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have passed away, or at best died into a faint ! age, may be traced much farther into the con tradition, of no value as a practical principle. dition and prevailing disposition of our spiritual To judge by the loud clamour of our Constitu- nature itself. Consider, for example, the genetion builders, Statists, Economists, directors, ral fashion of Intellect in this era. Intellect, creators, reformers of Public Societies; in a the power man has of knowing and believing, word, all manner of Mechanists, from the Cart- is now nearly synonymous with Logic, or the wright up to the Code-maker; and by the mere power of arranging and communicating. nearly total silence of all Preachers and Teach- Its implement is not Meditation, but Arguinent ers who should give a voice to Poetry, Reli- “Cause and effect” is almost the only category gion, and Morality, we might fancy either that under which we look at, and work with, all man's Dynamical nature was, to all spiritual Nature. Our first question with regard to any intents, extinct, or else so perfected, that 10-object is not, What is it? but, How is it? We thing more was to be made of it by the old are no longer instinctively driven to appre means; and henceforth only in his Mechanical hend, and lay to heart, what is Good and Love contrivances did any hope exist for him. ly, but rather 10 inquire, as onlookers, how it

To define the limiis of ihese two departments is produced, whence it comes, whither it goes. of man's activity, which work into one another, Our favourite Philosophers have no love and and by means of one another; so intricately no hatred; they stand among us not to do, nor and inseparably, were by its nature an impos- 10 create any thing, but as a sort of Logic-mills sible attempt. Their relative importance, even to grind out the true causes and effects of all to the wisest mind, will vary in different times, that is done and created. To the eye of a according to the special wants and dispositions Smith, a Hume, or a Constant, all is well that of these times. Meanwhile, it seems clear works quietly. An Order of Ignatius Loyola, enough that only in the right co-ordination of a Presbyterianism of John Knox, a Wickliffe, the two, and the vigorous forwarding of both, or a Henry the Eighth, are simply so many does our irue line of action lie. Undue culti- mechanical phenomena, caused or causing. vation of the inward or Dynamical province The Euphuist of our day differs much from leads to idle, visionary, impracticable courses, his pleasant predecessors. An intellectual and, especially in rode eras, to Superstition dapperling of these times boasts chiefly of his and Fanaticism, with their long train of baleful irresistible perspicacity, his “ dwelling in the and well-known evils. Undue cultivation of daylight of truth,” and so forth ; which, on exthe outward, again, though less immediately amination, turns out to be a dwelling in the prejudicial, and even for the time productive rush-light of "closet-logic," and a deep unconof many palpable benefits, must, in the long sciousness that there is any other light to run, by destroying Moral Force, which is the dwell in; or any other objects to survey with parent of all other Force, prove not less cer- it. Wonder indeed, is, on all hands, dying iainly, and perhaps still more hopelessly, per- out: it is the sign of uncultivation to wonder. Dicious. This, we take it, is the grand charac. Speak to any small man of a high, majestie teristic of our age. By our skill in Mechanism, Reformation, of a high, majestic Luther to lead it has come to pass thai, in the management it, and forth with he sets about “accounting of external things, we excel all other ages; for it! how the “circumstances of the time while in whatever respects the pure moral na called for such a character, and found him, we ture, in true dignity of soul and character, we suppose, standing girt and road-ready, to do are perhaps inferior to most civilized ages. its errand; how the “circumstances of the

In fact, if we look deeper, we shall find that time” created, fashioned, floated him quietly this faith in Mechanism has now struck its along into the result; how, in short, this small roots deep into men's most intimate, primary man, had he been there, could have performed sources of conviction; and is thence sending the like himself! For it is the “force of cirup, over his whole life and activity, innume- cumstances” that does every thing; the force rable stems,-fruit-bearing and poison-bearing of one man can do nothing. Now all this is The truth is, men have lost their belief in the grounded on little more than a metaphor. We Invisible, and believe, and hope, and work only figure Society as a “Machine," and that mind in the Visible; or, to speak it in other words, is opposed to mind, as body is to body; whereThis is not a Religious age. Only the material, by two, or at mosi ten, liitle minds must be the immediately practical, not the divine and stronger than one great mind. Notable abspiritual, is important to us. The infinite, ab- surdily! For the plain truth, very plain, we solute character of Virtue has passed into a think, is, that minds are opposed to minds in finite, conditional one; it is no longer a wor- quite a different way; and one man that has a ship of the Beautiful and Good; but a calcula- higher Wisdom, a hitherto unknown spiritual tion of the Profitable. Worship, indeed, in any Truth in him, is strouger, not than ten men sense, is not recognised among us, or is me that have it not, or than ten thousand, but than chanically explained into Fear of pain, or all men, that have it not; and stands among Hope of pleasure. Our true Deity is Mecha- them with a quite ethereal, angelic power, as nism. It has subdued external Nature for us, with sword out of Heaven's own armory, and, we think, it will do all other things. We sky-tempered, which no buckler, and no tower are Giants in physical power: in a deeper than of brass, will finally withstand. a metaphorical sense, we are Titans, that But to us, in these times, such considera strire, by heaping mountain on mountain, to tions rarely occur. We enjoy, we see nothing conquer Heaven also.

