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dreams as higher half-shadows of reality ! | of Creation hung without a Sun that made it, And wherewith will you replace to us those over the Abyss, and trickled down. And when dreams, which bear us away from under the I looked up to the immeasurable world for the tumult of the waterfall into the still heights of Divine Eye, it glared on me with an empty, childhood, where the stream of life yet ran black, bottomless Eye-socket; and Eternity lay silent in its little plain, and flowed towards its upon Chaos, eating it and ruminating it. Cry abysses, a mirror of the Heaven ?

on, ye Dissonances; cry away the Shadows, “I was lying once, on a summer-evening, in for He is not! the sunshine; and I fell asleep. Methought I “ The pale-grown Shadows flitted away, as awoke in the churchyard. The down-rolling white vapour which frost has formed with the wheels of the steeple-clock, which was striking warm breath disappears; and all was void. eleven, had awoke me. In the emptied night-o, then came, fearful for the heart, the dead heaven I looked for the Sun; for I thought an Children who had been awakened in the eclipse was veiling him with the Moon. All Churchyard, into the temple, and cast themthe Graves were open, and the iron doors of selves before the high Form on the Altar, and the charpel-house were swinging to and fro by said, “Jesus, have we no Father?' And he invisible hands. On the walls, flitted shadows, answered, with streaming tears, “We are all which proceeded from no one, and other sha- orphans, I and you; we are without Father! dows stretched upwards in the pale air. In the “Then shrieked the Dissonances still louder, open coffins none now lay sleeping, but the the quivering walls of the Temple parted children. Over the whole heaven hung, in asunder; and the Temple and the Children large folds, a gray sultry mist, which a giant sank down, and the whole Earth and the Sun shadow like vapour was drawing down, nearer, sank after it, and the whole Universe sank closer, and hotier. Above me I heard the dis- with its immensity before us; and above, on tant fall of avalanches; under me the first step the summit of immeasurable Nature, stood of a boundless earthquake. The Church Christ, and gazed down into the Cuiverse wavered up and down with two interminable chequered with its thousand Suns, as into the Dissonances, which struggled with each other Mine bored out of the Eternal Night, in which in it; endeavouring in vain to mingle in the Suns run like mine-lamps, and the Galaxies unison. At times, a gray glimmer hovered like silver veins. along the windows, and under it the lead and " And as he saw the grinding press of iron fell down molten. The net of the mist, Worlds, the torch-dance of celestial wildfires, and the tottering Earth brought me into that and the coral-banks of beating hearts; and hideous Temple; at the door of which, in two as he saw how world after world shook off its poison-bushes, two glittering Basilisks lay glimmering souls upon the Sea of Death, as a brooding. I passed through unknown Shadows, water-bubble scatters swimming lights on the on whom ancient centuries were impressed.-waves, then majestic as the Highest of the All the Shadows were standing round the Finite, he raised his eyes towards the Nothing, empty Altar; and in all, not the heart, but the ness, and towards the void Immensity, and breast quivered and pulsed. One dead man said : • Dead, dumb Nothingness! Cold, everonly, who had just been buried there, still lay lasting Necessity! Frantic Chance! Know on his coffin without quivering breast; and on ye what this is that lies beneath you? When his smiling countenance, stood a happy dream. will ye crush the Universe in pieces, and me? But at the entrance of one Living, he awoke, Chance, knowest thou what thou doest, when and smiled no longer; he listed his heavy eye- with thy hurricanes thou walkest through that lids, but within was no eye; and in his beating snow-powder of Stars, and extinguishest Sun breast there lay, instead of heart, a wound. after Sun, and that sparkling dew of heavenly He held up his hands, and folded them to pray; light goes out, as thou passest over it? How but the arms lengthened out, and dissolved; is each so solitary in this wide grave of the and the hands, still fulded together, fell away. All! I am alone with myself! O Father, O Above, on the Church-dome stood the dial-plate Father! where is thy infinite bosom that I of Eterni'y whereon no number appeared, and might rest on it? Ah, if each soul is its own which was its own index: but a black finger father and creator, why can it not be its own pointed thereon, and the Dead sought to see destroyer too? ihe time by it.

