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means he took for eluding it: “he thought as the royal eagle: for also in the brunt of with himself these Recken must all lose their battle he can play tunes; and with a Steel Fido lives." From this time, a grim reckless spirit alebow, beats strange music from the cleft hel. lakes possession of him; a courage, an auda- mets of his enemies. There is, in this concity, waxing more and more into the fixed tinual allusion 10 Volker's Schwer: fi lelbogen, strength of desperation. The passage once (Sword-fiddlebow,) as rude as it sounds to us, finished, he dashes the boat in pieces, and casts a barbaric greatness and depih; the light it in the stream, greatly as the others wonder minstrel of kingly and queenly balls is gay at him.

also in the storm of Fate, its dire rushing pipes

and whistles, to him : is he not the image of a Why do ye this, good brother ?" said the Ritter Dank every brave man fighting with Necessity, be

wart then, "How shall we cross this river, When the road we come

that duel when and where it may; smiting the again

fiend with giant strokes, yet every stroke Returning home from Hunland, Here must we lingering musical?_This Volker and Hagen are united

inseparably, and defy death together. “Whatdot then did Hagen tell him That return no more could ever Volker said pleased Hagen; whatever they.

Hagen did pleased Volker." In this shipment “into the unknown land"

But into these last Ten Arentiures, almost there lies, for the more penetraling sort of like the image of a Doomsday, we must hardly commentators, some hidden meaning and glance at present. Seldom, perhaps, in the allusion. The destruction of the unreturning poetry of that or any other age, has a grander Ship, as of the Ship Argo, of Æneas's Ships, scene of pily and terror been exhibited than and the like, is a constant feature of such here, could we look into it clearly. Al every traditions: it is thought, this ferrying of the new step new shapes of fear arise. Dietrich Nibelangen has a reference to old Scandina- of Bern meets the Nibelungen on their way, vian Mythuses; nay, to the oldest, most uni. with ominous warnings: but warnings, as we versal emblems shaped out by man's Imagina- said, are now superfluous, when the evil itself tion; Hagen the ferryman being, in some sort, is apparent and inevitable. Chriemhild, wasted a type of Death, who ferries over his thousands and exasperated here into a frightful Medea, and tens of thou ands into a Land still more penly threatens Hagen, but is openly defied unknown.

by him; he and Volker retire to a sear before But leaving these considerations, let us re- her palace, and sit there, while she allvances mark the deep fearful interest, which, in ga- in angry tears, with a crowd of armed Huns to thering, strength, rises to a really tragical destroy them. But Hagen has Siegfried's beight in the close of this poem. Strangely Balmung lying naked on his knee, the Minstrel has the old Singer, in these his loose melodies, also has drawn his keen Fidd'ebow, and the modulated the wild narrative into a poetic would fain single out Hagen for vengeance ;

Huns dare not provoke the battle. Chriemhild whole, with what we might call true art, were it not rather an instinci of genius still more but Hagen, like other men, stands not alone: onerring. A fateful gloom now hangs over the and sin is an infection which will not rest witb fortunes of the Nibelungen, which deepens and one victim. Partakers or not of his crime, the deepens as they march onwards to the judg- others also must share his punishment. Sin. ment-bar, till all are engulphed in uiter nighi.

gularly touching, in the meanwhile, is king Hagen himself rises in tragic greatness ; so Eizel's ignorance of what every one else unhelpful, so prompt and strong is he, and true derstands too well; and how, in peaceful hosto the death, though without hope. If sin can

pitable spirit, he exerts himself to testify his ever be pardoned, then that one act of his is joy over these ruval guests of his, who are pardonable; by loyal faith, by free daring, and bidden bither for far other ends. That night heroic constancy, he has made amends for it. the wayworn Nibelungen are sumptuously Well does he know what is coming; yet he lodged; yet Hagen and Volker see good to gnes firth to meet it, offers to Ruin his sullen keep watch : Volker plays them to sleep: welcome. Warnings thicken on him, which

