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spiritual, is of prime influence; not the form of many unhappy Enfields who have treated of government he lives under, and the power he that latter department, been more than barren can accumulate there, but the Church he is reporters, often unintelligent and unintelligible a member of, and the degree of moral Eleva- reporters, of the doctrine uttered, without force tion he can acquire by means of its instruc- to discover how the doctrine originated, or what tion. Church History, then, did it speak | reference it bore to its time and country, to the wisely, would have momentous secrets to spiritual position of mankind there and then. teach us: nay, in its highest degree, it were a Nay, such a task did not perhaps lie before sort of continued Holy Writ; our sacred them, as a thing to be attempted. books being, indeed, only a History of the Art, also, and Literature are intimately blendprimeval Church, as it first arose in man's ed with Religion; as it were, outworks and coul, and symbolically imbodied itself in his abutments, by which that highest pinnacle in external life. How far our actual Church His- our inward world gradually connects itself torians fall below such unattainable standards, with the general level, and becomes accessible nay, below quite attainable approximations therefrom. He who should write a proper thereto, we need not point out. Of the Eccle- History of Poetry, would depict for us the sucsiastical Historian we have to complain, as we cessive Revelations which man had obtained did of his Political fellow-craftsman, that his in- of the Spirit of Nature; under what aspects he quiries turn rather on the outward mechanism, had caught and endeavoured to body forth some the mere hulls and superficial accidents of the glimpse of that unspeakable Beauty, which in object, than on the object itself; as if the its highest clearness is Religion, is the inspira. church lay in Bishop's Chapter-houses, and tion of a Prophet, yet in one or the other deEcumenic Council Halls, and Cardinals' Con- gree must inspire every true Singer, were his claves, and not far more in the hearts of Be- theme never so humble. We should see by lieving Men, in whose walk and conversation, what steps men had ascended to the Temple; as influenced thereby, its chief manifestations how near they had approached; by what ill were to be looked for, and its progress or de- hap they had, for long periods, turned away cline ascertained. The history of the Church from it, and grovelled on the plain with no is a History of the Invisible as well as of the music in the air, or blindly struggled toVisible Church; which latter, if disjoined from wards other heights. That among all our the former, is but a vacant edifice; gilded, it Eichhorns and Wartons there is no such Hismay be, and overhung with old votive gifts, torian, must be too clear to every one. Nevers yet useless, nay, pestilentially unclean; to theless let us not despair of far nearer apwrite whose history is less important than to proaches to that excellence. Above all, let us forward its downfall.
keep the Ideal of it ever in our eye; for thereOf a less ambitious character are the His- by alone have we even a chance to reach it. tories that relate to special separate provinces Our histories of Laws and Constitutions, of human Action; to Sciences, Practical Arts, wherein many a Montesquieu and Hallam has Institutions, and the like; matters which do not laboured with acceptance, are of a much sim. imply an epitome of man's whole interest and pler nature, yet deep enough, if thoroughly inform of life; but wherein, though each is still vestigated; and useful, when authentic, even connected with all, the spirit of each, at least with little depth. Then we have Histories of its material results, may be in some degree Medicine, of Mathematics, of Astronomy, Comevolved without so strict reference to that of the merce, Chivalry, Monkery; and Goguets and others. Highest in dignity and difficulty, under Beckmanns have come forward with what this head, would be our histories of Philosophy, might be the most bountiful contribution of all, of man's opinions and theories respecting the a History of Inventions. Of all which sorts, nature of his Being, and relations to the Uni- and many more not here enumerated, not yet verse, Visible and Invisible; which History, in- devised and put in practice, the merit and the deed, were it fitly treated, or fit for right treat- proper scheme may require no exposition. ment, would be a province of Church History; In this manner, though, as above remarked, the logical or dogmatical province of it; for all Action is extended three ways, and the gePhilosophy, in its true sense, is or should be neral sum of human Action is a whole Universe, the soul, of which Religion, Worship, is the with all limits of it unknown, does History strive body; in the healthy state of things the Philo- by running path after path, through the Impassopher and Priest were one and the same. But sable, in manifold directions and intersections, Philosophy itself is far enough from wearing to secure for us some oversight of the Whole; this character; neither have its Historians been in which endeavour, if each Historian look well men, generally speaking, that could in the around him from his path, tracking it out with smallest degree approximate it thereto. Scarce- the eye, not, as is more comr on, with the nose, ly since the rude era of the Magi and Druids he may at last prove not altogether unsuccess. has that same healthy identification of Priest ful. Praying only that increased division of and Philosopher had place in any country: but labour do not here, as elsewhere, aggravate our rather the worship of divine things, and the already strong Mechanical tendencies, so that scientific investigation of divine things, have in the manual dexterity for parts we lose all been in quite different hands, their relations command over the whole; and the hope of any not friendly but hostile. Neither have the Philosophy of History be farther off than ever; Brückers and Bühles, to say nothing of the let us all wish her great, and greater success.
