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[Foreign Review, 1829.)
In this stage of society, the playwright is as cal produce she yields considerably to France; essential and acknowledged a character as the and is, out of sight, inferior to Germany. Nay, millwright, or cartwright, or any other wright do not we English hear daily, for the last whatever; neither can we see why, in general ewenty years, that the Drama is dead, or in a estimation, he should rank lower than these state of suspended animation; and are not his brother artisans, except perhaps, for this medical men sitting on the case, and propoundone reason: that the former, working in timber ing their remedial appliances, weekly, monthly, and iron, for the wants of the body, produce a quarterly, to no manner of purpose ?—whilst completely suitable machine, while the latter, in Germany the Drama is not only, to all apworking in thought and feeling, for the wants pearance, alive, but in the very flush and heyof the soul, produces a machine which is in- day of superabundant strength; indeed, as it completely suitable. In other respects, we were, still only sowing its first wild oats! For confess, we cannot perceive that the balance if the British Playwrights seem verging to ruin, lies against him: for no candid man, as it and our Knowleses, Maturins, Shiels, and seems to us, will doubt but the talent, which shees stand few and comparatively forlorn, constructed a Virginius or a Pertram, might like firs on an Irish bog, the playwrights of have sufficed, had it been properly directed, to Germany are a strong, triumphant body, so make not only wheelbarrows and wagons, but numerous that it has been calculated, in case even mills of considerable complicacy. How- of war, a regiment of foot might be raised, in ever, if the public is niggardly to the play- which, from the colonel down to the drummer, wright in one point, it must be proportionably every officer and private sentinel might show liberal in another; according to Adam Smith's his drama or dramas. observation, that trades which are reckoned To investigate the origin of so marked a su. less reputable have higher money-wages. periority would lead us beyond our purpose. Thus, one thing compensating the other, the Doubtless the proximate cause must lie in a playwright may still realize an existence; as, superior demand for the article of dramas; in fact, we find that he does: for playwrights which superior demand again may arise either were, are, and probably will always be ; unless, from the climate of Germany, as Montesquieu indeed, in process of years, the whole dramatic might believe; or perhaps more naturally and concern be finally abandoned by mankind; or, immediately from the political condition of as in the case of our Punch and Mathews, that country; for man is not only a working every player becoming his own playwright, but a talking animal, and where no Catholic this trade may merge in the other and older Questions, and Parliamentary Reforms, and
Select Vestries are given him to discuss in his The British nation has its own playwrights, leisure hours, he is glad to fall upon plays or several of them cunning men in their craft: players, or whatever comes to hand, whereby yet here, it would seem, this sort of carpentry to fence himself a little against the inroads of does not flourish; at least, not with that pre- Ennui. Of the fact, at least, that such a supeeminent vigour which distinguishes most other rior demand for dramas exists in Germany, we branches of our national industry. In hard- have only to open a newspaper to find proof. ware and cotton goods, in all sorts of chemical, Is not every Literaturblatt and Kunstblatt stuffed mechanical, or other material processes, Eng- to bursting, with theatricals ? Nay, has not land outstrips the world: nay, in many depart- the “able Editor" established correspondents ments of literary manufacture also, as, for in- in every capital city of the civilized world, stance, in the fabrication of novels, she may who report to him on this one matter and on safely boast herself peerless : but in this mat- no other? For, be our curiosity what it may, .er of the Drama, to whatever cause it be owing, let us have profession of “intelligence from one can claim no such superiority. In theatri- Munich,” “intelligence from Vienna,” intelli
gence from Berlin,” is it intelligence of any * Die Ahnfrau. (The Ancestress.) A Tragedy, in five thing but of greenroom controversies and negoActs. By F. Grillparzer. Fourth Edition. Vienna, 1823. tiations, of tragedies and operas and farces
König Ottokars Glück und Ende. Fortune and End.) A Tragedy, in five Acts. By F. acted and to be acted ? Not of men, and their Grillparzer, Vienna, 1825.
doings, by hearth and hall, in the firm earth; Sappho. A Tragedy, in five Acts. By F. Grillparzer. but of mere effigies and shells of men, and Third Edition, Vienna, 1822.
2. Faust. A Tragedy, in five acts. By August Klinge- their doings in the world of pasteboard, do mann. Leipzig and Altenburg, 1815.
these unhappy correspondents write. UnAhasuer. 'A Tragedy, in five Acts. By August Klinge- happy we call them; for, with all our tolerDann. Brunswick, 1827.
