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he prepared "Greek versions," he says; "also | Where could I learn good manners, elegance, Greek verses; and by and by could write a right way of thought? where could I attain down in Greek prose, and at last, in Greek as any culture for heart and spirit. well as Latin verses, the discourses he heard in church!" Some ray of hope was beginning to spring up within his mind. A certain small degree of self-confidence had first been awakened in him, as he informs us, by a "pedantic adventure."

"Upwards, however, I still strove. A feeling of honour, a wish for something better, an effort to work myself out of this abasement, incessantly attended me; but without direction as it was, it led me rather to sullenness, misanthropy, and clownishness.

"There chanced to be a school-examination "At length a place opened for me, where held, at which the superintendent, as chief some training in these points lay within my school-inspector, was present. This man, Dr. reach. One of our senators took his motherTheodor Krüger, a theologian of some learning in-law home to live with him; she had still two for his time, all at once interrupted the rector, children with her, a son and a daughter, both who was teaching ex cathedra, and put the ques-about my own age. For the son private les tion: who among the scholars could tell him sons were wanted; and happily I was chosen what might be made per anagramma from the for the purpose. word Austria. This whim had arisen from "As these private hours brought me in a gulthe circumstance that the first Silesian war den monthly, I now began to defend myself a was just begun; and some such anagram, little against the grumbling of my parents. reckoned very happy, had appeared in a news- Hitherto I had been in the habit of doing work paper. No one of us knew so much as occasionally, that I might not be told how I was what an anagram was; even the rector looked eating their bread for nothing; clothes, and oil quite perplexed. As none answered, the lat- for my lamp, I had earned by teaching in the ter began to give us a description of anagrams house; these things I could now relinquish : in general. I set myself to work, and sprang and thus my condition was in'some degree imforth with my discovery, Vastari! This was proved. On the other hand, I had now oppor something different from the newspaper one:tunity of seeing persons of better education. I so much the greater was our superintendent's gained the goodwill of the family; so that be admiration, and the more as the successful as- sides the lesson-hours I generally lived there. pirant was a little boy, on the lowest bench of Such society afforded me some culture, exthe secunda. He growled out his applause to tended my conceptions and opinions, and also me, but at the same time set the whole school polished a little the rudeness of my exterior." about my ears, as he stoutly upbraided them In this senatorial house he must have been with being beaten by an infimus. somewhat more at ease; for he now very pri,"Enough! this pedantic adventure gave the vately fell in love with his pupil's sister, and first impulse to the development of my powers. made and burnt many Greek and Latin verses I began to take some credit to myself, and in in her praise; and had sweet dreams of somespite of all the oppression and contempt in time rising "so high as to be worthy of her." which I languished, to resolve on struggling Even as matters stood, he acquired her friendforward. This first struggle was in truth in-ship and that of her mother. But the grand coneffectual enough; was soon regarded as a cern for the present was how to get to college at piece of pride and conceitedness; it brought Leipzig. Old Sebastian had promised to stand on me a thousand humiliations and disquie-good on this occasion; and unquestionably tudes; at times it might degenerate on my would have done so with the greatest pleasure, part into defiance. Nevertheless, it kept me had it cost him nothing; but he promised and at the stretch of my diligence, ill-guided as it promised, without doing aught; above all, was, and withdrew me from the company of without putting his hand in his pocket; and my class-fellows, among whom, as among elsewhere there was no hope or resource. At children of low birth and bad nurture could length, wearied perhaps with the boy's impornot fail to be the case, the utmost coarseness tunity, he determined to bestir himself; and so and boorishness of every sort prevailed. The directed his assistant, who was just making a plan of these schools does not include any journey to Leipzig, to show Heyne the road; general inspection, but limits itself to mere in- the two arrived in perfect safety: Heyne still tellectual instruction. longing after cash, for of his own he had only two gulden, about five shillings; but the assistant left him in a lodging house, and went his way, saying he had no farther orders!