by direct vision; but only by reflection, and The strong mechanical character, so visible in anatomical dismemberment. Like Sir Hire in the spiritual pursuits and methods of this I dibras, for every Why, we mes have a Where.

fore. We have our little theory on all human long-past class of Popes were possessed of; and divine things. Poelry, the workings of inflicting moral censure; imparting moral engenius itself, which in all times, with one or couragement, consolation, edification; in all anotber meaning, has been called Inspiration, ways, diligently “ administering the Discipline and held to be mysterious and inscrutable, is of the Church.” It may be said, too, that in no longer without its scientific exposition. The private disposition, the new Preachers some. building of the lofty rhyme is like any other what resemble the Mendicant Friars of old masonry or bricklaying: we have theories of times: outwardly full of holy zeal; inwardly its rise, heighi, decline, and fall,—which latter, not without stratagem, and hunger for terresit would seem, is now near, among all people. trial things. But omitting this class, and the of our * Theories of Taste," as they are call- boundless host of watery personages who pipe, ed, wherein the deep, infinile, unspeakable as they are able, on so many scrannel straws, Love of Wisdom and Beauty, which dwells let us look at the higher regions of Literature, in all men, is " explained," made mechanically where, if anywhere, the pure melodies of Poevisible, from “ Association," and the like, why sy and Wisdom should be heard. Of natural should we say any thing? Hume has written talent there is no deficiency: one or two richly. QS a “Natural History of Religion;" in which endowed individualseven give us a superiority one Natural History, all the rest are included in this respeot. But what is the song they Strangely, too, does the general feeling coin. sing? Is it a tone of the Memnon Statue, cide with Hume's in this wonderful problem; breathing music as the light first touches it? for whether his “ Natural History" be the right a “liquid wisdom," disclosing to our sense the one or not, that Religion must have a Natural deep, infinite harmonies of Nature and man's History, all of us, cleric and laic, seem to be soul? Alas, no! It is not a matin or vesper agreed. He indeed regards it as a Disease, we hymn to the Spirit of all Beauty, but a fierce again as Health ; so far there is a difference; clashing of cymbals, and shouting of multibut in our first principle we are at one. tudes, as children pass through the fire to Mo

To what exient theological Unbelief, we lech! Poetry itself has no eye for ihe Invisimean intellectual dissent from the Church, in ble. Beauty is no longer the god it worships, its view of Holy Writ, prevails at this day, but some brute image of Strength; which we would be a highly imporiani, were it not, un- may well call an idol, for true strength is one der any circumstances, an almost impossible and the same with Beauty, and its worship also inquiry. Bui the Unbelief, which is of a still is a hymn. The meek, silent Lighi can mould, more fundamental character, every man may create, and purify all Nature; but the loud see prevailing, with scarcely any but the faint Whirlwind, the sign and product of Disunion, est contradiction, all around him; even in the of Weakness, passes on, and is forgotten. Pulpit itself. Religion in most countries, more How widely this veneration for the physically or less in every country, is no longer what it Strongest has spread itself through Literature, was, and should be,-a thousand-voiced psalm any one may judge, who reads either criticism from the heart of Man to his invisible Father, or poem. We praise a work, not as “ true," the fountain of all Goodness, Beauty, Truth, and bui as “ strong;” our highest praise is that it revealed in every revelation of these; but for has “affected ”us, has “ierrified” us. All this, the most part, a wise, prudential feeling it has been well observed, is the maximum grounded on a mere calculation ; a matter, as of the Barbarous," the symptom, not of vigorall others now are, of Expediency and Utility : ous refinement, but of luxurious corruption. whereby some smaller quantum of earthly en- It speaks much, too, for men's indestructible joyment may be exchanged for a far larger love of iruth, that nothing of this kind will quantum of celestial enjoyment. Thus Reli abide with them; that even the talent of a gion, too, is Profit; a working for wages; not Byron cannot permanently seduce us into Řeverence, but vulgar Hype or Fear. Many, idol-worship; but that he, too, with all his wild we know, very many, we hope, are still reli- syren charming, already begins to be disregious in a far different sense; were it not so, garded and forgotten. our case were too desperate : But to witness Again, with respect to our Moral condition: that such is the temper of the times, we take here also, he who runs may read that he same any calm observant man, who agrees or disa physical, mechanical influences are everywhere grees in our feeling on the matter, and ask him busy. For the “superior morality,” of which whether our view of it is not in general well- we hear so much, we too, would desire to be founded.