“under the door of the house he sat on the he treats lightly, as things now superfluous. when the tones flowed so sweetly they all gave

stone: bolder fiddler was there never any; Spite of our love for Siegfried, we must piły him thanks. Then sounded his string till all and almost respect the lost Hagen, now in his extreme need, and fronting it so nobly. “Mixed the house rang; his strengih and the art were was his hair with a gray colour," his limbs great, sweeter and sweeter he began to play, strong, and threatening his look.” Nay, his till flinted forth from him into sleep full many slerner qualities are beautifully tempered by a care-worn soul.” It was their last lullaby; another feeling, of which till now we unders 'hey were to sleep no more. Armed men stood not that he was capable,-the feeling of appear, but suddenly vanish, in the night; friendship. There is a certain Volker of assassins sent by Chriemhild, expecting no Alsace here introduced, not for the first time, sentinel: it is plain that the last hour draws yet first in decided energy, who is more to

nigh. Hagen than a brother. This Volker, a courtier

In the morning the Nibelungen are for the and noble, is also a Spielmann, (minstrel,) a

Minster to hear mass; they are putting on Fidelere gu', (Gddler good ;) and surely the gay raiment; but Hagen tells them a different prince of all Fideleres: in truth a very phenix. " instead of silk shirts, hauberks; for rich

tale: "Ye must take other garments, Recken;" melodious as the soft nightingale, yet strong mantles your good shields;” “and, beloved • See Von der Klagen's Nibelungen ihre Bedeutung, &c. I masters, moreover squires and men, ye shall

Need.

fast arnestly go to the church, and plain to brand, indignant at the wo she has winught; God the powerful (Got dem richen) of your sor- King Etzel, there present, not upposing the row and utmost need; and know of a surety deed. Whereupon the curtain drops over that that death for us is nigh.” In Etzel's Hall, wild scene, “the full highly honoured were where ine Nibelungen appear at the royal lying dead ; the people, all had sorrow and feast in complete armour, the Strife, incited by lamentation, in grief had the king's feast ended. Chriemhild, begins: the first answer to her as all love is wont to do; provocation is from Hagen, who hews off the head of her own and Etzel's son, making it ine chan iu nicht bescheiden Waz sider da geschach, bound into the mother's bosom :” “then began Dar-zuo die edeln canechte Ir lieben oriunde tot :

Wan ritter unde toroos n Weinen man do sach among the Recken a murder grim and great."

Da hat das mære sin ende ; Diz ist der Nibelunge not Dietrich, with a voice of preternatural power, commands pause; retires with Etzel and I cannot say you now What hath befillen since, Chriemhild; and now the bloody work has The women all were weeping, and the Ritters and the free course. We have heard of battles, and

prince,

Also the noble sqnires, Their dear friends lying dead. massacres, and deadly struggles in siege and llere bath the story ending; This is the Nibelungen's storm; but seldom has even the poet's imagination pictured any thing so fierce and terrible as this. Host atier host, as they enter that huge We have now finished our slight analysis vaulted Hall, perish in the conflict with the of this Poem; and hope that readers, who are doomed Nibelungen; and even after the terrific curious in this matter, and ask themselves, uproar, ensues a still more terrific silence. All What is the Nibelungen? may have here found night, and through morning it lasts. They some outlines of an answer, some help towards throw the dead from the windows; blood runs farther researches of their own. To such like water; the Hall is set fire to, they quench readers another question will suggest itself: it with blood, their own burning thirsi they Whence this singular production comes to us, slake with blood. It is a tumult like the Crack When and How it originated ? On which of Doom, a thousand voiced, wild stunning point also, what little light our investigation hubbub: and, frightful like a Trump of Doom, has yielded may be summarily given. the Sword-fiddlebow of Volker, who guards the door, makes music to that death-dance. Nor The worthy Von der Hagen, who may well are traits of beroism wanting, and thrilling understand the Nibelungen better than any other tones of pity and love; as in that act of Rudi- man, having rendered it into the modern ger, E zel's and Chriemhild's champion, who. tongue, and twice edited it in the original, not bound by oath, "lays his soul in God's hand,” without collating some eleven manuscripts, and and enters that Golgotha to die fighting against travelling several thousands of miles to make his friends; yet first changes shields with the last edition perfeci,-writes a Book some Hagen, whose own, also given him by Rudiger years ago, rather boldly denominated The Nibein a far other hour, had been shattered in the lungen, ils meaning for the present and for ever ; fight. “When he so lovingly bade give him wherein, not content with any measurable the shield, there were eyes enough red with antiquily of centuries, he would fain claim an hot tears; it was the last gift which Rudiger antiquity beyond all bounds of daled time: of Bechelaren gave to any Recke. As grim Working his way with feeble mine-lamps of as Hagen was, and as hard of mind, he wept etymology and the like, he traces back the at this gist which the hero good, so near his last rudiments of his beloved Nibolungen, “ to whick aimes, had given him; fuil many a noble Rit- the flower of his whole life has been consen er began to weep."