“• Is this beside me yet a Man? Unhappy " Now sank from aloft a noble, high Form, one! Your little life is the sigh of Nature, or with a look of uneffaceable sorrow, down to only its echo; a convex-mirror throws its rays the Altar, and all the Dead cried out, “Christ! into that dust-cloud of dead men's ashes, down is there no God?' He answered • There is on the Earth, and thus you, cloud-formed none! The whole Shadow of each then shud- wavering phantoms, arise.—Look down into dered, not the breast alone; and one after the the Abyss, over which clouds of ashes are other, all, in this shuddering, shook into moving; mists full of Worlds reek up from pieces.

the Sea of Death ; the Fulure is a mounting “ Christ continued: 'I went through the mist, and the Present is a falling one.-Knowest Worlds, I mounted into the Suns, and flew thou thy Earth again?' with the Galaxies through the wastes of Hea- " Here Christ looked down, and his eye filled ven; but there is no God! I descended as far with tears, and he said: 'Ah, I was once there; as Being casts its shadow, and looked down I was still happy then; I had still my Infinite into the Abyss and cried, Father, where art Father, and looked up cheerfully from the thou But I heard only the everlasting storm mountains, into the immeasurable Heaven, which no one guides, and the gleaming Rainbow and pressed my mangled breast on his healing form, and said even in the bitterness of death: we must here for the present close our lucuFather, take thy son from this bleeding hull, brations on Jean Paul. To delineate, with and lift him to thy heart !-Ah, ye too happy any correctness, the specific features of such inhabitants of Earth, ye still believe in Him. a genius, and of its operations and results in Perhaps even now your Sun is going down, the great variety of provinces where it dwelt and ye kneel amid blossoms, and brightness, and worked, were a long task; for which, perand tears, and lift trustful hands, and cry with haps, some groundwork may have been laid joy-streaming eyes, to the opened Heaven: here, and which, as occasion serves, it will be "Me too thou knowest, Omnipotent, and all my pleasant for us to resume. wounds; and at death thou receivest me, and Probably enough, our readers, in considerclosest them all !" Unhappy creatures, at ing these strange matters, will too often bedeath they will not be closed! Ah, when the think them of that “Episode concerning Paul's sorrow-laden lays himself, with galled back, Costume;" and conclude that, as in living, so into the Earth, to sleep till a fairer Morning in writing, he was a Mannerist, and man of full of Truth, full of Virtue and Joy, he awakens continual Affectations. We will not quarrel in a stormy Chaos, in the everlasting Midnight, with them on this point; we must not venture --and there comes no Morning, and no soft among the intricacies it would lead us into. healing hand, and no Infinite Father !—Mortal, At the same time, we hope, many will agree beside me! if thou still livest, pray to Him; with us in honouring Richter, such as he was; else hast thou lost him for ever!'

and " in spite of his hundred real, and his ten “And as I fell down, and looked into the thousand seeming faults,” discern under this sparkling Universe, I saw the upborne Rings wondrous guise the spirit of a true Poet and of the Giant-Serpent, the Serpent of Eternity, Philosopher. A Poet, and among the highest which had coiled itself round ihe All of Worlds, of his time, we must reckon him, though he -and the Rings sank down, and encircled the wrote no verses; a Philosopher, though he All doubly;—and then it wound itself, innu- promulgated no systems : for on the whole, merable ways, round Nature, and swept the ihat“ Divine Idea of the World" stood in clear Worlds froin their places, and crashing, ethereal light before his mind; he recognised squeezed the Temple of Immensity together, the Invisible, even under the mean forms of into the Church of a Burying-ground,-and all these days, and with a high, strong, not uningrew strait, dark, fearful,—and an immeasur- spired heart, strove to represent it in the Visiably extended Hammer was to strike the last ble, and published tidings of it to his fellow hour of Time, and shiver the Universe asunder, men. This one virtue, the foundation of all