[Fraser's MAGAZINE, 1831.]
AMONG Luther's Spiritual Songs, of which Nevertheless, though in imperfect articula. various collections have appeared of late tion, the same voice, if we will listen well, is to years," the one entitled Eine feste Burg ist unser be heard also in his writings, in his Poems. Gott is universally regarded as the best; and The following, for example, jars upon our ears; indeed still retains its place and devotional use yet is there something in it like the sound of in the Psalmodies of Protestant Germany. Of Alpine avalanches, or the first murmur of the Tune, which also is by Luther, we have no Earthquakes; in the very vastness of which copy, and only a second-hand knowledge: to dissonance a higher unison is revealed to us. the original Words, probably never before Luther wrote this Song in a time of blackest printed in England, we subjoin the following threatenings, which, however, could in no wise translation ; which, if it possesses the only become a time of Despair. In those tones, merit it can pretend to, that of literal adherence rugged, broken as they are, do we not recognise to the sense, will not prove unacceptable to the accent of that summoned man, (summoned our readers. Luther's music is heard daily in not by Charles the Fifth, but by God Almighty our churches, several of our finest Psalm-lunes also,) who answered his friend's warning not to being of his coniposition. Luther's sentiments, enter Worms in this wise: “Were there as also, are, or should be, present in many an many devils in Worms as there are roof-tiles, English heart; the more interesting to us is I would on;"—of him who, alone in that as. any the smallest articulate expression of these. semblage, before all emperors, and principali.
The great Reformer's love of music, of poetry, ties, and powers, spoke forth these final and it has often been remarked, is one of the most for ever memorable words: “It is neither safe significant features in his character. But, in- nor prudent to do aughi against conscience. deed, if every great man, Napoleon himself, is Here stand I, I cannot otherwise. God assist intrinsically a poet, an idealist, with more or me. Amen !'* It is evident enough that to less completeness of utterance, which of all our this man all Popes' conclaves, and imperial great men, in these modern ages, had such an Diets, and hosts and nations were but weak; endowment in that kind as Luther? He it was, weak as the forest, with all its strong Trees, emphalically, who stood based on the Spiritual may be to the smallest spark of electric Fire. World of man, and only by the footing and miraculous power he had obtained there, could
EINE FESTE BURG IST UNSER GOTT. work such changes in the Material World. As a participant and dispenser of divine influences,
Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott, he shows himself among human affairs a true
Ein' gute Wehr und IWaffen ;
Er hilft uns frey aus aller Noth, connecting medium and visible Messenger be
Die uns jetzt hat betroffen. tween Heaven and Earth; a man, therefore, not
Der alte böse Fiend, only permitted to enter the sphere of Poetry,
Mit Ernst ers jetzt meint; but to dwell in the purest centre thereof: per
Gross Macht und viel List haps the most inspired of all Teachers since
Sein grousam' Rüs':cuch ist, the first apostles of his faith ; and thus not
Auf Erd'n ist nicht seins Gleichen. a poet only but a Prophet and God-ordained
Mit unsrer Machl ist nichts gethan, Priest, which is the highest form of that
Wir sind gar bald verloren: dignity, and of all dignity.
Es streit't für uns der rechte Nann, Unhappily, or happily, Luther's poetic feeling
Den Gott selbst hat erkoren. did not so much learn to express itself in fit
Fragst du wer er ist? Words that take captive every ear, as in fit
Er heisst Jesus Christ, Actions, wherein truly, under still more impres
Der Herre Zebaoth,
Und ist kein ander Gott, sive manifestation, the spirit of spheral Melody
Das Feld muss er behalten. resides, and still audibly addresses us. In his written Poems we find little, save that Strength
Und wenn die Welt voll Teufel vär, of one “whose words,” it has been said, “ were
Und rollt'n uns gar verschlinern, hall-battles;" little of that still Harmony and
So fürchten wir uns nicht so sehr,
Es soll uns doch gelingen. blending softness of union which is the last
Der Fürste dieser welt, perfection of Strength; less of it than even his
Wie sauer er sich stellt, conduct often manifested. With words he had
Thut er uns doch nichts ; not learned to make pure music; it was by
Das macht er ist gerichtt. deeds of Love, or heroic Valour, that he spoke
Ein Wörtlein kann ihn füllen. freely; in tones, only through his Flute, amid lears, could the sigh of that strong soul find utterance.