The miseries of a poor scholar's life were now to be Heyne's portion in full measure. Illclothed, totally destitute of books, with five shillings in his purse, he found himself set down in the Leipzig university, to study all learning. Despondency at first overmastered the poor boy's heart, and he sunk into sickness, from which indeed he recovered; but only, as he says, "to fall into conditions of life where he became the prey of desperation." How he contrived to exist, much more to study, is scarcely apparent from this narrative. The unhappy old Sebastian did at length send him

"Yet on all hands," continues he, "I found myself too sadly hampered. The perverse way in which the old parson treated me: at home the discontent and grudging of my parents, especially of my father, who could not get on with his work, and still thought, that had I kept by his way of life, he might now have had some help; the pressure of want, the feeling of being behind every other; all this would allow no cheerful thought, no sentiment of worth, to spring up within me. A timorous, bashful, awkward carriage shut me out still further from all exterior attractions.

As yet Saxony was against Austria, not, as in the

end, allied with her.

some pittance, and at rare intervals repeated | little employment as a private teacher. This the dole; yet ever with his own peculiar grace; might be more useful than his advice to iminot till after unspeakable solicitations; in tate Scaliger, and read the ancients so as to quantities that were consumed by inextinguish- begin with the most ancient, and proceed reguable debt, and coupled with sour admonitions; larly to the latest. Small service it can do a bednay, on one occasion addressed externally, "Arid man to convince him that waltzing is preferaMr. Heyne, ETUDIANT NEGLIGEANT." For half ble to quadrilles! "Crist's Lectures," says he, a year he would leave him without all help; then "were a tissue of endless digressions, which, promise to come, and see what he was doing: however, now and then contained excellent recome accordingly, and return without leaving marks." him a penny; neither could the destitute youth ever obtain any public furtherance; no freytisch (free-table) or stipendium was to be procured. Many times he had no regular meal; "often not three-halfpence for a loaf at mid-day." He longed to be dead, for his spirit was often sunk in the gloom of darkness. "One good heart alone," says he, "I found, and that in the servant girl of the house where I lodged. She laid out money for my most pressing necessities, and risked almost all she had, seeing me in such frightful want. Could I but find thee in the world even now, thou good pious soul, that I might repay thee what thou then didst for me!"

But Heyne's best teacher was himself. No pressure of distresses, no want of books, advisers, or encouragement, not hunger itself could abate his resolute perseverance. What books he could come at he borrowed; and such was his excess of zeal in reading, that for a whole half year he allowed himself only two nights' sleep in the week, till at last a fever obliged him to be more moderate. His diligence was undirected, or ill-directed, but it never rested, never paused, and must at length prevail. Fortune had cast him into a cavern, and he was groping darkly round; but the prisoner was a giant, and would at length burst forth as a giant into the light of day. Heyne, without any clear aim, almost without any hope had set his heart on attaining knowledge; a force, as of instinct, drove him on, and no promise and no threat could turn him back. It was at the very depth of his destitution, when he had not "three groschen for a loaf to dine on," that he refused a tutorship, with handsome enough appointments, but which was to have removed him from the University. Crist had sent for him one Sunday, and made him the proposal: "There arose a violent struggle within me," says he, "which drove me to and fro for several days; to this hour it is incomprehensible to me where I found resolution to determine on renouncing the offer, and pursuing my object in Leipzig." A man with a half volition goes backwards and forwards, and makes no way on the smoothest road; a man with a whole volition advances on the roughest, and will reach his purpose if there be a

Of order in his studies there could be little expectation. He did not even know what profession he was aiming after; old Sebastian was for theology; and Heyne, though himself averse to it, affected, and only affected to comply; besides he had no money to pay class fees: it was only to open lectures, or at most to ill-little wisdom in it. guarded class-rooms that he could gain admis- With his first two years' residence in Leipsion. Of this ill-guarded sort was Winkler's; zig, Heyne's personal narrative terminates; into which poor Heyne insinuated himself to not because the nodus of the history had been hear philosophy. Alas! the first problem of solved then, and his perplexities cleared up, all philosophy, the keeping of soul and body but simply because he had not found time to together, was wellnigh too hard for him. Wink-relate further. A long series of straitened hopeler's students were of a riotous description, ac- less days were yet appointed him. By Ernes customed, among other improprieties, to schar- ti's or Crist's recommendation, he occasionally ren, scraping with the feet. One day they chose got employment in giving private lessons; at to receive Heyne in this fashion; and he could one time, he worked as secretary and classical not venture back. "Nevertheless," adds he, hodman to "Cruscius, the philosopher," who simply enough, "the beadle came to me some- felt a little rusted in his Greek and Latin; time afterwards, demanding the fee: I had my everywhere he found the scantiest accommoown shifts to take before I could raise it." dation, and, shifting from side to side in dreary vicissitudes of want, had to spin out an exist ence, warmed by no ray of comfort, except the

