develope themselves on the of the Fable, and its incidents and struc- Interests of animals, and the whole is hudture, it is perhaps superfluous to offer any dled together in chaotic mockery, is a main sketch; to most readers the whole may be al- charm of the picture. For the rest, we should ready familiar. How Noble, King of the rather say, these bestial characters were moBeasts, holding a solemn Court, one Whitsun- derately well sustained : the vehement, futile tide, is deafened on all hands with complaints vociferation of Chanticleer; the hysterical against Reinecke; Hinze the Cat, Lampe the promptitude, and earnest profession and proHare, Isegrim the Wolf, with innumerable iestation of poor Lampe the Hare; the thickothers, having suffered from his villany, Ise- headed ferocity of Isegrim; the sluggish, glutgrim especially, in a point which most keenly tonous opacity of Bruin; above all, the craft

, touches honour; nay, Chanticleer the Cock, the tact, and inexhaustible knavish adroitness (Henning de Hane,) amid bitterest wail, appear of Reinecke himself, are in strict accuracy of ing even with the corpus delicti, the body of one

costume. Often also their situations and ocof his children, whom that arch-knave has fe. cupations are bestial enough.

What quanloniously murdered with intent to eat. How tities of bacon and other provant do Isegrim his indignant Majesty thereupon despatches and Reinecke forage; Reinecke contributing Bruin the Bear to cite the delinquent in the the scheme,--for the two were then in partnerKing's name; how Bruin, inveigled into a Ho- ship,-and Isegrim paying the shot in broken ney-Expedition, returns without bis errand. bones! What more characteristic than the without his ears, almost without his life; Hinze fate of Bruin, when, ill-counselled, he introthe Cat, in a subsequent expedition, faring no duces his stupid head into Rustefill's half-split better. How at last Reinecke, that he may log, has the wedges whisked away, and stands not have to stand actual siege in his fortress clutched there, as in a vice, and uselessly of Malapertus, does appear for trial, and is roaring, disappointed of honey, sure only of a about to be hanged, but on the gallows-ladder beating without parallel! Not to forget the makes a speech unrivalled in forensic elo- Mare, whom, addressing her by the title of quence, and saves his life; nay, having inci- Good-wife, with all politeness, Isegrim, sore. dentally hinted at some Treasures, the hiding- pinched with hunger, asks whether she will place of which is well known to him, rises sell her foal: she answers, that the price is into high favour; is permitted to depart on written on her hinder hoof; which document that pious pilgrimage to Rome he has so much the intending purchaser, being “an Erfurt

graduate,” declares his full ability to read; * UI pulpis adulatio

but finds there no writing, or print, save only

the print of six horsenails on his own mauled Gelyk dem Fos sik shikket.-Motto to Reinecke. visage. And abundance of the like; sufficient

Nu in de toerlde blikket: Sic hominis et ratio

to excuse our old Epos on this head, or altogether justify it. Another objection, that, namely, which points to the great, and excessive coarseness of the work, here and there, it cannot so readily turn aside; being indeed rude, oldfashioned, and homespun, apt even to draggle in the mire: neither are its occasional dulness and tediousness to be denied; but only to be set against its frequent terseness and strength, and pardoned as the product of poor humanity, from whose hands nothing, not even a Reincke de Fos, comes perfect.

He who would read, and still understand this old Apologue, must apply to Goethe, whose version, for poetical use, we have found infinitely the best; like some copy of an ancient, bedimmed, half-obliterated woodeat, but new-done on steel, on India-paper, and with all manner of graceful, yet appropriate appendages. Nevertheless, the old Low-German original has also a certain charm, and, simply as the original, would claim some notice. It is reckoned greatly the best performance that was ever brought out in that dialect; interesting, moreover, in a philological point of view, especially to us English; being properly the language of our old Saxon Fatherland; and still curiously like our own, thocgh the two, for some twelve centuries, have had no brotherly communication. One short specimen, with the most verbal translation, we shall here insert, and then have done with Reinecke :