crated,” into the thick darkness of ihe ScandiAt last Volker is slain; they are all slain, save navian Nifhein und Muspelheim, and the Hindno only Hagen and Gunther, faint and wounded, Cosmogony; connecting it farther (as already ret still unconquered among the bodies of the in part we have incidentally pointed out) with dead. Dietrich the wary, ihough strong and the Ship Argo, with Jupiter's goat-kin Ægis, invincible, whose Recken too, except old Hilde. the fire-creed of Zerdusht, and even with the brand, he now Gnds are all killed, though he heavenly Constellations. His reasoping is had charged them strictly not lo mix in the somewhat abstruse; yet an honest zeal, very quarrel, at last arms himself to finish it. He considerable learning and intellectual force subdues the two wearied Nibelungen, binds bring him tolerably through. So nauch he them, delivers them to Chriemhild; “and Herr renders plausible or probable: that in the Dietrich went away with weeping eyes, worthily Nibelungen, under more or less defacemen!, lo from the heroes.” These never saw each other fragments, scattered like mysterious Bunes, yet more. Chriemhild demands of Hagen, Where still in pari decipherable, of the earliest the Nibelungen Hoard is? But he answers her Thoughts of men; that the fiction (of the Nibethat he has sworn never to disclose it, while lungen was at first a religious or philosophical any of her brothers live. “I bring it to an Mythus; and only in later ages, incorporating end," said ihe infuriated woman; orders her itself more or less completely wth vague brother's head to be struck off, and holds it up traditions of real events, took the form of a to Hagen, Thou hast it now according to story, or mere Narrative of earthly transacthy vill," said Hagen ; “ of the Hoard knoweth tions; in which last form, moreover, our none but God and 1; from thee, she-devil, actual Nibelungen Lied is nowise the original (Valenrinne.) shall it for ever be hid.” She Narrative, but ihe second, or even third redae kills him with his own sword, once her hus- tion of one much earlier. band's: and is herself struck dead by Hilde- At what particular era the primeval fiction of the Nibelungen passed from its Mythological cal events and persons which our primeval into its Historical shape; and the obscure Mythuses have here united with, and so spiritual elements of ii wedded themselves strangely metamorphosed ? the answer is un. to the obscure remembrances of the Northern satisfactory enough. The great Northern Im. Immigrations; and the Twelve Signs of the migrations, unspeakably momentous and glori. Zodiac became Twelve Champions of Attila's ous as they were for the Germans, have well Wife,—there is no fixing with the smallest nigh faded away utterly from all vernacular certainty. It is known from history that Egin- records. Some traces, nevertheless, some hart, the secretary of Charlemagne, compiled, names, and dim shadows of occurrences in by order of that monarch, a collection of the that grand movement, still linger here: which, ancient German Songs; among which, it is in such circumstances, we gather with avidity. fondly believed by antiquaries, this Nibelungen, There can be no doubi, for example, but this (not indeed our actual Nibelungen Lied, yet an “ Etzel, king of Hunland,” is the Atila of older one of similar purport,) and the main history; several of whose real achievements traditions of the Heldenbuch connected there and relations are faintly, yet still recognisanly with, may have had honourable place. Un- pictured forth in these Poems. Thus his Grid luckily Eginhart's Collection has quite per- queen is named Halke, and in the Scandmavian ished; and only his Life of the Great Charles, versions, Herka ; which last (Erca) is also the in which this circumstance stands noted, sur. name that Priscus gives her, in the well-known vives to provoke curiosity. One thing is cer- Account of his embassy to Attila. Moreover, tain, Fulco, Archbishop of Rheims, in the it is on his second marriage, which had in faci year 885, is introduced as “citing certain so mysterious and tragical a character, that the German books,” to enforce some argument of whole catastrophe of the Nibelungen turns. It his by instance of “King Ermerich's crime is true, the “ Scourge of God” plays but a lame towards his relations ;" which King Ermerich part here; however, his great acts, though all and his crime are at this day part and parcel past, are still visible in their fruits: besides, it of the “Cycle of German Fiction,” and pre- is on the Northern or German personages that supposed in the Nibelungen.* Later notices, the tradition chiefly dwells. of a more decisive sort, occur in abundance. Taking farther into account the general Saxo Grammaticus, who flourished in the “Cycle” or System of Northern Tradition, iwelfth century, relates that about the year whereof this Nibelungen is the centre and key1130, a Saxon minstrel being sent to Seeland, stone, there is, as indeed we saw in the Heldenwith a treacherous invitation from one royal buch, a certain Kaiser Otinit and a Dietrich of Dane to another; and not daring to violate his Bern; to whom also it seems unreasonable to oath, yet compassionating the victim, sang to deny historical existence. This Bern, (Verona,) him by way of indirect warning “the Song of as well as the Rabenschlacht, (Battle of Ravenna,) Chriemhild's Treachery to her Brothers;" that is continually figuring in these Fictions; though is to say, the latter portion of the Story which whether under Ottnit we are to understand