3 Müllner's Dramatische Werke. Erste rechtmässige, ance of playwrights, we cannot but think that gabe. (Müllner's Dramatic Works. First legal collec. which their activity should be restricted. dollständige, und vom Verfasser verbesserte Gesammt-Aus- there are limits, and very strait ones, within live Edition, complete and revised by the Author.) Here, in England, our “ theatrical reports” are 7 vols. Brunswiek, 1828.
nuisance enough; and many persons who love Constitutional History of a Rookery? Let the their life, and therefore "take care of their courteous reader take heart, then; for he is in time, which is the stuff life is made of,” regu- hands that will not, nay, what is more, that larly lose several columns of their weekly cannot, do him much harm. One briet, shy newspaper in that way: but our case is pure glance into this huge bivouac of Playwrights, luxury, compared with that of the Germans, all sawing and planing with such tumult; and who, instead of a measurable and sufferable we leave it, probably for many years. spicing of theatric matter, are obliged, meta- The German Parnassus, as one of its own phorically speaking, to breakfast and dine on denizens remarks, has a rather broad summit: it, have in fact nothing else to live on but that yet only two Dramatists are reckoned, within highly unnutritive victual. We ourselves are the last half century, to have mounted thither; occasionally readers of German newspapers, -Schiller and Goethe; if we are not, on the and have often, in the spirit of Christian hu- strength of his Minna von Barnhelm and Emilia manity, meditated presenting to the whole body Galeotti
, to account Lessing of the number. of German editors a project, which, however, On the slope of the Mountain may be found a must certainly have ere now occurred to few stragglers of the same brotherhood; among themselves, and for some reason been found these, Tieck and Maler Müller, firmly enough inapplicable; it was, to address these corre stationed at considerable elevations; while, far spondents of theirs, all and sundry, in plain below, appear various honest persons climblanguage, and put the question : whether, on ing vehemently, but against precipices of loose studiously surveying the Universe from their sand, to whom we wish all speed. But the several stations, there was nothing in the Hea- reader will understand that the bivouac we vens above, on the earth beneath, or the waters speak of, and are about to enter, lies not on the under the earth, nothing visible but this one declivity of the Hill at all; but on the level business, or rather shadow of business, that ground close to the foot of it; the essence of a had an interest for the minds of men? If the Playwright being that he works not in Poetry, correspondents still answered that nothing was but in Prose, which more or less cunningly visible, then of course they must be left to resembles it. And here, pausing for a moment, continue in this strange state: prayers, at the the reader observes that he is in a civilized same time, being put up for them in all country; for there, on the very boundary line churches.
of Parnassus, rises a gallows with the figure However, leaving every able Editor to fight of a man hung in chains! It is the figure of his own battle, we address ourselves to the August von Kotzebue, and has swung there task in hand: meaning here to inquire a very for many years, as a warning to all too audalittle into the actual state of the dramatic trade cious Playwrights, who nevertheless, as we in Germany, and exhibit some detached fea- see, pay little heed to it. Ill-fated Kotzebue, tures of it to the consideration of our readers. once the darling of theatrical Europe! This For, seriously speaking, low as this province was the prince of all Playwrights, and could may be, it is a real, active, and ever-enduring manufacture Plays with a speed and felicity province of the literary republic; nor can the surpassing even Edinburgh novels. For his parsuit of many men, even though it be a pro- muse, like other doves, hatched twins in the fitless and foolish pursuit, ever be without month ; and the world gazed on them with an claim to some attention from us, either in the admiration too deep for mere words. What is way of fartherance or of censure and correc- all past or present popularity to this? Were tion. Our avowed object is to promote the not these Plays translated into almost every sound study of foreign literature ; which study, language of articulate-speaking men; acted, at like all other earthly undertakings, has its ne- least, we may literally say, in every theatre gative as well as its positive side. We have from Kamtschatka to Cadiz? Nay, did they already, as occasion served, borne testimony not melt the most obdurate hearts in all counto the merits of various German poets, and tries; and, like the music of Orpheus, draw must now say a word on certain German tears down iron cheeks? We ourselves have poetasters; hoping that it may be chiefly a re- known the fintiest men, who professed to have