Ernesti was the only teacher from whom he derived any benefit: the man, indeed, whose influence seems to have shaped the whole sub-fire that burnt or smouldered unquenchably sequent course of his studies. By dint of ex- within his own bosom. However, he had now cessive endeavours he gained admittance to chosen a profession, that of law, at which, as Ernesti's lectures; and here first learned, at many other branches of learning, he was says Heeren," what interpretation of the clas- labouring with his old diligence. Of prefer sies meant." One Crist also, a strange, fan- ment in this province there was, for the pre tastic Sir Plume of a Professor, who built much sent, little or no hope; but this was no new on taste, elegance of manners, and the like, thing with Heyne. By degrees, too, his fine took some notice of him, and procured him a talents and endeavours, and his perverse situa

Heyne declares it to be still a mystery to him how he stood all this. "What carried me forward," continues he, "was not ambition; my youthful dream of one day taking a place, or aiming to take one, among the learned. It is true, the bitter feeling of debasement, of deficiency in education and external polish; the consciousness of awkwardness in social life, incessantly accompanied me. But my chief strength lay in a certain defiance of fate. This gave me courage not to yield; everywhere to try to the uttermost whether I was doomed without remedy never to rise from this degradation."

tion, began to attract notice and sympathy; and here and there some well-wisher had his eye on him, and stood ready to do him a service. Two and twenty years of penury and joyless struggling had now passed over the man; how many more such might be added was still uncertain; yet, surely, the longest winter is followed by a spring.

books. A licentiate in divinity, one Sonntag, took pity on his houselessness, and shared a garret with him; where, as there was no unoccupied bed, Heyne slept on the floor, with a few folios for his pillow. So fared he as to lodging: in regard to board, he gathered empty pease-cods, and had them boiled; this was not unfrequently his only meal.-O, ye poor naked wretches! what would Bishop Watson say to this?-At length, by dint of incredible solicita tions, Heyne, in the autumn of 1753, obtained, not his secretaryship, but the post of underclerk, (copist) in the Brühl Library, with one hundred thalers of salary; a sum barely suff cient to keep in life, which, indeed, was now a great point with him. In such sort was this young scholar "taken care of."

Nevertheless, it was under these external circumstances that he first entered on his proper career, and forcibly made a place for him

Another trifling incident, little better than that old pedantic adventure," again brought about important changes in Heyne's situation. Among his favourers in Leipzig had been the preacher of a French chapel, one Lacoste, who, at this time, was cut off by death. Heyne, it is said, in the real sorrow of his heart, composed a long Latin Epicedium on that occasion; the poem had nowise been intended for the press; but certain hearers of the deceased were so pleased with it, that they had it printed, and this in the finest style of typography and decoration. It was this latter circum-self among the learned men of his day. In stance, not the merit of the verses, which is 1754, he prepared his edition of Tibullus, which said to have been considerable, that attracted was printed next year at Leipzig;* a work the attention of Count Brühl, the well-known said to exhibit remarkable talent, inasmuch as prime-minister and favourite of the Elector."the rudiments of all those excellences, by Brühl's sons were studying in Leipzig; he was which Heyne afterwards became distinguished pleased to express himself contented with the as a commentator on the classics, are more or poem, and to say, that he should like to have less apparent in it." The most illustrious the author in his service. A prime minister's Henry Count von Brühl, in spite of the dediwords are not as water spilt upon the ground, cation, paid no regard to this Tibullus; as inwhich cannot be gathered; but rather as hea- deed Germany at large paid little; but, in anvenly manna, which is treasured up and eaten, other country, it fell into the hands of Rhunken, not without a religious sentiment. Heyne was where it was rightly estimated, and lay waitforthwith written to from all quarters, that his ing, as in due season appeared, to be the pledge fortune was made: he had but to show him- of better fortune for its author. self in Dresden, said his friends, with one Meanwhile the day of difficulty for Heyne voice, and golden showers from the ministerial was yet far from past. The profits of his Ticornucopia would refresh him almost to satu-bullus served to cancel some debts; on the ration. For, was not the Count taken with strength of his hundred thalers, the spindle of him; and who in all Saxony, not excepting Se- Clotho might still keep turning, though lanrene Highness itself, could gainsay the Count? guidly; but, ere long, new troubles arose. His Over-persuaded, and against his will, Heyne superior in the library was one Rost, a poetasat length determined on the journey; for which, ter, atheist, and gold-maker, who corrupted his as an indispensable preliminary, "fifty-one tha- religious principles, and plagued him with lers" had to be borrowed; and so, following this caprices: Over the former evit Heyne at length hopeful quest, he actually arrived at Dresden triumphed, and became a rational Christian; in April, 1752. Count Brühl received him but the latter was an abiding grievance; not, with the most captivating smiles; and even indeed, for ever, for it was removed by a assured him in words, that he, Count Brühl, greater. In 1756, the Seven Years' War broke would take care of him. But a prime minis-out; Frederic advanced towards Dresden, aniter has so much to take care of! Heyne mated with especial fury against Brühl; whose danced attendance all spring and summer, palaces accordingly were in a few months rehappier than our Johnson, inasmuch as he had duced to ashes, as his 70,000 splendid volumes not to "blow his fingers in a cold lobby," the were annihilated by fire and by water,† and all weather being warm and obtained not only his domestics and dependents turned to the promises, but useful experience of their value street without appeal.