Odowe still read at greater length in the existing acer the vanquished, and under Dietrich of Bern, Nibelungen Lied. To which direct evidence, Theodoricus Veronensis, the victor both at Vethat these traditions were universally known rona and Ravenna, is by no means so indubitain the twelfth century, nay, had been in some ble. Chronological difficulties stand much in the shape committed to writing, as “German way. For our Dietrich of Bern, as we saw in Books,” in the ninth or rather in the eighth, the Nibelungen, is represented as one of Etzei's we have still to add the probability of their Champions: now Attila died about the year being "ancient songs," even at that earliest 450 ; and this Ostrogoth Theodorie did not date; all which may perhaps carry us back fight his great Battle at Verona till 489 ; that into the seventh or even sixth century; yet not of Ravenna, which was followed by a three farther, inasmuch as certain of the poetic per- years' siege, beginning next year. So that sonages that figure in them belong historically before Dietrich could become Dietrich of Bern, to the fifth.

Etzel had been gone almost half a century Other and more open proof of antiquity lies from the scene. Startled by this anachronism, in the fact, that these Traditions are so univer- some commentators have fished out another sally diffused. There are Danish and Icelandic Theodoric, eighty years prior to him of Verona, versions of them, externally more or less and who actually served in Attila's hosts, with altered and distorted, yet substantially real a retinue of Goths and Germans; with which copies, professing indeed to be borrowed New Theodoric, however, the old Olinit, or from the German; in particular we have the Odoacer, of the Heldenbuch, must, in his turn, Nifinga and the Wilhinii Saga, composed in the part company; whereby the case is in no whit hirteenth century, which still in many ways mended. Certain it seems, in the mean time, illustrate the German original. Innumerable that Dietrich, which signifies Rich in People, is other songs and sagas point more remotely in the same name which in Greek becomes Theothe same direction. Nay, as Von der Hagen doricus; for, at first, (as in Procopius,) this informs us, certain rhymed tales, founded on very Theoloricus is always written Cedeix these old adventures, have been recovered which almost exactly corresponds with the from popular recitation, in the Faroe Islands, German sound. But such are the inconsiswithin these few years.

tencies involved in both hypotheses, that we If we ask now, what lineaments of Fact still are forced to conclude one of two things: cxist in these Traditions ; what are the Histori- either that the singers of those old lays were

little versed in the niceties of History, and un•Von der Hagen's Nibelungen, Einleitung, vii.

ambitious of passing for authorities therein, phich seems a remarkably easy conclusion ; ballad-mongers of that Swabian Era have or else, with Lessing, that they meant some transmitted us their names, so total an oblivion, quite other series of persons and transactions, in this infinitely more important case, may some Kaiser Otto, and his two Anti-Kaisers, I seem surprising. But those Minnelieder (Love(in the twelfih century:) which, from what has songs) and Provençal Madrigals were the come to light since Lessing's day, seems now Court Poetry of that time, and gained honour an untenable position.