gard to the former which has made us take wept over them, for the first time in their lives. even this slight notice of the latter : for the bad So was it twenty years ago; how stands it tois in itself of no value, and only worth de- day? Kotzebue, lifted up on the hollow balscribing lest it be mistaken for the good. At loon of popular applause, thought wings had the same time, let no reader tremble, as if we been given him that he might ascend to the meant to overwhelm him, on this occasion, Immortals: gay he rose, soaring, sailing, as with a whole mountain of dramatic lumber, with supreme dominion; but in the rarer azure poured forth in torrents, like shot-rubbish, deep, his windbag burst asunder, or the arrows from the play-house-garrets, where it is mould- of keen archers pierced it; and so at last we ering and evaporating into nothing, silently find him a compound-pendulum, vibrating in and without harm to any one. Far be this the character of scarecrow, to guard from for from us! Nay, our own knowledge of this bidden fruit! Oye Playwrights, and literary subject is in the highest degree limited; and, quacks of every feather, weep over Kotzebue. indeed, to exhaust it, or attempt discussing it and over yourselves! Know that the loudest with scientific precision, would be an impos- roar of the million is not fame; that the windsible enterprise. What man is there that bag, are ye mad enough to mount it will burst, could assort the whole furniture of Milton's or be shot through with arrows, and your bones Limbo of Vani'y; or where is the Hallam that too shall act as scarecrows. would think it worth his while to write us the But, quitting this idle allegorical vein, let us at length proceed in plain English, and as be- to which he belongs in the genus Playwright, seems mere prose Reviewers, to the work laid But it is a universal feature of him that he out for us. Among the hundreds of German attempts, by prosaic, and as it were mechanical dramatists, as they are called, three individuals, means, to accomplish an end which, except by already known to some British readers, and poetical genius, is absolutely not to be accomprominent from all the rest in Germany, may plished. For the most part, he has some titly enough stand here as representatives of knack, or trick of the trade, which by close the whole Playwright class; whose various inspection can be detected, and so the heart craft and produce the procedure of these three of his mystery be seen into. He may have may in some small degree serve to illustrate. one trick, or many; and the more cunningly Or Grillparzer, therefore, and Klingemann, he can disguise these, the more perfect is he and Mülner, in their order.
as a craftsman ; for were the public once to Franz Grillparzer seems to be an Austrian; penetrate into this his slight of hand, it were which country is reckoned nowise fertile in all over with him.-Othello's occupation were poets; a circumstance that may perhaps have gone. No conjuror, when we once understand contributed a little to his own rather rapid his method of fire-eating, can any longer pass celebrity. Our more special acquaintance for a true thaumaturgist, or even entertain us, with Grillparzer is of very recent date; in his proper character of quack, though he though his name and samples of his ware have should eat Mount Vesuvius itself. But hapfor some time been hung out, in many British pily for Playwrights and others, the Public is and foreign Magazines, often with testimonials a dim-eyed animal; gullible to almost all which might have beguiled less timeworn cus- lengths,-nay, which often seems to prefer tomers. Neither, after all, have we found being gulled. there testimonials falser than other such are, of Grillparzer's peculiar knack, and recipe but rather not so false ; for, indeed, Grillparzer for play-making, there is not very much to be is a most inoffensive man, nay positively said. He seems to have tried various kinds rather meritorious; nor is it without reluctance of recipes, in his time; and, to his credit be it that wę name him under this head of Play- spoken, seems little contented with any of wrights, and not under that of Dramatists, them. By much the worst Play of his, that we which he aspires to. Had the law with regard have seen, is the Ahnfrau (Ancestress); a deep. to mediocre poets relaxed itself since Horace's tragedy of the Castle Spectre sort; the whole time, all had been well with Grillparzer; for mechanism of which was discernible and conundoubtedly there is a small vein of tenderness demnable at a single glance. It is nothing but and grace running through him, a seeming the old Story of Fale; an invisible Nemesis, modesty also, and real love of his art, which visiting the sins of the fathers upon the children gives promise of better things. But gods and to the third and fourth generation; a method men and columns are still equally rigid in that almost as common and sovereign in German, unhappy particular of mediocrity,-even pleas- Art, at this day, as the method of steam is in