De Greving was Reinken broder's söne,
The Badger was Reinke's brother's son,
De sprak do, un was sêr köne.
He spake there, and was (sore) very (keen) bold.
lle forantworde in dem Hove den Fos,
lle (for-answered) defended in the Court the for,
De dog was sér falsh un lôs.
That (though) yet was very false and loose.
He sprak to deme Wulve also ford :
He spake to the Wolf 80 forth:
Here Isegrim, it is ein Oldspraken word,
Master Isegrim, it is an old-spoken word,
Des fyendes mand shaffe, selden frôm !
The (fiends) enemy's mouth (shapeth) bringeth sel-

dom advantage !
Bo do ji ôk by Reinken, mimen om.
So do ye (ekt) too by Reinke, mine (eme) uncle.
Were he so wol alse ji hyre to flove,
Were he as well as ye here at Court,
Un stunde he also in des Koninge's love,
And stood he so in the King's favour,
Here Isegrini, alse ji dot,
Master Isegrim, as ye do,
It sholde ju nigt dünken goril,
It should you nol (think) seem good,
Dat jien hyr alsus forepräken
That ye him here se forspake
Un de olden tükke hyr (Orräken.
And the old tricks here forth-raked.
Men dat kwerde, dat ji Reinken hävven gedan,
But the ill that ye Reiu ke have done,
Dat late ji al agter stan.
That let ye all (ufter stand) stand by.
It is nog etliken heren wol kund,
It is yet to some gentlemen well known,
Woji mid Reinken maken den ferbund,
How ye with Rienke made (bond) alliance,
Un wolden wären twe like gesellen;
And would be two (like) equal partners ;
Dat mok ik dirren heren fortallen.
That more I these gentlemen forth-tell.
Wente Reinke, myn ôm, in wintersnod,
Since Reinke, mine uncle, in winter's-need,

36

Umme lengrim's willen, fylna was dod.
For Isegrim's (will) sake, full-nigh roas dead.
Wente it geshang dat ein kwam gefuren,
For it chanced that one came (faring) driving,
De hadde groite fishe upener karen:
Who had many fishes upon a car:
Isegrim hadde geren der fishe gehaleil,
Isegrim had fain the fishes (have haled) hare gol,
Men he hadde nigt, darmid se wörden belaled.
But he had not where with they should be (belold) paid.'
He bragte minen om in de grote nôd,
He brought mine uncle into great (need) straits,
Um sinen willen ging he liggen for død,
For his sake went he to (lig) lie for dead,
Regt in den wăg, un stund äventur.
Right in the way, and stood (adventure) chance.
Market, worden em Ok de tishe sûr ?
Mark, were him eke the fishes (sour) dear-bought ?
Do jenne mid der kare gefaren kwam
When (yonder) he wilh the car driving came
Un minen oin darsülvest fornem,
And mine uncle (there-self) even there perceived,
Hastigen tôg he syn swërd un snel,
Hastily (look) drew he his sword and (snell) quick,
Un wolde mineme ome torrüken en fel.
And would my uncle (tatter in fell) tear in pieces.
Men he rõgede sik nigt klên nog grot:
But he stirred himself not (little nor great) more of

less;
Do niende he dat he were dod;
Then (meaned) thought he that he wus dead;
He lärle ön up de kar, und dayte on to fillen,
Ile laid him upon the car, and thought him to skin,
Dat wagede he all dorg Isegrim's willen !
That risked he all through Isegrim's will!
Do he fordan begunde to faren,
When he forth-on began to fare,
Warp Reinke ellike fishe fan der karen,
Cast Reinke some fishes from the car.
Isegrim fan forne agteona kwam
Isegrim from afar after came
Un derre fishe al to sik nam.
And these fishes all to himself took.
Reinke sprang wedder fan der karen;
Reinke sprang again from the car ;
Em lüstede to nigt länger to faren,
Him listed not longer to fare.
He hadde Ok gêrne der fishe begërd,
He (had) roould have also fain of the fishes required,
Men Isegrim hadde se alle fortêrd.
But Isegrim kad them all consumed.
He hadde gelan dat he wolde barsten,
He had eaten so that he would burst,
Un moste daruinme gên torn arsten.
And must thereby go to the doctor.
Do Isegrim der graden nigt en mogte,
As Isegrim the fish-bones not liked,
Der sülven he emi ein weinig brogte.
of these sume he him a little brought..

Whereby it would appear, if we are to be lieve Grimbart the Badger, that Reinecke was not only the cheater in this case, but also the cheatee ; however, he makes matters straight again in that other noted fish expedition, where Isegrim minded not to steal but to catch fish, and having no fishing-tackle, by Reinecke's advice, inserts his tail into the lake, in winterseason ; but before the promised string of trouts, all hooked to one another, and to him, will bite, is frozen in, and left there to his own bitter meditations.