at courts.

He was to be made a secretary, with five hundred, with four hundred, or even with three hundred thalers, of income: only, in the meanwhile, his old stock of "fifty-one" had quite run out, and he had nothing to live upon. By great good luck, he procured some employment in his old craft, private teaching, which helped him through the winter; but as this ceased, he remained without resources. He tried working for the booksellers, and translated a French romance and a Greek one, Chariton's Loves of Chareas and Callirhoe; however, his emoluments would scarcely furnish him with salt, speak of victuals. He sold his few



Heyne had lately been engaged in studying Epictetus, and publishing, ad fidem Codd. Muspt, an edition of his Enchiridion; from which, quoth Heeren, his great soul had acquired much stoical nourishment. Such nourish

*Albii Tibulli que extant Carmina, novis Curis castiIllustrissimo Domino Henrico Comiti de Brühl gata. Inscripta Lipsia, 1755.

+ One rich cargo, on its way to Hamburg, sank in the Elbe; another still more valuable portion had been, for safety, deposited in a vault, through which passed certain pipes of artificial waterworks; these the cannon broke, and, when the vault came to be opened, all was reduced to pulp and mould. The bomb-shells burnt the remainder.

Lipsie, 1756. The Codices, or rather the Codez, was in Brühl's library.


ment never comes wrong in life; and, surely,
at this time Heyne had need of it all. How-
ever, he struggled as he had been wont: trans-
lated pamphlets, sometimes wrote newspaper
articles; eat, when he had wherewithal, and
resolutely endured when he had not. By and
by, Rabener, to whom he was a little known,
offered him a tutorship in the family of a Herr
von Schöuberg, which Heyne, not without re-
luctance, accepted. Tutorships were at all
times his aversion; his rugged plebeian proud
spirit made business of that sort grievous; but
want stood over him, like an armed man, and
was not to be reasoned with.

were the efforts she made to relieve my em-
barrassment, the fruit of my down-bent pride,
and to keep me, a stranger, entering among
familiar acquaintances, in easy conversation.
Her good heart reminded her how much the
unfortunate requires encouragement; espe
cially when placed, as I was, among those to
whose protection he must look up. Thus was
my first kindness for her awakened by that
good-heartedness, which made her, among
thousands, a beneficent angel. She was one
at this moment to myself; for I twice received
letters from an unknown hand, containing
money, which greatly alleviated my difficul

"In a few days, on the 14th of October, I commenced my task of instruction. Her I did not see again till the following spring, when she returned with her friend from Prague; and then only once or twice, as she soon ac