ing mediocrity; and no scene or line is yet British mechanics; and of which we shall known to us of Grillparzer's which exhibits anon have more occasion to speak. In his any thing more. Non concessere, therefore, is his Preface, Grillparzer endeavours 10 palliate or sentence for the present; and the louder his deny the fact of his being a Schickstil-Dichter well-meaning admirers extol him, the more (Fate-Tragedian); but to no purpose; for it is. emphatically should it be pronounced and re-a fact grounded on the testimony of the seven peated. Nevertheless Grillparzer's claim to senses: however, we are glad to observe that, the title of Playwright is perhaps more his with this one trial, he seems to have abandoned misfortune than his crime. Living in a coun- the Fate-line, and taken into better, at least, try where the Drama engrosses so much at- into different ones. With regard to the Ahn, tention, he has been led into attempting it, frau itself, we may remark that few things without any decisive qualification for such an struck us so much as this little observation of enterprise ; and so his allotment of talent, Count Borotins, occurring, in the middle of the which might have done good service in some dismalest night-thoughts, so unexpectedly as. prose department, or even in the sonnet, elegy, follows:song, or other outlying province of Poetry, is driven, as it were, in spite of fate, to write Plays, which, though regularly divided into
Und der Himmel, sternelos, scenes and separate speeches, are essentially
Starrt aus leeren Augenhöhlen monological; and though swarming with cha
In das nugeheure Grab racters, too often express only one character, and that no very extraordinary one, the character of Franz Grillparzer himself. What is an, increase of misfortune, too, he has met
Was ist wohl die Glocke, Bertka ? with applause in this career, which therefore he is likely to follow farther and farther, let BERTHA (is just condoling with him, in these zo-ds) . nature and his stars say to it what they will. The characteristic of a Playwright is that he
And the welkin, starless, writes in Prose, which Prose he palms, pro
Glares from empty eye-holes,
Black down on that boundless grave! bably, first on himself, and then on the simpler part of the public, for Poetry: and the manner, in which he effects this legerdemain, consti- How the hours do linger! tutes his specific distinction, fixes the species What o'clock is't, prithee, Bertha 1
Wie sich doch die Stunden dehron!
A more delicate turn we venture to say, is / shrewish queens; the whole set off by a prorarely to be met with in tragic dialogue. As per intermixture of coronation ceremonies, to the story of the Infrau, it is, naturally Hungarian dresses, whiskered halberdiers, enough, of the most heart-rending description. alarms of battle, and the pomp and circumThis Ancestress is a lady, or rather the ghost stance of glorious war. There is even some of a lady, for she has been defunct some cen. attempt at delineating character in this play: turies, who in life had committed what we call certain of the dramatis personæ are evidently an “indiscretion;" which indiscretion the un- meant to differ from certain others, not in dress polite husband punished, one would have and name only, but in nature and mode of being; thought sufficiently, by running her through so much indeed they repeatedly assert, or hint, the body. However, the Schicksul of Grillo and do their best to make good, -unfortunately, parzer does not think it sufficient; but farther however, with very indifferent success. dooms the fair penitent to walk as goblin, till fact these dramatis persone are rubrics and the last branch of her family be extinct. Ac-titles rather than persons; for most part, mere cordingly she is heard, from time to time, theatrical automata, with only a mechanical slamming doors and the like, and now and existence. The truth of the matter is, Grillthen seen with dreadful goggle-eyes and other parzer cannot communicate a poetic life to any ghost appurtenances, to the terror not only of character or object; and in this, were it in no servant people, but of old Count Borouin, her other way, he evinces the intrinsically prosaic now sole male descendant, whose afternoon nature of his talent. These personages of his nap she, on one occasion, cruelly disturbs. have, in some instances, a certain degree of This Count Borotin is really a worthy, prosing metaphysical truth; that is to say, one portion old gentleman; only he had a son long ago of their structure, psychologically viewed, cordrowned in a fish-pond (body not found); and responds with the other ;-so far all is well has still a highly accomplished daughter, enough: but to unite these merely scientific whom there is none offering to wed, except one and inanimate qualities into a living man is Jaromir, a person of unknown extraction, and work not for a Playwright, but for a Dramatist. to all appearance, of the lightest purse; nay, Nevertheless, König Ottokar is comparatively as it turns out afterwards, actually