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NOMENCLATURE,

AND

EXPOSITOR
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ;

IN WHICH THE MEANING OF EACH WORD IS CLEARLY
EXPLAINED, AND THE ORTHOEPY OF EVERY SYLLABLE
ACCURATELY POINTED OUT, ACCORDING TO

JOIIN WALKER’S
PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY.

COMPILED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED

STATES, AND GREAT BRITAIN.

By Hezekiah Burhans.

COUNSELLOR AT LAW; AND AUTHOR OF THE CRITICAL

PRONOUNCING SPELLING BOOK:

Unless our words are sounded as they ought,
Reading and Elocution can't be taught :
Whilst all we learn unhappily may tend
To Babylon's confusion in the end.

The Author:

12 cw-Xork :
PRINTED BY JOHN MONTGOMERY,

No. 182, GREENWICH-STREET,
AGENT FOR THE CRITICAL PRONOUNCING SPELLING BOOK,
SELF INSTRUCTING GRAMMAR, AND VOCABULARY
OF TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC TERMS.

NAMES OF AGENTS, SEE PAGE 4.

18:27

Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 10 wit :

Be it remembered, that, on the eleventh day of January, the fiftieth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1826.

HEZEKIAH BURHANS, of said District, hath deposited in this Office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Author, in the words following, to wit:

" The Nomenclature and Expositor of the English Language, in which the meaning of each word is clearly explained, and the orthoepy of every Syllable accurately pointed out, according to John Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary; compiled for the Use of Schools in the United States and Great Britain, by Hezekialı Burhans, Counsellor at Law, and Author of the Critical Pronouncing Spelling Book.

Unless our words are sounded as they ought,
Reading and Elocution can't be taught,
Whilst all we learn unhappily may tend

To Babylon's confusion in the end. The Author." In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled “ An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the Author and Proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned."'--And also to the act, entitled, " An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled, 'An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefiis thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.”

D. CALDWELL,

Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. The above Copy has been inserted in " The Saturday Evening Post, a publick newspaper of the city of Philadelphia, published by Atkinson and Alexander, on every Saturday-from the 4th day of February until the 11th day of March 1826.

To all persons to whom these presents shall come, Greeting:

I certify that Hezekiah Burhans has, this fifteenth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twentysix, and of Independence the tiftieth, deposited in the Office of the Department of State, a certain book, consisting of one volume, of 212 pages, entitled The Nomenclature and Expositor

of the English language, by Hezekiah Burhans, Counsellor at Law, and Author of the Critical Pronouncing Spelling Book-Philadelphia, 1826 -the copy-right whereof is claimed by Hezekiah Burhans as author, under the provisions of " An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies during the time therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching, historical and other prints,” passed on the 29th day of April, A. D. 1802.

Given under my band, as the Secretary of the Department of State of the
United States, with the seat of the said Department affixed, at the city of
Washington, the day and year first abovę yrister

H. CLAY
UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

HARVARD

Mr. Walker observes, now unfortu jate it is for the English lan. guage, that its orthography and pronuncia oso wuely diler. ent, that Doctor Watts and Doctor Jones lay it down as a maxim, in their Treatises on Spelling, that all words which can be sounded different ways, must be written according to that sound which is most distant from the true pronunciation; and consequently, in such a language, a Pronouncing Dictionary must le of essential use.'

Bishop Lowth observes, (Grammar, pa; ts 5, 6,) that selling is the art of reading by naming the letters sugly; or rightly dividing words into their syllables : and in writing, it is the expressing of a word by its proper letters. The best and easiest rule for dividing the syllables in spelling, is, to divide them as they are naturally divided in a right pronunciation, without regard to the derivation of words.

Among the early writers on the subject of pronunciation, those who deserve the highest praise are, Messrs. Elphinston, Kendrick, Sheridan, and Nares; who have all their peculiar excellencies. But Mr. John Walker, author of the Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, has combined the advantages to be derived from the writings of those gentlemen, into one complete system. Indeed, so adequate is his performance, that it has been adopted as the standard of the English language, not only in the best institutions for learning in Great Britain and Ireland, but likewise in sim:lar institutions throughout the United States; and wherever that language is cultivated.

The Author of this Nomenclature has rigidiy followed the last gentleman's system of pronunciation; and has divided and accented all his words accordingly. He has put the orthoepy and part of speech of each word within a parenthesis, for the convenience of such Teachers as choose to have the part of speech, and the definition of the word, got at the same time. He has left out all obsolete and indelicate terms, thereby reducing the Vocabulary of the Language to what is absolutely necessary, viz. about one-third of what is usually comprised in a Dictionary: this, with simplifying the definitions, and keeping them restrained to primary meanings, (always the best for the young mind) must save a great deal of useless and fatiguing labour, both to the teacher and learuer.

'To conclude, the writer of this work has intentionally adapted it to succeed his Spelling-Book, so as to form a complete system of useful and unexceptionable language, in order to lay a solid foundation for the education of both sexes, throughout the Union.

This system, he presumes, will be acceptable, and useful to all who speak the English language. He recommends a perfect study of the key.