In this Schöuberg family, a novel and unexpected series of fortunes awaited him; but whether for weal or for wo might still be hard to determine. The name of Theresa Weiss has become a sort of classical word in biography; her union with Heyne forms, as it were, a green cypress-and-myrtle oasis in his other-companied Frau von Schöuberg to the counwise hard and stony history. It was here that try, to Ensdorf, in Oberlausitz (Upper Lusahe first met with her; that they learned to love tia.) They left us, after it had been settled each other. She was the orphan of a "profes- that I was to follow them in a few days with sor on the lute;" had long, amid poverty and my pupil. My young heart joyed in the proafflictions, been trained, like the Stoics, to bear spect of rural pleasures, of which I had, from and forbear; was now in her twenty-seventh of old, cherished a thousand delightful dreams. year, and the humble companion, as she had I still remember the 6th of May, when we set once been the school-mate, of the Frau von out for Ænsdorf. Schōuberg, whose young brother Heyne had come to teach. Their first interview may be described in his own words, which Hereen is here again happily enabled to introduce.

"It was on the 10th of October, (her future death-day!) that I first entered the Schöuberg Towards what mountains of mishouse. chances was I now proceeding! To what endless tissues of good and evil hap was the thread here taken up! Could I fancy that at this moment Providence was deciding the fortune of my life! I was ushered into a room, where sat several ladies engaged, with gay youthful sportiveness, in friendly confidential talk. Frau von Schöuberg, but lately married, yet at this time distant from her husband, was preparing for a journey to him at Prague, where his business detained him. On her brow still beamed the pure innocence of youth; in her eyes you saw a glad soft vernal sky; a smiling loving complaisance accompanied her discourse. This, too, seemed one of those souls, clear and uncontaminated as they come from the hands of their Maker. By reason of her brother, in her tender love of him, I must have been, to her, no unimportant guest.

Beside her stood a young lady, dignified in aspect, of fair, slender shape, not regular in feature, yet soul in every glance. Her words, her looks, her every movement, impressed you with respect,-another sort of respect than Good sense, what was paid to rank and birth. good feeling disclosed itself in all she did. You forgot that more beauty, more softness, might have been demanded; you felt yourself under the influence of something noble, something stately and earnest, something decisive that lay in her look, in her gestures; not less attracted to her, than compelled to reverence her. "More than esteem, the first sight of Theresa did not inspire me with. What I noticed most


"The society of two cultivated females, who belonged to the noblest of their sex, and the endeavours to acquire their esteem, contributed to form my own character. Nature and religion were the objects of my daily contemplaI had never thought: these, tion; I began to act and live on principles, of which, till now, too, formed the subject of our constant discourse. Lovely nature and solitude exalted our feelings to a pitch of pious enthusiasm.

"Sooner than I, Theresa discovered that her friendship for me was growing into a passion. Her natural melancholy now seized her heart more keenly than ever: often our glad hours were changed into very gloomy and sad ones. Whenever our conversation chanced to turn on religion, (she was of the Roman Catholic faith,) I observed that her grief became more apparent. I noticed her redouble her devotions; and sometimes found her in solitude, weeping and praying with such a fulness of heart as I had never seen.'

Theresa and her lover, or at least beloved, were soon separated, and for a long while kept much asunder; partly by domestic arrangements, still more by the tumults of war Heyne attended his pupil to the Wittenberg University, and lived there a year; studying for his own behoof, chiefly in philosophy and German history, and with more profit, as he says, than of old. Theresa and he kept up a correspondence, which often passed into melancholy and enthusiasm. The Prussian cannon drove him out of Wittenberg: his pupil and he witnessed the bombardment of the place from the neighbourhood; and, having waited till their University became "a heap of rubbish," had to retire elsewhere for accommodation. The young man subsequently went to Erlangen, then to Göttingen. Heyne remained again without employment, alone in Dresden. The L resa was living in nis neighbourhood, lovely

and sad as ever; but a new bombardment | with her friend was staying: the mother-indrove her also to a distance. She left her little law of the latter being also on a visit to them. property with Heyne, who removed it to his In the fiercest heat of the sun, through tracts lodging, and determined to abide the Prussian of country silent and deserted, I walked four siege, having indeed no other resource. The leagues to Bischopfwerda, where I had to sack of cities looks so well on paper, that we sleep in an inn among carriers. Towards midmust find a little space here for Heyne's ac- night arrived a postilion with return horses; count of his experience in this business; I asked him to let me ride one; and with him though it is none of the brightest accounts; I proceeded, till my road turned off from the and indeed contrasts but poorly with Rabe- highway. All day, I heard the shots at poor ner's brisk sarcastic narrative of the same Dresden re-echoing in the hills. adventure; for he, too, was cannonaded out of Dresden at this time, and lost house and home, and books and manuscripts, and all but good humour.