thankful: at the same time, it were but blindLiterature, too, if we consider it, gives simi- ness to deny that this “superior morality” is lar testimony. At no former era has Litera- properly rather an “inferior criminality," pr. ture, the printed communication of Thought, duced not by greater love of Virtue, but by been of such importance as it is now. We greater perfection of Police; and of that far orren hear that the Church is in danger; and subtler and stronger Police, called Public truly so it is,-in a danger it seems not to Opinion. This last watches over us with its know of: For, with its tithes in the most per- Argus eyes more keenly than ever; but the fect safety, its functions are becoming more “inward eye” seems heavy with sleep. Of any and more superseded. The true Church of belief in invis ble, divine ihings, we find as few England, at this moment, lies in the Editors traces in our Morality as elsewhere. It is by of iis Newspapers. These preach to the peo- tangible, material considerations that we are ple daily, weekly; admonishing kings them- guided, not by in ward and spiritual. Self-denial

, selves; advising peace or war, with an au- the parent of all virtue, in any true sense of thority which only the first Reformers and a that word, has perhaps seldun been rarer: 90 rare is it, that the most, even in their abstract the high vocation to which, throughout this his speculations, regard its existence as a chimera. earthly history, he has been appointed. HowVirtue is Pleasure, is Profit; no celestial, but ever it may be with individual nations, whatan earthly thing. Virtuous men, Philanthro-ever melaucholic speculators may assert, it pists, Martyrs, are happy accidents; their seems a well-ascertained fact that, in all times, * taste" lies the right way! In all senses, we reckoning even from those of the Heracleids worship and follow after Power; which may and Pelasgi, the happiness and greatness of be called a physical pursuit. No man now mankind at large have been continually proloves Truth, as Truth' must be loved, with an gressive. Doubtless this age also is advancing. infinite love; but only with a finite love, and as Its very unrest, its ceaseless activity, its disit were par amours. Nay, properly speaking, content, contains matter of promise. Knowhe does not believe and know it, but only “thinks” ledge, education, are opening the eyes of the it, and that “there is every probability!" He humblest,—are increasing the number of thinkpreaches it aloud, and rushes courageously ing minds without limit. This is as it should forth with it, if there is a multitude hüzzaing be; for, not in turning back, not in resisting, at his back! yet ever keeps looking over his but only in resolutely struggling forward, does shoulder, and the instant'the huzzaing lan- our life consist. Nay, after all, our spiritual guishes, he 100 stops short. In fact, what mo- maladies are but of Opinion; we are but fetrality we have takes the shape of Ambition, of tered by chains of our own forging, and which Honour; beyond money and money's worth, our ourselves also can rend asunter. This deep, only rational blessedness is popularity. Il were paralyzed subjection to physical objects comes but a fool's trick to die for conscience. Only for not from Nature, but from ourown unwise mode "character,” by duel, or in case of extremity, of viewing Nature. Neither can we understand by suicide, is the wise man bound to die. By that man wants, at this hour, any faculty of arguing on the "force of circumstances," we heari, soul, or body, that ever belonged to him. have argued away all force from ourselves; “ He, who has been born, has been a First and stand leashed together, uniform in dress Man;" has had lying before his young eyes, and movement, like the rowers of some bound- and as yet unhardened into scientific shapes, a less galley. This and that may be right and world as plastic, infinite, divine, as lay before true; In we must not do it. Wonderful“Force the eyes of Adam hinself. If Mechanism, like of Public Opinion!” We must act and walk i some glass bell, encircles and imprisons us, if in all points as it prescribes; follow the traffic the soul looks forth on a fair heavenly country it bids us, realize the sum of money, the degree which it cannot reach, and pines, and in its of " influence" it expects