other virtues, and which a long study more “My soul wept for joy that I could still pray and more clearly reveals to us in Jean Paul, to God; and the joy, and the weeping, and the will cover far greater sins than his were. It faith on him were my prayer. And as I arose, raises himn into quite another sphere than that the Sun was glowing deep behind the full pur- of the thousand elegant sweet-singers, and pled corn-ears, and casting meekly the gleam cause-and-effect philosophers, in his own counof its twilight-red on the little Moon, which try, or in this; the million Novel-manufactuwas rising in the East without an Aurora; rers, Sketchers, practical Discoursers, and so and between the sky and the earth, a gay forth, not once reckoned in. Such a man we transient air-people was stretching out its can safely recommend to universal study; and short wings and living, as I did, before the In- for those who, in the actual state of matters, finite Pather; and from all Nature around me may the most blame him, repeat the old max. flowed peaceful tones as from distant evening. im: “What is extraordinary try to look at bells."

with your own eyes.” Without commenting on this singular piece,




Clio was figured by the ancients as the eld- and inevitable, in the Time come: and only est daughter of Memory, and chief of the by the combination of both is the meaning of Muses; which dignity, whether we regard the either completed. The Sibylline Books, though essential qualities of her art, or its practice old, are not the oldest. Some nations have and acceptance among men, we shall still find prophecy, some have not: but, of all man. to have been titly bestowed. History, as it lies kind, there is no tribe so rude that it has not at the root of all science, is also the first dis- attempted History, though several have not tinct product of man's spiritual nature; his arithmetic enough to couni Five. History has earliest expression of what can be called been written with quipo-threads, with feather Thought. It is a looking both before and after; pictures, with wampum-belis; sull oftener as, indeed, the coming Time already waits, with earth-mounds and monumental stoneunseen, yet definitely shaped, predelerinined, I heaps, whether as pyramid or cairn; for the Celt and the Copt, the Red man as well as the other less boasted sources, whereby, as matWhite, lives between two eternities, and, war-ters now stand, a Marlborough may become ring against Oblivion, he would fain unite great.in the world's business, with no History himseli in clear, conscious relation, as in dim save what he derives from Shakspeare's unconscious relation he is already united, with Plays ? Nay, whether in that same teaching the whole Future and the whole Past.

by Experience, historical Philosophy has yet A talent for History may be said to be born properly deciphered the first element of all with us, as our chief inheritance. In a certain science in this kind? What is the aim and sense all men are historians. Is not every me- significance of that wondrous changeful life mory written quite full with Annals, wherein it investigates and paints? Whence the course joy and mourning, conquest and loss, mani- of man's destinies in this Earth originated, foldly alternate; and, with or without philoso- and whither they are tending? Or, indeed, if phy, the whole fortunes of one little inward they have any course and tendency, are really kingdom, and all its politics, foreign and do- guided forward by an unseen mysierious Wismestic, stand ineffaceably recorded ? Our dom, or only circle in blind mazes without very speech is curiously historical. Most men, recognisable guidance ? Which questions, you may observe, speak only lo narrate; not altogether fundamental, one might think, in in imparting what they have thought, which any Philosophy of History, have, since the era indeed were often a very small matter, but in when Monkish Annalists were wont to answer

exhibiting what they have undergone or seen, them by the long-ago extinguished light of their 1.433 ,

dilate. Cut us off from Narrative, how would cal Historians only glanced at dubiously, and the stream of conversation, even among the from afar; by many, not so much as glanced wisest, languish into detached handfuls, and at. The truth is, two difficulties, never wholly among the foolish utterly evaporate! Thus, surmountable, lie in the way. Before philosoas we do nothing but enact History, we say phy can teach by Experience, the Philosophy little but recite it; nay, rather, in that widest has to be in readiness, the Experience musi be sense, our whole spiritual lise is built thereon. gathered and intelligibly recorded. Now, overFor, strictly considered, what is all Knowledge looking the former consideration, and with retoo but recorded Experience, and a product of gard only to the latter, let any one who has History; of which, therefore, Reasoning and examined the current of human affairs-and Belief, no less than Action and Passion, are how intricate, perplexed, unfathomable, even essential materials ?