"The Prussians advanced meanwhile, and on the 18th of July, (1760,) the bombardment of Dresden began. Several nights I passed, in company with others, in a tavern, and the days in my room; so that I could hear the balls from the battery, as they flew through the street, whizzing past my windows. An indifference to danger and to life took such possession of me, that on the last morning of the siege, I went early to bed, and, amid the frightfullest erashing of bombs and grenades, fell fast asleep of fatigue, and lay sound till midday. On awakening, I huddied on my clothes, and ran down stairs, but found the whole house deserted. I had returned to my room, considering what I was to do, whither, at all events, I was to take my chest, when with a tremendous crash, a bomb came down in the court of the house; did not, indeed, set fire to it, but, on all sides, shattered every thing to pieces. The thought, that where one bomb fell more would soon follow, gave me wings; I darted down stairs, found the house-door locked, ran to and fro; at last got entrance into one of the under-rooms, and sprung through the window into the street.


Empty as the street where I lived had been, I found the principal thoroughfares crowded with fugitives. Amidst the whistling of balls, I ran along the Schlossgasse towards the Elbe-Bridge, and so forward to the Neustadt, out of which the Prussians had now been forced to retreat. Glad that I had leave to rest anywhere, I passed one part of the night on the floor of an empty house; the other, witnessing the frightful light of flying bombs, and a burning city.

“At break of day, a little postern was opened by the Austrian guard, to let the fugitives get out of the walls. The captain in his insolence called the people Lutheran dogs, and with this nick-name gave each of us a stroke as we passed through the gate.

"I was now at large; and the thought, whither bound? began for the first time to employ me. As I had run, indeed leapt from my house, in the night of terror, I had carried with me no particle of my property, and not a groschen of money. Only in hurrying along the street, I had chanced to see a tavern open (it was an Italian's) where I used to pass the nights. Here espying a fur-cloak, I had picked it up, and thrown it about me. With this I walked along, in one of the sultriest days, from the Nenstadt, over the sand and the moor; and tok the road for Ensdorf, where Theresa

"Curiosity at first made my reception at Ænsdorf very warm. But as I came to appear in the light of an altogether destitute man, the family could see in me only a future burden: no invitations to continue with them followed. In a few days came a chance of conveyance, by a wagon for Neustadt, to a certain Frau von Fletscher a few miles on this side of it; I was favoured with some old linen for the road. The good Theresa suffered unspeakably under these proceedings: the noble lady, her friend, had not been allowed to act according to the dictates of her own heart.

"Not till now did I feel wholly how miserable I was! Spurning at destiny, and hardening my heart, I entered on this journey. With the Frau von Fletscher too my abode was brief; and by the first opportunity P returned to Dresden. There was still a possibility that my lodging might have been saved. With heavy heart I entered the city; hastened to the place where I had lived, and found a heap of ashes."

Heyne took up his quarters in the vacant rooms of the Brühl Library. Some friends endeavoured to alleviate his distress; but war and rumors of war continued to harass him and drive him to and fro; and his Theresa, afterwards also a fugitive, was now as poor as himself. She heeded little the loss of her property; but inward sorrow and so many outward agitations preyed hard upon her; in the winter she fell violently sick at Dresden, was given up by her physicians; received extreme unction according to the rites of her church; and was for some hours believed to be dead. Nature however, again prevailed: a crisis had occurred in the mind as well as in the body; for with her first returning strength, Theresa declared her determination to renounce the Catholic, and publicly embrace the Protestant faith. Argument, representation of worldly disgrace and loss were unavailing; she could now, that all her friends were to be estranged, have little hope of being wedded to Heyne on earth; but she trusted that in another scene a like creed might unite them in a like destiny. He himself fell ill; and only escaped death by her nursing. Persisting the more in her purpose, she took priestly instruction, and on the 20th of May, in the Evangelical Schlosskirche, solemnly professed her new creed.

"Reverent admiration filled me," says he, "as I beheld the peace and steadfastness with which she executed her determination; and still more the courage with which she bore the consequences of it. She saw herself altogether cast out from her family: forsaken by her acquaintance, by every one; and by the fire deprived of all she had. Her courage exalted

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