the head a harmless tragedy. It is full of action, strik. of a Banditti establishment, which had long ing enough, though without any discernible infested the neighbouring forests. However, coherence; and with so much both of flirting, a Captain of foot arrives, at this juncture, and fighting, with so many weddings, funerals, ulterly to root out these Robbers; and now the processions, encampments, it must be, we strangest things come to light. For who should think, if the tailor and decorationist do should this Jaromir prove to be but poor old their duty, a very comfortable piece to see Borotin's drowned son, not drowned, but stolen acted, especially on the Vienna boards, where and bred up by these Outlaws; the brother, it has a national interest, Rodolph of Hapsburg therefore, of his intended; a most truculent being a main personage in it. fellow, who fighting for his life unwittingly The model of this Ottokar we imagine to kills bis own father, and drives his bride to have been Schiller's Piccolomini ; a poem of poison herself; in which wise, as was also similar materials and object; but differing Giles Seroggins'case, he “cannot get married.” from it as a living rose from a mass of dead The reader sees all this is not to be accom-rose-leaves, or even of broken Italian gumplished without some jarring and tumult. In flowers. It seems as though Grillparzer had fact, there is a frightful uproar everywhere hoped to subdue us by a sufficient multitude throughout that night; robbers dying, mus- of wonderful scenes and circumstances, with quetry discharging, women shrieking, men out inquiring, with any painful solicitude, swearing, and the Ahnfra'u herself emerging whether the soul and meaning of them were at intervals, as the genius of the whole dis- presented to us or not. Herein truly, we becord. But time and hours bring relief, as they lieve, lies the peculiar knack or playwrightalways do. Jaromir, in the long run, likewise, mystery of Ottokar ; that its effect is calculated succeeds in dying; whereupon the Borotin to depend chieily on its quantity: on the mere lineage having gone to the Devil, the Ances. number of astonishments, and joyful or detress also retires thither, at least makes the plorable adventures there brought to light; upper world rid of her presence,--and the abundance in superficial contents compensatpiece ends in deep stillness. Of this poor Ana ing the absence of callida junctura. Which cestress we shall only say farther: wherever second method of tragic manufacture we hold she be, requiescal! requiescat !
to be better than the first, but still far from As we mentioned above, the Fate method good. At the same time, it is a very common of manufacturing tragic emotion seems to have method, both in Tragedy and elsewhere; nay, yielded Grillparzer himself little contentment; we hear persons whose trade it is to write for after this shnfrau, we hear no more of it. metre, or be otherwise “ imaginative,” proHis König Ottokars Glück und Ende (King Ot- fessing it openly as the best they know. Do tokar's Fortune and End) is a much more not these men go about collecting "features;" innocent piece, and proceeds in quite a dif- ferreting out strange incidents, murders, duels, ferent strain ; aiming to subdue us not by old ghost-apparitions, over the habitable globe; of women's fables of Destiny, but by the accu- which features and incidents, when they have mulated splendour of thrones and principali- gathered a sufficient stock, nothing more is ties, the cruel or magnanimous pride of Aus- needed than that they be ample enough, hightrian Emperors and Bohemian conquerors, the coloured enough, though huddled into any case wit of chivalrous courtiers, and beautiful but|(Novel, Tragedy, or Metrical Romance) that will hold it all? Nevertheless this is ag- schemes is itself a good omen. Besides this glomeration, not creation; and avails little in Ahnfrau and Ottokar, he has written two Dra. Literature. Quantity, it is a certain fact, will mas, Sappho, and Der Goldene Vliess, (The Golden not make up for defect of quality; nor are the Fleece,) on quite another principle; aimgayest hues of any service, unless there be a ing apparently at some Classic model, or at likeness painted from them. Better were it least at some French reflect of such a model. for König Ottokar had the story been twice as Sappho, which we are sorry to learn is not his short, and twice as expressive. For it is still last piece, but his second, appears to us very true, as in Cervantes' time, nunca lo bueno fue considerably the most faultless production of mucho. What avails the dram of brandy while his we are yet acquainted with. There is a it swims chemically united with its barrel of degree of grace and simplicity in it, a softness, wort? Let the distiller pass it and repass it polish, and general good taste, little to be ex. through his limbecs; for it is the drops of pected from the Author of the Ahnfrou : if he pure alcohol that we want, not the gallons of cannot bring out the full tragic meaning of water, which may be had in every ditch. Sappho's situation, he contrives, with laudable