when seen into with our own eyes, are their Under a limited, and the only practicable thousand-fold, blending movements—say wheshape, History proper, that part of History ther. the true representing of it is easy or imwhich treats of remarkable action, has, in all possible. Social Life is the aggregate of all modern as well as ancient times, ranked among ihe individual men's Lives who constitute sothe highest arts, and perhaps never stood ciety; History is the essence of innumerable higher than in these times of ours. For where- Biographies. But if one Biography, nay, our as, of old, the charm of History lay chiefly in own Biography, study and recapitulate it as gratifying our common appetite for the won- we may, remains in so many points unintelliderful, for the unknown; and her office was gible to us, how much more must these million, but as that of a Minstrel and Story-leller, she the very facts of which, to say nothing of the has now farther become a Schoolmistress, and purport of them, we know not, and cannot professes to instruci in gratifying. Whether, know! with the stateliness of that venerable cha- Neither will it adequately avail us to assert racter, she may not have taken up something that the general inward condition of Life is of its austerity and frigidity; whether, in the the same in all ages; and that only the relogical terseness of a Hume or Robertson, the markiable deviations from the common endorfgraceful ease and gay pictorial heartiness of a ment, and common lot, and the more importHerodotus or Froissari may not be wanting, is ant variations which the outirard figure of not the question for us here. Enough thai all Lise has from time 10 time undergone, deserve learners, all inquiring minds of every order, memory and record. The inward condition are gathered round her footstool, and reve- of life, it may rather be affirmed, the conscious rently pondering her lessons, as the true basis or half-conscious aim of mankind, so far as of Wisdom. Poetry, Divinity, Politics, Physics, men are not mere digesting machines, is the have each their adherents and adversaries; same in no two ages; neither are the more each little guild supporting a defensive and important outward variations easy to fix on, offensive war for its own special domain; or always well capable of representation. while the domain of History is as a Free Em- Which was the greaier innovator, which was porium, where all these belligerents peaceably the more important personage in man's hismeet and furnish themselves; and Sentiment-tory, he who first led armies over the Alps, alist and Utilitarian, Skeptic and Theologian, and gained the victories of Cannæ and Thrawith one voice advise us: Examine History, symene; or the nameless boor who first ham. for it is “ Philosophy teaching by Experience." mered out for bimself an iron spade? When the

Far be it from us io disparage such teaching, oak tree is felled, the whole forest echoes with the very attempt at which must be precious. it; but a hundred acorus are planted silently Neither shall we too rigidly inquire, how much by some unnoticed breeze. Battles and warit has hitherto profited? Whether most of tumults, which for the time din every ear, and what little practical wisdom men have, has with joy or terror intoxicate every heart, pass come from study of professed History, or from away like tavern-brawls; and, except some

| few Marathons and Morgartens, are remem- tion, but only some more or less plausible bered by accident, not by desert. Laws them- scheme and theory of the Transaction, or the selves, political Constitutions, are not our Life, harmonized result of many such schemes, but only the house wherein our life is led : each varying from the other, and all varying nay, they are but the bare walls of the house; from Truth, that we can ever hope to behold. all whose essential furniture, the inventions Nay, were our faculty of insight into passing and traditions, and daily habits that regulate things never so complete, there is still a fatal and support our existence, are the work not discrepancy between our manner of observing of Dracos and Hampdens, but of Phænician these, and their manner of occurring. The mariners, of Italian masons and Saxon metal- most gifted man can observe, still more can lurgists, of philosophers, alchemists, prophets, record, only the series of his own impressions : and all the long forgotten train of artists and his observation, therefore, to say nothing of artisans; who from the first have been jointly its other imperfections, must be successive, teaching us how 10 think and how to act, how while the things done were often simultaneous ; to rule over spiritual and over physical Na- the things done were not a series, but a group. ture. Well may we say that of our History It is not in acted, as it is in written History: acthe more important part is lost without reco- tual events are nowise so simply related to very, and,-as thanksgivings were once wont each other as parent and offspring are; every to be offered for unrecognised mercies,-look single event is the offspring not of one, but of with reverence into the dark untenanted all other events prior or contemporaneous, places of the past, where, in formless obli- and will in its turn combine with all others to vion, our chief benefactors, with all their se- give birth to new: it is an ever-living, everdulous endeavours, but not with the fruit of working Chaos of Being, wherein shape after these, lie entombed.