in high places; while he old National TradiHowever, as concerns the Nibelungen, the tions were common property and plebeian, and most remarkable coincidence, if genuine, re- to sing them an unrewarded labour. mains yet to be mentioned. “'ï'hwortz," a Whoever he may be, let him have our gratiHungarian Chronicler, (or perhaps chronicle,) tude, our love. Looking back with a farewell of we know not what authority, relates, “ that glance, over that wondrous old Tale, with its Arrila lett his kingdom to his iwo sons Chaba many-coloured texture “ of joyances and highand Aladar, the former by a Grecian mother, lides, of weeping and of wo," so skilfully the latter by Kremheilch, (Chriemhild,) a yet artlessly knit up into a whole, we cannot German; that Theodoric, one of his followers, but repeat that a true epic spirit lives in it; sowed dissension between them; and along that in many ways, it has meaning and charms with the Teutonic hosts took part with his for us. Not only as the oldest Tradition of half-countryman, the younger son; whereupon Modern Europe, does it possess a high antirose a great slaughter, which lasted for fifteen quarian interest; but farther, and even in the days, and terminated in the defeat of Chaba, shape we now see it under, unless the “ Epics (the Greek,) and his fight into Asia."* Could of the Son of Finga!” had some sort of auwe but put faith in this Thwortz, we might thenticity, it is our oldest Poem also; the earfancy that some vague rumour of that Krem- liest product of these New Ages, which on its heilch tragedy, swoln by the way, had reached own merits, both in form and essence, can be the German ear and imagination; where, named Poetical. Considering its chivalrous, gathering round older Ideas and Mythuses, as romantic tone, it may rank as a piece of liteMaiter round its Spirit, the first rude form of rary composition, perhaps considerably higher Chrerhilde's Revenge and the Wreck of the Nibe- than the Spanish Cid; taking in its historical lungen bodied itself forth in Song.

significance, and deep ramifications into the Thus any historical light, emitted by these remote Time, it ranks indubitably and greatly old Fictions, is little better than darkness visi- higher. ble; sufficient at most to indicate that great It has been called a Northern Iliad; but Northern Immigrations, and wars and rumours except in the fact that both poems have a narof wars, have been ; but nowise how and what rative character, and both sing "the destructhey have been. Scarcely clearer is the special tive rage" of men, the two have scarcely any history of the Fictions themselves: where they similarity. The Singer of the Nibelungen is a rere first put together, who have been their far different person from Homer; far inferior successive redactors and new-modellers. Von both in culture and in genius. Nothing of the der Hagen, as we said, supposes that there glowing imagery, of the fierce bursting enermay have been three several series of such. gy, of the mingled fire and gloom, that dwell Two, at all events, are clearly indicated. In in the old Greek, makes its appearance here. their present shape, we have internal evidence The German Singer is comparatively a simple that none of these Poems can be older than the nature; has never penetrated deep into life ; iwellih century; indeed great part of the Hero- never “questioned Fate,” or struggled with Fook can be proved to be considerably later. fearful mysteries; of all which we find traces With this last it is understood that Wolfram in Homer, still more in Shakspeare; but with von Eschenbach and Heinrich von Ofterdingen, meek believing submission, has taken the Unitwo singers, otherwise noted in that era, were verse as he found it represented to him; and largely concerned; but neither is there any rejoices with a fine childlike gladness in the demonstration of this vague belief: while mere outward shows of things. He has little again, in regard to the Author of our actual power of delineating character; perhaps he Nibelungen not so much as a plausible con- had no decisive vision thereof. His persons jecture can be formed.

are superficially distinguished, and not altoSome vote for a certain Conrad von Würz- gether without generic difference; but the por. burg; others for the above-named Eschenbach traiture is imperfectly brought out; there lay and Ofterdingen; others again for Klingsohr no true living original within him. He has of Ungerland, a minstrel who once passed for little Fancy; we find scarcely one or two simia magician. Against all and each of which litudes in his whole Poem; and these one or hypotheses there are objections; and for none two, which, moreover, are repeated, betoken of them the smallest conclusive evidence. no special faculty that way. He speaks of the Who this gifted Singer may have been, only in " moon among stars ;” says often, of sparks so far as his Work itself proves that there struck from steel armour in battle, and so forth, was but One, and the style points to the latter that they were wie es wehte der vind, “ as if the half of the twelfth century,remains altogether wind were blowing them.” We have mendark: the unwearied Von der Hagen himself, tioned Tasso along with him; yet neither in after fullest investigation, gives for verdict, this case is there any close resemblance; the "we know it not." Considering the high light playful grace, still more, the Italian pomp worth of the Nibelungen, and how many feeble and sunny luxuriance of Tasso are wanting

His are humble, wood-notes • Weber, (Illustrations of Northern Antiquities, p. 39,)

in the other. who eites Görres (Zeitung für Einsiedler) as his authority. wild ; and no nightingale's, but yet a sweet sky-hidden lark's. In all the rhetorical gifts, cle he dwelt in, the very ashes remain not to say nothing of rhetorical attainments, we like a fair heavenly Apparition, which indeer should pronounce him even poor.