us, or we shall be scanty atmosphere is ready to perish-yet the lightly esteemed; certain mouthfuls of articu- bell is but of glass ;“one bold stroke to break late wind will be blown at us, and this, what the bell in pieces, and thou art delivered!" mortal courage can front? Thus, while civil Not the invisible world is wanting, for it dwells Liberty is more and more secured to us, our in man's soul, and this last is still here. Are moral Liberry is all but lost. Practically con- the solemn temples in which the Divinity was sidered, our creed is Fatalism: and, free in once visibly revealed among us, crumbling hand and foot, we are shackled in heart and away? We can repair them, we can rebuild soul, with far straiter than Feudal chains. them. The wisdom, the heroic worth of our Truly may we say with the Philosopher, the forefathers, which we have lost, we can recover. deep meaning of the laws of Mechanism lies That admiration of old nobleness, which now heavy on us;" and in the closet, in the market- so often shows itself as a faint dile tantism, will place, in the temple, by the social bearth, en- one day become a generous emulation, and cumbers the whole movements of our mind, man may again be all that he has been, and and over our noblest faculties is spreading a more than he has been. Nor are these the night-mare sleep.

mere daydreams of fancy; they are clear pog.

sibilities; nay, in this time, they are even asThese dark features, we are aware, belong suming the character of hopes. Indications more or less to other ages, as well as to ours. we do see, in other countries and in our own, This faith m Mechanism, in the all-imporiance signs infinitely cheering to us, that Mechanism of physical things, is in every age the common is not always to be our hard taskmaster, but refuge of Weakness and blind Discontent; of one day to be our pliant, all-ministering serall who believe, as many will ever do, that vant; that a new and brighter spiritual era is man's true good lies without him, not within. slowly evolving itself for all men. But on We are aware also, that, as applied to our these things our present course forbids us to selves in all their aggravation, they form but enter. balf a picture; that in the whole picture there Meanwhile, that great outward changes are are bright lights as well as gloomy shadows. in progress can be doubtful to no one. The If we here dwell chiefly on the latter, let us noi time is sick and out of joint. Many things be blamed: it is in general more profitable to have reached their height; and it is a wise reckou up oor defecis, than to boast of our at- adage that tells us, "the darkest hour is nearest tainments.

the dawn." Whenever we can gather any in Neither, with all these evils more or less dication of the public thought, whether from clearly before us, have we at any time despaired printed books, as in France or Germany, or of the fortunes of society. Despair, or even from Carbonari rebellions and other political despondency, in that respect, appears to us, in tumults, as in Spain, Portugal

, Italy, and all cases, a groundless feeling.

We have a Greece, the voice it utters is the same. The faith in the imperishable dignity of man; in thinking minds of all nations call for change.

There is a deep-lying struggle in the whole all his noble institutions, his faithful endeafabric of society; a boundless, grinding colli- vours, and loftiest attainments, are but the sion of the New with the Old. The French body, and more and more approximated emRevolution, as is now visible enough, was not blem. the parent of this mighty movement, but its On the whole, as this wondrous planet, Earth, offspring. Those two hostile infuences, which is journeying with its fellows through infinite always exist in human things, and on the con- space, so are the wondrous destinies embarked stant intercommunion of which depends their on it journeying through infinite time, under a health and safety, had lain in separate masses, higher guidance than ours.

For ihe present, accumulating through generations, and France as our astronomy informs us, its path lies towas the scene of their fiercest explosion ; but wards Hercules, the constellation of Physical the final issue was not unfolded in that coun- | Power : But that is not our most pressing contry: nay, it is not yet anywhere unfolded. cern. Go where it will, the deep IIEAVES will Political freedom is hitherto ihe object of these be around it. Therein let us have hope and efforis; but they will not and cannot stop there. sure faith. To reform a world, to reform a It is towards a higher freedom than mere free-nation, no wise man will undertake; and all dom from oppression by his fellow-mortal that but foolish men know that the only solid, man dimly aims. Of this higher, heavenly though a far slower reformation, is what each freedom, which is “man's reasonable service,” | begins and perfects on himself.