*"Till such time, as either by proofs from lloly Scripture, or by fair reason and arguinen!, I have been
confuted and convicted, I cannot and will not recant, * For example : Luther's geistliche Lieder nebst dessen weil weder sicher noch gerathen ist, etiras wider Gewissen Gedanken über die musieu, (Berlin, 1817): Die Lieder Lu
stehe ich, ich kann nicht anders. Gott Hier's gesammelt von Kosegarten und Rambach, fc. helfe mir. Amen!"
To the student of German Literalure, or consider the boundless ocean of Gossip (im. of Literature in general, these volumes, pur- perfect, undistilled Biography) which is emitporting to lay open the private intercourse of red and imbibed by the human species daily ;iwo men eminent beyond all others of their if every secrei-history, every closed-door's time in that department, will doubtless be a conversation, how trivial soever, has an intewelcome appearance. Neither Schiller nor rest for us, then might the conversation of a Goethe has ever, that we have hitherto seen, Schiller wiih a Goethe, so rarely do Schillers written worthlessly on any subject, and the meet with Goethes among us, iempt Honesty writings here offered us are confidential Let- itself into eaves-dropping. ters, relating moreover to a highly important Unhappily the conversation lits away for period in the spiritual history, not of the par- ever with the hour that witne : ed it; and the lies themselves, but of their country likewise; Letter and Answer, fravk, lively, genial as they full of topics, high and low, on which far meaner may be, are only a poor emblem and epitome talents than theirs might prove interesting. of it. The living dramatic movement is gone; We have heard and known so much of both nothing but the cold historical nel-product rethese venerated persons; of their friendship, mains for us. It is true, in every confidential and true co-operation in so many noble endea- Letter, the writer will, in some measure, more vours, the fruit of which has long been plain or less directly depict himself: but nowhere to every one: and now are we to look into is Painting, by pen or pencil, so inadequate the secret constitution and conditions of all as in delineating spiritual Nature. The Py
this; to trace the public result, which is Ideal, ramid can be measured in geometric feet, and | down to its roots in the Common; how Poets the draughtsman represents it, with all iis en
may live and work poetically among the Prose vironment, on canvas, accurately to the eye, things of this world, and Fausts and Tells be nay Mont-Blanc is embossed in coloured writien on rag-paper, and with goose-quills, stucco; and we have his very type, and minialike mere Minerva Novels, and songs by a ture fac-simile, in our museums. But for Person of Quality! Virtuosos have glass great Men, let him who would know such, bee-hives, which they curiously peep into ; pray that he may see them daily face to face: but here truly were a far stranger sort of for, in the dim distance, and by the eye of the honey-making. Nay, apart from virtuosoship, imagination, our vision, do what we may, will or any technical object, what a hold have such be too imperfect. How pale, thin, ineffectual things on our universal curiosity as men! If do the great figures we would fain summon the sympathy we feel with one another is infi- from History rise before us! Scarcely as palpite, or nearly so,-in proof of which, do but pable men does our utmost effort body thern
forth; oftenest only like Ossian's ghosts, in Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe, in den jah- hazy twilight, wiih“ stars dim twinkling sen 1791 bis 1805. (Correspondence between Schiller through their forms.” Our Socrates, our Lu and Goethe in the years 1794-1805.) Ist-3d Volumes (1791-1797.) Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1828, 1829. ther, after all that we have talked and argued of them, are to most of us quite invisible; the, view, the “Correspondence of Schiller and Sage of Athens, the Monk of Eisleben: not Goethe” may have, we shall not attempt dePersons hut Titles. Yet such men, far more termining here; the rather as only a portion than any Alps or Coliseums, are the true of the work, and to judge by the space of time world-wonders, which it concerns us to behold included in it, only a small portion, is yet be. clearly, and imprint for ever on our remem- fore us. Nay, perhaps its full worth will not brance. Great men are the Fire-pillars in this become apparent till a future age, when the dark pilgrimage of mankind; they stand as persons and concerns it treats of shall have heavenly Signs, ever-living witnesses of what assumed their proper relative magnitude and has been, prophetic tokens of what may still stand disencumbered, and for ever separated be, the revealed, imbodied Possibilities of hu- from contemporary trivialities, which, for the man nature; which greatness he who has present, with their hollow, transient bulk, so never seen, or rationally conceived of, and mar our estimate. Two centuries ago, Leiwith his whole heart passionately loved and cester and Essex might be the wonders of reverenced, is himself for ever doomed to be England; their Kenilworth festivities and Calittle. How many weighty reasons, how many diz Expeditions