shape bodies itself forth from innumerable So imperfect is that same Experience, by elements. And this Chaos, boundless as the which Philosophy is to teach. 'Nay, even habitation and duration of man, unfathomable with regard to those occurrences that do stand as the soul and destiny of man, is what the recorded, that, at their origin, have seemed historian will depict, and scientifically gauge, worthy of record, and the summary of which we may say, by threading it with single lines consnutes what we now call History, is not of a few ells in length! For as all Action is, our understanding of them altogether incom- by its nature, to be figured as extended in plete ; it is even possible to represent them as breadth, and in depth, as well as in length; they were? The old story of Sir Walter Ra- that is to say, is based on Passion and Mysleigh's looking from his prison window, on tery, if we investigate its origin; and spreads some street tumult, which afterwards three abroad on all hands, modifying and modified ; witnesses reported in three different ways, as well as advances towards completion, so, himself differing from them all, is still a true all Narrative is, by its nature, of only one dimenlesson for us. Consider how it is that histo- sion; only travels forward towards one, or torical documents and records originate ; even wards successive points : Narrative is linear, honest records, where the reporters were un- Action is solid. Alas, for our “chains,” or biassed by personal regard; a case which, chainlets, of " causes and effects," which we where yothing more were wanted, must ever so assiduously track through certain handbe among the rarest. The real leading fea- breadths of years and square miles, when the tares of an historical transaction, those move- whole is a broad, deep, Immensity, and each ments that essentially characterize it, and atom is “chained" and complected with all! alone deserve to be recorded, are nowise the Truly, if History is Philosophy teaching by foremost to be noted. At first, among the Experience, the writer fried to compose his. various witnesses, who are also parties inte-tory is hitherto an unknown man. The Experested, there is only vague wonder, and fear or rience itself would require All-knowledge to hope, and the noise of Rumour's thousand record it, were the All-wisdom needful for longues; till, after a season, the conflict of such Philosophy as would interpret it, to be testimonies has subsided into some general had for asking. Better were it that mere issue; and then it is settled, by a majority of earthly Historians should lower such pretenvotes, that such and such a “Crossing of the sions, more suitable for Omniscience than for Rubicon,” an “Impeachment of Stafford,” a human science; and aiming only at some pic* Convocation of the Notables,” are epochs ture of the things acted, which picture itself in the world's history, cardinal points on will at best be a poor approximation, leave which grand world-revolutions have hinged. the inscrutable purport of them an acknowSappose, however, that the majority of votes ledged secret; or, at most, in reverent Faith, was all wrong; that the real cardinal points far different from that teaching of Philosophy, lay far deeper, and had been passed over un- pause over the mysterious vestiges of Him, noticed, because no Seer, but only mere On- whose path is in the great deep of Time, whom lookers, chanced to be there! Our clock History indeed reveals, but only all History, strikes when there is a change from hour to and in Eternity will clearly reveal. hour; but no hammer in the Horologe of Such considerations truly were of small proTime peals through the universe, when there 6t, did they, instead of teaching us vigilance is a change from Era to Era. Men under and reverent humility in our inquiries into stand not what is among their hands: as History, abate our esteem for them, or dis calmness is the characteristic of strength, so courageus from unweariedly prosecuting them, the weightiest causes may be the most silent. Let us search more and more into the Past; vel i It is, in no case, the real historical Transac-all men explore it as the true fountain of

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knowledge; by whose light alone, consciously from which, if taken for the real Book, more or unconsciously employed, can the Present error than insight is to be derived. and the Future be interpreted or guessed at. Doubtless, also, it is with a growing feeling For though the whole meaning lies far beyond of the infinite nature of history, that in these our ken; yet in that complex Manuscript, times, the old principle, Division of Labour, covered over with formless, inextricably en- has been so widely applied to 11. The political tangled, unknown characters,-nay, which is Historian, once almost the sole cultivator of a Palympsest, and had once prophetic writing, History, has now found various associates, still dimly legible there,-some letters, some who strive to elucidate other phases of human words, may be deciphered; and if no com- Life ; of which, as hinted above, the political plete Philosophy, here and there an intelligible conditions it is passed under, are but one; and precept, available in practice, be gathered; though the primary, perhaps not the most imwell understanding, in the mean while, that it portant, of the many outward arrangements. is only a little portion we have deciphered, of this historian himself, moreover, in his own that much still remains to be interpreted; that special department, new and higher things are history is a real prophetic Manuscript, and can now beginning to be expected. From of old, be fully interpreted by no man.