We here take leave of Reineke de Fos, and of the whole Æsopic genus, of which it is almost the last, and by far the most remarkable example. The Age of Apologue, like that of Chivalry and love-singing, is gone; for no thing in this Earth has continuance. If we

2 A 2

ask, where are now our People's Books ? the will again be a sunny Firmament and verdant answer might give room for reflections. Hin- Earth, as well as a Pantry and culinary Fire; rek van Alkmer has passed away, and Dr. and men will learn not only to recapitulate Birkbeck has risen in his room. What good and compute, but to worship, to love ; in tears and evil lie in that little sentence !-But doubt- or in laughter, hold mystical as well as logical less the day is coming when what is wanting communion with the high and the low of this here will be supplied; when as the Logical, wondrous Universe; and read, as they should so likewise the Poetical susceptibility and fa- live, with their whole being. Of which glorious culty of the people,-their Fancy, Humour, consummation there is at all times, seeing Imagination, wherein lie the main elements these endowments are indestructible, nay, es. of spiritual life,-will no longer be left uncul sentially supreme, in man, the firmest ulierior tivated, barren, or bearing only spontaneous certainty, but, for the present, only faint prosthistles, bat in new and finer harmony, with pects and far-off indications. Time brings an improved Understanding, will flourish in Roses ! new vigour; and in our inward world there

TAYLOR'S HISTORIC SURVEY OF GERMAN

POETRY."

[EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1831.)

Germax Literature has now for upwards | irruption of those swarms of Publications of half a century been making some way in now daily issuing from the banks of the DaEngland; yet by no means at a constant rate, nube, which, like their ravaging predecessors rather in capricious flux and reflux,-deluge of the darker ages, though with far other and alternating with desiccation : never would it more fatal arms, are overrunning civilized soassume such moderate, reasonable currency, ciety. Those readers, whose purer taste has as promised to be useful and lasting. The been formed on the correct models of the old history of its progress here would illustrate classic school, see with indignation and astothe progress of more important things; would nishment the Huns and Vandals once more again exemplify what obstacles a new spiritual overpowering the Greeks and Romans. They object, with its mixture of truth and of false- behold our minds, with a retrograde but rapid hood, has to encounter from unwise enemies, motion, hurried back to the reign of Chaos still more from unwise friends; how dross is and old Night, by distorted and unprincipled mistaken for metal, and common ashes are so- Compositions, which, in spite of strong flashes lemnly labelled as fell poison; how long, in of genius, unite the taste of the Goths with such cases, blind Passion must vociferate be the morals of Bagshot.”_" The newspapers fore she can awaken Judgment; in short, with announce that Schiller's Tragedy of the Robbers, what tumult, vicissitude, and protracted diffi- which inflamed the young nobility of Ger. culty, a foreign doctrine adjusts and locates many to enlist themselves into a band of highitself among ihe homeborn. Perfect ignorance waymen, to rob in the forests of Bohemia, is is quiet, perfect knowledge is quiet; not so the now acting in England by persons of quatransition from the former to the latter. In a lity!". vague, all-exaggerating twilight of wonder, Whether our fair Amazons, at sound of this the new has to fight its battle with the old ; alarm-trumpet, drew up in array of war to disHope has to settle accounts with Fear: thus comfit those invading Compositions, and spuff the scales strangely waver; public opinion, out the lights of that questionable private which is as yet baseless, fluctuates without theatre, we have not learned; and see only limit; periods of foolish admiration and fool- that, if so, their campaign was fruitless and ish execration must elapse, before that of true needless. Like the old Northern Immigrators, inquiry and zeal according to knowledge can those new Paper Goths marched on resistless begin.

whither they were bound; some io honour, Thirty years ago, for example, a person of some to dishonour, the most to oblivion and influence and understanding thought good to the impalpable inane; and no weapon or emit such a proclamation as the following: artillery, not even the glances of bright eyes, “Those ladies, who take the lead in society, but only the omnipotence of Time, could tame are loudly called upon to act as guardians of and assort them. Thus, Kotzebue's truculent the public taste as well as of the public virtue. armaments, once so threatening, all turned 'Tney are called upon, therefore, to oppose, out to be mere Fantasms and Night appariwith the whole weight of their influence, the tions; and so rushed onwards, like some

Spectre Hunt, with loud howls indeed, yet Historic Survey of German Poetry, interspersed with various Translations. By W. Taylor, of Norwich. * Strictures on the Modern System of Female Education 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1830.

By Hannah More. The Eighih Edition, p.

41.

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