(Foreign Review, 1830.)

It is some six years since the name “ Jean god, with all his thyrsi, cymbals, Phallophori, Paul Friedrich Richter” was first printed with and Manadic women : the air, the earth is English types; and some six-and-forty since it giddy with their clangor, their Evohes; but, has stood emblazoned and illuminated on all alas! in a little while, the lion-team shows true literary Indicators among the Germans; long ears, and becomes too clearly an ass. a fact, which, if we consider the history of team in lion-skins; the Mænads wheel round many a Kotzebue and Chateaubriand, within in amazernent; and then the jolly god, dragged that period, may confirm the old doctrine, that from his chariot, is trodden into the kennels as the best celebrity does not always spread the a drunk mortal. fastest; but rather, quite contrariwise, that as That no such apotheosis was appointed for blown bladders are far more easily carried Richter in his own country, or is now to be than metallic masses, though gold ones, of anticipated in any other, we cannot but regard equal bulk, so the Playwright, Poetaster, Philo- as a natural, and nowise unfortunate circumsophe, will cften pass triumphantly beyond stance. What divinity lies in him requires a seas, while the Poet and Philosopher abide calmer worship, and from quite another class quietly at home. Such is the order of nature : of worshippers. Neither, in spite of that forty a Sprrzheim flies from Vienna to Paris and years' abeyance, shall we accuse England of Lond in, within the year; a Kant, slowly ad- any uncommon blindness towards him: nay, vancing may, perhaps, reach us from Königs- taking all things into account, we should rather berg within the ceniury: Newton, merely to consider his actual footing among us, as evinccross the narrow Channel, required fifiy years; ing not only an increased rapidity in literary Shak-peare, again, three times as many. It is intercourse, but an intrinsic improvement in true there are examples of an opposite sort; the manner and objects of it. Our feeling of now and then, by some rare chance, a Goethe, foreign excellence, we hope, must be becoming a Cervantes, will occur in literature, and truer: our Insular taste must be opening more Kings may laugh over Don Quixoie while it is and more into a European one. For Richter is yel unfinished, and scenes from Werter be by no means a man whose merits, like his painted on Chinese tea-cups, while the author singularities, force themselves on the general is still a stripling. These, however, are not eye; indeed, without great patience, and some the rule, but the exceptions; nay, rightly in- considerable catholicism of disposition, no terpreted, the exceptions which confirm it. In reader is likely to prosper much with him. general, tbat sudden tumultuous popularity He has a fine, high, altogether unusual talent; comes more from partial delirium on both sides, and a manner of expressing it perhaps still than from clear insight; and is of evil omen more unusual. He is a Humorist heartily and to all concerned with it. How many loud throughout; not only in low provinces of Bacchus-festivals of this sort have we seen thought, where this is more common, bat in prove to be Pseudo-Bacchanalia, and end in the loftiest provinces, where it is well nigh undirectly the inverse of Orgies! Drawn by his exampled; and thus, in wild sport, “playing team of lions, the jolly god advances as a real bowls with the sun and moon," he fashions