seemed the great occurrences innocent allurements attract our curiosity to of that day; but what should we now give, such men! We would know them, see them were these all forgotten and some “Correvisibly, even as we know and see our like: spondence between Shakspeare and Ben Jon. no hint, no notice that concerns them is super- son” suddenly brought to light! fluous or 100 small for us. Were Gulliver's One valuable quality these letters of Schil. conjurer but here, lo recall and sensibly bring ler and Goethe everywhere exhibit, that of back the brave Past, that we might look into truth: whatever we do learn from them, whe. it, and scrutinize it at will! But, alas, in Na-ther in the shape of fact or of opinion, may ture there is no such conjuring: the great be relied on as genuine. There is a tone of spirits that have gone before us can survive entire sincerity in that style : a constant natuonly as disembodied Voices; their form and ral courtesy nowhere obstructs the right free: distinctive aspect, outward and even in many dom of word or thought; indeed, no ends but respects inward, all whereby they were known honourable ones, and generally of a mutual as living, breathing men, has passed into an interest, are before either party'; thus neither other sphere; from which only History, in needs to veil, still less to mask himself froin scanty memorials, can evoke some faint resem- the other; the two self-portraits, so far as they blance of it. The more precious, in spite of are filled up, may be looked upon as real like. all imperfections, is such History, are such nesses. Perhaps, to most readers, some larger memorials, that still in some degree preserve intermixture of what we should call domestic what had otherwise been lost without reco- interest, of ordinary human concerns, and the very.
hopes, fears, and other feelings these excite, For the rest, as to the maxim, often enough in- would have improved the work; which as it is, culcated on us, that close inspection will abate not indeed without pleasant exceptions, turns our admiration, that only the obscure can be sub- mostly on compositions, and publications, and lime, let us put small faith in it. Here, as in other philosophies, and other such high matters. provinces, it is not knowledge, but a little know. This, we believe, is a rare fault in modern ledge, that puffeth up, and for wonder at the Correspondences; where generally the oppothing known substitutes mere wonder at the site fault is complained of, and except mere knower thereof: to a sciolist, the starry hea temporalities, good and evil hap of the corre. vens revolving in dead mechanism, may be sponding parties, their state of purse, heart, less than a Jacob's vision; but to the Newton and nervous system, and the moods and hu. they are more ; for the same God still dwells mours these give rise to,-little stands recordenthroned there, and holy Influences, like An- ed for us. It may be too that native readers gels, still ascend and descend; and this clearer will feel such a want less than foreigners do, vision of a little but renders the remaining whose curiosity in this instance is equally mi. mystery the deeper and more divine. So like- nute, and to whom so many details, familiar wise is it with true spiritual greatness. On enough in the country itself, must be unknown. the whole, that theory of “no man being a At all events, it is to be remembered that Schilhero to his valet,” carries us but a little way ler and Goethe are, in strict speech, Literary into the real nature of the case. With a su- Men; for whom their social life is only as the perficial meaning which is plain enough, it dwelling-place and outward tabernacle of their essentially holds good only of such heroes as spiritual life; which latter is the one thing are false, or else of such valets as are too ge- needful; the other, except in subserviency to nuine, as are shoulder-knotted and brass-lack- this, meriting no attention, or the least possi. ered in soul as well as in body: of other sorts ble. Besides, as cultivated men, perhaps even it does not hold. Milton was still a hero to by natural temper, they are not in the habit of the good Elwood. But we dwell not on that yielding lo violent emotions of any kind, still mean doctrine, which, true or false, may be less of unfolding and depicting such, by leiter, left to itself the more safely, as in practice it even to closest intimates; a turn of mind is of little or no immediate import. "For were which, if it diminished the warmth of their it never so true, yet, unless we preferred huge epistolary intercourse, must have increased bug-bears to small realities, our practical their private happiness, and so, by their friends, course were still the same: to inqnire, to in- can hardly be regretted. He who wears his vestigate by all methods, till we saw clearly. heart on his sleeve, will often have to lament
What worth in this biographical point of Saloud that daws peck at it: he who does
not, will spare himself such lamenting. Of tion for him is of old standing, and has not Rousseau's Confessions, whatever value we abated, as it ripened into calm, loving estimaassign that sort of ware, there is no vestige in tion. But to English expositors of Foreign this Correspondence.