it was too often to be reproachfully observed But the Artist in History may be distin- of him, that he dwelt with disproportionate guished from the Artisan in History; for here, fondness in Senate-houses, in Battle-fields, nay, as in all other provinces, there are Artists and even in King's Antechambers; forgetting, that Artisans; men who labour mechanically in a far away from such scenes, the mighty uide of department, without eye for the Whole, not Thought, and Action, was still rolling on its feeling that there is a Whole; and men who wondrous course, in gloom and brightness: inform and ennoble the humblest department and in its thousand remote valleys, a whole with an Idea of the Whole, and habitually world of Existence, with or without an earthly know that only in the Whole is the Partial to sun of Happiness to warm it, with or without be truly discerned. The proceedings, and the a heavenly sun of Holiness to purify and sancduties of these two, in regard to History, must | tify it, was blossoming and fading, whether be altogether different. Not, indeed, that each the “famous victory" were won or lost. The has not a real worth, in his several degree. time seems coming when much of this must The simple Husbandman can till his field, and be amended; and he who sees no world bu by knowledge he has gained of its soil, sow it that of courts and camps; and writes only how with the fit grain, though the deep rocks and soldiers were drilled and shot, and how this central fires are unknown to him: his little ministerial conjurer out-conjured that other, crop hangs under and over the firmament of and then guided, or at least held, something stars, and sails through whole untracked celes- which he called the rudder of government, tial spaces, between Aries and Libra; never- but which was rather the spigot of Taxatheless, it ripens for him in due season, and tion, wherewith, in place of steering, he could he gathers it safe into his barn. As a husband tap, and the more cunningly the nearer the man he is blameless in disregarding those lees,—will pass for a more or less instructive higher wonders ; but as a Thinker, and faithful Gazetteer, but will no longer be called an Hisinquirer into nature, he were wrong. So, like-torian. wise, is it with the Historian, who examines However, the Political Historian, were his some special aspect of history, and from this work performed with all conceivable perfecor that combination of circumstances, political, tion, can accomplish but a part, and still leaves moral, economical, and the issues it has led to, room for numerous fellow-labourers. Foreinfers that such and such properties belong to most among these comes the Ecclesiastical human society, and that the like circumstance Historian; endeavouring with catholic or secwill produce the like issues; which inference, tarian view, to trace the progress of the Church, if other trials confirm it, must be held true and of that portion of the social establishment, practically valuable. He is wrong only, and which respects our religious condition, as the an artisan, when he fancies that these proper- other portion does our civil, or rather, in the ties, discovered or discoverable, exhaust the long run, our economical condition. Rightly matter, and sees not at every step that it is in- conducted, this department were undoubtedly exhaustible.

the more imporiant of the two; inasmuch as However, that class of cause-and-effect it concerns us more to understand how man's speculators, with whom no wonder would re- moral well-being had been and might be promain wonderful, but all things in Heaven and moted, than to understand in the like sort his Earth must be “computed and accounted for;" | physical well-being; which latter is ultimately and even the Unknown, the Infinite, in man's the aim of all political arrangements. For the iise, had, under the words Enthusiasm, Super- physically happiest is simply the safest, the stition, Spirit of the Ag”, and so forth, obtained, strongest; and in all conditions of Government, as it were, an algebraical symbol, and given Power (whether of wealth as in these days, or value-have now well-nigh played their part of arms and adherenis as in old days) is the in European culture; and may be considered, only outward emblem and purchase-money of as in most countries, even in England itself, Good. True Good, however, unless we reckon where they linger the latest, verging towards Pleasure synonymous with it, is said to be extinction. He who reads the inscrutable Book rarely, or rather never, offered for sale in the of Nature, as if it were a Merchant's Ledger, is market where that even passes current. So justly suspected of having never seen that that, for man's true advantage, not the outward Book, but only some school Synopsis thereof; condition of his life, but the inward and

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