the strangest ideal world, which at first glance Wahrheit aus Jean Paul's Leben. (Biography of Jean looks no better than a chaos. The Germans Part ) Istes, 2tes, 3tes Bändchen. Breslau, 1826, 27, '28. I themselves find much to bear with in him; and for readers of any other nation, he is in- | character from other literary lives, which, for volved in almost boundless complexity; a most part, are so barren of incident: the earlier mighty maze, indeed, but in which the plan, or portion of it was straitened enough, but not traces of a plan, are nowhere visible. Far otherwise distinguished; the latter and busiest from appreciating and appropriating the spirit portion of it was, in like manner, altogether of his writings, foreigners find it in the highest private; spent chiefly in provincial towns, and difficult to seize their grammatical meaning. apart from high scenes or persons; its princiProbably there is not, in any modern language, pal occurrences the new books he wrote, its so intricate a writer; abounding, without whole course a spiritual and silent one. He measure, in obscure allusions, in the most became an author in his nineteenth year; and twisted phraseology; perplexed into endless with a conscientious assiduity, adhered to that entanglements and dislocations, parenthesis employment; not seeking, indeed carefully within parenthesis; not forgetting elisions, avoiding, any interruption or disturbance sudden whirls, quibs, conceits, and all manner therein, were it only for a day or an hour. of inexplicable crotchets: the whole moving Nevertheless, in looking over those sixty voon in the gayest manner, yet nowise in what lumes of his, we feel as if Richter's history seem military lines, but rather in huge party- must have another, much deeper interest and coloured mob-masses. How foreigners must worth, than outward incidents could impart to find themselves bested in this case, our readers it. For the spirit which shines more or less may best judge from the fact, that a work with completely through his writings, is one of pethe following title was undertaken some twenty rennial excellence; rare in all times and situayears ago, for the benefit of Richter's own tions, and perhaps nowhere and in no time countrymen : “K. Reinhold's Lexicon for Jean more rare than in literary Europe, at this era. Paul's works, or explanation of all the foreign words We see in this man'a high, self-subsistent, and unusual modes of speech which occur in his original, and, in many respects, even great writings ; with short notices of the historical persons character. He shows himself a man of wonand facts therein alluded to; and plain German derful gifts, and with, perhaps, a still happier versions of the more dificult passages in the context: combination and adjustment of these: in whom -a necessary assistance for all who would read | Philosophy and Poetry are not only reconciled; those works with profit!So much for the but blended together into a purer esserce, into dress or vehicle of Richter's thoughts; now let Religion; who, with the softest, most universal it only be remembered farther, that the thoughts sympathy for outward things, is inwardly calm, themselves are often of the most abstruse impregnable; holds on his way through all description; so that not till after laborious temptations and afflictions, so quietly, yet so meditation, can much, either of truth or of inflexibly; the true literary man, among a thod. falsehood, be discerned in them; and we have sand false ones, the Apollo among neatherds; a man, from whom readers with weak nerves, in one word, a man understanding the nineand a taste in any degree sickly, will not fail teenth century, and living in the midst of it; to recoil, perhaps with a sentiment approach- yet whose life is, in some measure, an heroic ing to horror. And yet, as we said, notwith- and devout one. No character of this kind, standing all these drawbacks, Richter already we are aware, is to be formed without manimeets with a certain recognition in England; fold and victorious struggling with the world ; he has his readers and admirers; various and the narrative of such struggling, what littranslations from his works have been pub- tle of it can be narrated and interpreted, will lished among us; criticisms, also, not without belong to the highest species of history. The clear discernment, and nowise wanting in ap- acted life of such a man, it has been said, “ is plause; and to all this, so far as we can see, itself a Bible;" it is a “Gospel of Freedom," even the un-German part of the public has preached abroad to all men; whereby, among listened with some curiosity and hopeful an- mean unbelieving souls, we may know that ticipation. From which symptoms we should nobleness has not yet become impossible; and, infer two things, both very comfortable to us languishing amid boundless triviality and desin our present capacity: First, that the old picability, still understand that man's nature strait-laced, microscopic sect of Eelles-lettres- is indefeasibly divine, and so hold fast what is men, whose divinity was “Elegance," a creed the most important of all faith, the faith in of French growth, and more admirable for ourselves. men-milliners than for critics and philosophers, But if the acted life of a pius Vates is so high must be rapidly declining in these Islands; a matter, the written life, which, if properly and, secondly, which is a much more personal written, would be a translation and interpretaconsideration, that, in still farther investigating tion thereof, must also have great value. It and exhibiting this wonderful Jean Paul, we has been said that no Poet is equal to his have attempted what will be, for many of our Poem, which saying is partially true; but, in readers, po unwelcome service.

a deeper sense, it may also be asserted, and Our inquiry naturally divides itself into two with still greater truth, that'no Poem is equal departinents, ihe Biographical and the Critical; to its Poet. Now, it is Biography that first concerning both of which, in their order, we gives us both Poet and Poem; by the signifihave some observations to make; and what, in cance of the one, elucidating and completing regard to the latter department at least, we that of the other. That ideal outline of himreckon more profitable, some rather curious self, which a man unconsciously shadows forth documents to present.

in his writings, and which, rightly deciphered, It does not appear that Richter's life, exter- will be truer than any other representation of nally considered, differed much in generall him, it is the task of the Biographer to fill up

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