Literature, at this epoch, there will be many Meanwhile, many cheerful, honest little do- more pressing duties than that of expounding mestic touches are given here and there; Schiller. To a considerable extent, Schiller which we can accept gladly, with no worse may be said to expound himself. His greatcensure than wishing that there had been more. ness is of a simple kind; his manner of disBut this Correspondence has another and more playing it is, for most part, apprehensible to proper aspect, under which, if rightly consi- every one.-Besides, of all German Writers, dered, it possesses a far higher interest than ranking in any such class as his, Klopstock most domestic delineations could have impart- scarcely excepted, he has the least nationality: ed. It shows us two high, creative, truly poetic his character indeed is German, if German minds, an weariedly cultivating themselves, un- mean true, earnest, nobly-humane; but his weariedly advancing from one measure of mode of thought, and mode of utterance, all strength and clearness to another; whereby to but the mere vocables of it, are European. such as travel, we say not on the same road, Accordingly, it is to be observed, no German for this few can do, but in the same direction, Writer has had such acceptance with foreignas all should do, the richest psychological and ers; has been so instantaneously admitted practical lesson is laid out; from which men into favour, at least any favour which proved of every intellectual degree may learn some- permanent. Among the French, for example, thing, and he that is of the highest degree will Schiller is almost naturalized ; translated, comprobably learn the most. What value lies in mented upon, by men of whom Constant is this lesson, moreover, may be expected to in-one; even brought upon the stage, and by a crease in an increasing ratio as the Correspond-large class of critics vehemently extolled there. ence proceeds, and a larger space, with broad. Indeed, to the Romanticist class, in all couner differences of advancement, comes into tries, Schiller is naturally the pattern man and view; especially as respects Schiller, the great master; as it were a sort of ambassador younger and more susceptive of the two; for and mediator, were mediation possible, bewhom, in particular, these eleven years may tween the Old School and the New; pointing to be said to comprise the most important era of his own Works, as to a glittering bridge, that bis culture ; indeed, the whole history of his will lead pleasantly from the Versailles garprogress therein, from the time when he first dening and artificial hydraulics of the one, found the right path, and properly became into the true Ginnistan and wonderland of the progressive.
other. With ourselves too, who are troubled But to enter farther on the merits and special with no controversies on Romanticism and qualities of these Letters, which, on all hands, Classicism,—the Bowles controversy on Pope will be regarded as a publication of real value, having long since evaporated without result, both intrinsic and extrinsic, is not our task and all critical guild-brethren now working now. Of the frank, kind, mutually-respectful diligently with one accord, in the calmer sphere relation that manifests itself between the two of Vapidism, or even Nullism,-Schiller is no Correspondents; of their several epistolary less universally esteemed by persons of any feelstyles, and the worth of each, and whatever ing for poetry. To readers of German, and these else characterizes this work as a series of bio- are increasing everywhere a hundred fold, he is graphical documents, or of philosophical views, one of the earliest studies; and the dulles! we may at some future period have occasion cannot study him without some perception of to speak; certain detached speculations and his beauties. For the un-German, again, we indications will of themselves come before us have Translations in abundance and supera. in the course of our present undertaking. bundance; through which, under whatever Meanwhile to British readers, the chief object distortion, however shorn of his beams, some is not the Letters, but the writers of them. of image of this poetical sun must force itself; Goethe the public already know something: and in susceptive hearts, awaken love, and a of Schiller, less is known, and our wish is to desire for more immediate insighi. Su that bring him into closer approximation with our now, we suppose, anywhere in England, a man readers.
who denied that Schiller was a Poet would Indeed, had we considered only his impor- himself be, from every side, declared a Prosa. tance in German, or we may now say, in Eu- ist, and thereby summarily enough put to ropean Literature, Schiller might well have de silence. manded an earlier notice in our Journal. As All which being so, the weightiest part of our a man of true poetical and philosophical ge- duty, that of preliminary pleading for Schiller nius, who proved this high endowment both in of asserting rank and excellence for him whilo his conduct, and by a long series of Writings a stranger, and to judges suspicious of coun. which manifest it to all; nay, even as a man terfeits, is taken off our hands. The knowledge $o eminently admired by his nation, while of his works is silently and rapidly proceeding, he lived, and whose fame, there and abroad, in the only way by which true knowiedge can during the twenty-five years since his decease, be attained, by loving study of them, in many has been constanıly expanding and confirm- an inquiring, candid mind. Moreover, as ing itself, he appears with such claims as can remarked above, Schiller's works, generally belong only to a small number of men. If we speaking, require little commentary: for a bare seenied negligent of Schiller, want of man of such excellence, for a true Poet we affection was nowise the cause. Our admira- I should say that his worth lies singularly open ;