On the whole, however, we remember König dexterity, to avoid the ridicule that lies within Ottokar without animosity; and to prove that a single step of it; his Drama is weak and Grillparzer, if he could not make it poetical, thin, but innocent, lovable ;-nay, the last might have made it less prosaic, and has in scene strikes us as even poetically meritofact something better in him than is here rious. His Goldene Vliess we suspect to be of manifested, we shall quote one passage, which similar character, but have not yet found time strikes us as really rather sweet and natural. and patience to study it. We repeat our hope King Ottokar is in the last of his fields, no of one day meeting Grillparzer in a more prospect before him but death or captivity: honourable calling than this of Playwright, or and soliloquizing on his past misdeeds :- even fourth-rate Dramatist; which titles, as
was said above, we have not given him withI have not borne me wisely in thy World,
out regret; and shall be truly glad to cancel Thou great, all judging God! Like storm and tempest, for whatever better one he may yet chance to I traversed thy fair garden, wasting it :
merit. 'Tis thine to waste, for thou alone canst heal. Was evil not my aim, yet how did I,
But if we felt a certain reluctance in classPoor worm, presiune to ape the Lord of Worlds, ing Grillparzer among the Playwrights, no such And through the Bad seek out a way to the Good! feeling can have place with regard to the se
cond name on our list, that of Doctor August My fellow man, sent thither for his joy,
Klingemann. Dr. Klingemann is one of the An end, a Sell, within thy World a World,
most indisputable Playwrights now extant: Day For thou hast fashion'd him a marvellous work, With lofty brow, erect in look, strange sense,
so superlative is his vigour in this department, And clothed him in the garment of thy Beauty,
we might even designate him the Playwright. And wondrously encircled him with wonders;
His manner of proceeding is quite different He hears, and sees, and feels, has pain and pleasure : from Grillparzer's; not a wavering overHe takes him food, and cunning powers come forth, charged method, or combination of methods, And work and work, within their secret chambers, as the other's was; but a fixed principle of And build him up his House: no royal Palace
action, which he follows with unflinching Is comparable to the frame of Man! And I have cast thein from me by thousands,
courage; his own mind being, to all appear. For whims, as men throw rubbish from their door.
ance, highly satisfied with it. If Grillparzer
attempted to overpower us now by the method And none of all these slain but had a Mother
of Fate, now by that of pompous action, and Who, as she bore him in sore travail,
grandiloquent or lachrymose sentiment, heaped Had clasped him fondly to ber fostering breast; on us in too rich abundance, Klingemann, withA father who had bless'd him as his pride, And nurturing, wau h'd over him long years ;
out neglecting any of these resources, seems If he bul hurt the skin upon his finger,
to place his chief dependence on a surer and There would they run, with anxious look, to bind it, readier stay: on his magazines of rosin, oilAnd tend it, cheering him, until it heal'd;
paper, vizards, scarlet-drapery, and gunpowder. And it was but a finger, the skin o' the finger!
What thunder and lightning, magic-lantern And I have trod men down in heaps and squadrons, transparencies, death's-heads, fire-showers, and For the stern iron open'd out a way
plush cloaks can do,-is here done. Abundance To their warm living hearts.- O God! Wilt thou go into judgment with me, spare
of churchyard and chapel scenes, in most temMy suffering people.
pestuous weather; to say nothing of battleKönig Ottokar, 180-1. fields, gleams of scoured arms here and there
in the wood, and even occasional shots heard Passages of this sort, scattered here and in the distance. Then there are such scowls and there over Grillparzer's Plays, and evincing malignant side-glances, ashy paleness, stampat least an amiable tenderness of natural dis- ings, and hysterics, as might, one would think, position, make us regret the more to condemn wring the toughest bosom into drops of pity. him. In fact, we have hopes that he is not For not only are the looks and gestures of these born to be for ever a Playwright. A true people of the most heart-rending description, though feeble vein of poetic talent he really but their words and feelings also (for Klingeseems to possess; and such purity of heart as mann is no half-artist) are of a piece with them; may yet, with assiduous study, lead him into gorgeous inflations, the purest innocence, highhis proper field. For we do reckon him a est magnanimity; godlike sentiment of all sorts; conscientious man, and honest lover of Art: everywhere the finest tragic humour. The moral say this incessant fluctuation in his dramatic too is genuine; there is the most anxious re