he was, he has melted into air, and only the Nevertheless, a noble soul he must have Voice he uttered, in virtue of its inspired gift, been, and furnished with far more essential yet lives and will live. requisites for Poetry, than these are: namely, To the Germans this Nibelungen Song is na with the heart and feeling of a Poet._He has turally an object of no common love ; neither a clear eye for the Beautiful and True; all, if they sometimes overvalue it, and vague an. unites itself gracefully and compactly in his tiquarian wonder is more common than just imagination: it is strange with what careless criticism, should the fault be too heavily visit

: felicity he winds his way in that complex nar. ed. After long ages of concealment, they rative, and be the subject what it will, comes have found it in the remote wilderness, still through it unsullied, and with a smile. His standing like the trunk of some alınost antedi. great strength is an unconscious instinctive luvian oak; nay with boughs on it still green, strength; wherein truly lies its highest merit. after all the wind and weather of twelve hun The whole spirit of Chivalry, of Love, and dred years. To many a patriotic feeling, which beroic Valour, must have lived in him, and in- lingers fondly in solitary places of the Past, it spired him. Everywhere he shows a noble may well be a rallying-point, and “ Lovers Bensibility; the sad accents of parting friends, Trysting-Tree." the lamentings of women, the high daring of For us also it has its worth. A creation men, all that is worthy and lovely prolongs it.' from the old ages, still bright and balmy, if we self in melodious echoes through his heart. A visit it; and opening into the first History of true old Singer, and taught of Nature herself! Europe, of Mankind. Thus all is not oblivion; Neither let us call him an inglorious Milion, but on the edge of the abyss, that separates the since now he is no longer a mute one. What Old world from the New, there hangs a fair good were it that the four or five Letters com- rainbow-land; which also in (three) curious posing his Name could be printed, and pro- repetitions, as it were, in a secondary, and nounced, with absolute certainly? All that even a ternary reflex, sheds some feeble was mortal in him is gone utterly; of his life, twilight far into the deeps of the primeral and its environment, as of the bodily taberna- i Time.

GERMAN LITERATURE OF THE FOURTEENTH

AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES.*

(FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW, 1831.)

concern

It is not with Herr Soltau's work, and its doubledly among the most remarkable Books, merits or demerits, that we here purpose to not only as a German, but, in all senses, as a

ourselves. The old Low-German European one; and yet for us perhaps its er. Apa logue was already familiar under many trinsic, historical character, is even more note. shapes; its versions into Lalin, English, and worthy than its intrinsic. In Literary History all modern longues : if it now comes before it forms, so to speak, the culminating point, or our German friends under a new shape, and highest manifestation of a Tendency which they can read it not only in Gottsched's prosaic had ruled the two prior centuries : ever down. Prose, and Goethe's poetic Hexameters, but wards from the last of the Hohenstauffen Emalso “ in the metre of the original,” namely, in perors, and the end of their Swabian Era, to Doggerel; and this, as would appear, not with ihe borders of the Reformation, rudiments and out comfort, for it is “ the second edition;"- fibres of this singular Fable are seen, among doubtless the Germans themselves will look to innumerable kindred things, fashioning them. it, will direct Herr Soltau aright in his praise- selves together; and now, after three other worthy labours, and, with all suitable speed. centuries of actual existence, it still stands forward him from his second edition into a visible and entire, venerable in itself, and the third. To us strangers the fact is chiefly in- enduring memorial of much that has proved Beresting, as another little memento of the in- more perishable. Thus, naturally enough, it destructible vitality there is in worth, however figures as the representative of a whole group rude; and to stranger Reviewers, as it brings that historically cluster round it; in studying its thai wondrous old Fiction, with so much else significance, we study that of a whole in. that holds of it, once more specifically into tellec'ual period. view.

As this section of German Literature closely The Apologue of Reynard the Fox ranks un-connects itself with the corresponding section

of European Literature, and indeed offers an *Reinecke der Fuchs, übersetzt von D. W. Soltau. (Rey. ward the Fox, translated by D. W. Soltau.) 24 edition, expressive, characteristic epitomethereof, some Ore. Lüneberg, 1830.

insight into it, were such easily procurable,

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