THE AUTHOR.
A 2

THE AUTHOR HAS APPOINTED THE FOLLOWING LADIES AND GENTLEMEN AS

AGENT TO SELL THE NOMENCLATURE.
A
G

R
J. D. Allesson, Burlington, N. J. G. Getz, Reading, Pennsylvania. Abraham Rex, Shaefertown, Pa.
W. Alexander, Mechanicksburgb, C. & R. Green, Greenwich, N.J.J. Rakestraw, No. 256, N. Third
Peposylvania.

James Given, Fishkill, N. Y. street, Philadelphia, Pa. Abbert Scull, Centerville, N.J.1. H. Goond, Jersey City, N.J. Daniel Rieft, Trap, Pennsylvania. Adams & Hallenbeck, Coxackie,

Н

W. Rice, Bethlehem, Pa. New York.

J. Y. Humphreys, No. 86, South W. S. Root, Quarantine, N.Y. B

Front street, Philadelphia, Pa. Enoch Roberts, Moorestiwn, N.J. E. Buck, No. 273, Market street, John Holmes, No. 412, V Second ... W. Hugles, Rhinebeck, N.Y..

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. street, Philadelphia, Pa. Charles Rimur, Salisbury, Md. Bendet & VIOL, V. 37, Market H. W. Hotfman,'& Co. Middle. Samuel Kussell, Saugerties, N. Y. street, Phaladelphia, Pa.

town, Maryland.

Richard Reed, Mendhan, N. J. P. Berlin, Chambersburgh, Pa. G. & J. Haver. Hagerstown, Md.

S G. & C. Bretz, Allent wn, Pa. J. Henry, Evansburzii,!. (N.J. J. Scott, No. 93, Market-street, Jacob K. boy, Reading, Pa. M. W. Haley, Elizabeth own, Wilmington, Delaware. Walter Betis, Richmon, N.J. Howel " Innos, Easton, Fa. James Swover, Newville, Pa. C. Bonsall, Nortolk, Virgicia. Samuel lyer, Churchtown, Pa. George Sterrelle, Derby, Pa. G. L, Birch, No. 9. Clion-street, Ji Hyo Rx boy up,a. Bienry Shafer, Coventry, Pa.

Brooklyo, L. I. New York. T. & Niliars, Bu!! Air, Vid \J. Saunders, Woodbury, N.J. (N.J. John Brown, Neuburgh, N.Y. W. Heylencer, Columbia, N.J. C. & J. E. Shippard, Greenwich, Thomas Boad, Port Deposite, M. W. Helderbrant, Berlin, Pa. C. Seeley, Athens, New York. Bittengen & Fahrlestock, Peters

J

D. Steel & Son, No. 437, Market burat Pennsylvania.

Henry Jones, Bloomsbury, N.J. street, Albany, New York. Daniel Barnetz, Hanover, Pa. B. F. Johnson, Alarcushook, Pa. S. Shaw, No. 41, State-st. Albany. Daviel Boyl, Taugeytown, M. W. Johnson, Lebagon, N.Y. S. D. Stryker, Flemington, N. J. J. Bieterman, Esq. Hambur b, P. N. N. Joraleman, Bergen, N. J. T. P. Smith, Easton, Md. Isaac Baugher, Emmetsburgh,MI.

K

I. R. Smith, Snowhill, Md. A. Basset, Marlborough, N. Y. N. Knight, Esq. Fells Point, Bal. Peter G. Shulze, Myerstown, Pa. Jacob Burhans, Kingston, N. Y. timore, Maryland. (N. Y. John Schal!, Orwigsburg, Pa. H. & S. Bowne, Westchester, N.Y. J. H. Kimberly, & Co. Lock-port, Mary Sears, Havre de Grace, Md. S. Bownė, New Rochelle, N. Y.

L

D. Schiver, York, Pa. (dorf, Pa. Walter Buttler, Stuyvesant, N. Y. F.& R. Lockwood, No.399 Broad- Frederick A. Shulze, WomelsPeter Blair, Hope, New Jersey. way. New York City. Joseph S. Smith, Kingston, (Esс

Lockerman & Scoti, Carlisle, Pa. pus) New York. (N. Y. E. J. Cole, No. 4, N. Calvert-st. P. M. Lafourcade. N. W. corner Spencer & M'Stratt, Marlborough, Baltimore, Maryland.

of Second and Pace streets, L. O. Sherman, Coeyinans, N.Y. 8. Cullertson, Stippensburgh, Pa. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Nathan Stiger, Hacketstown, N.J J. Campbell, Elizabethtowu, Pa W. Leibert, Germantown, Pa.

T Joel B. Curtis. Mercertown, P'a. Lambert & Knowles, Lambert. J. Thomas, Georgetown, D. C. J. W. Campbell, Petersburgh, l'a. ville, New Jerser.

Terhune & Lets ), Albany-street, T. J. Cooper, Gettysburg, Pa. Aaron Lambert, New Hope, Pa. New Brunswick, N. J. (Pa. Col. Icha c. Cockey, Westmin- H. T. Lucas, Fredericksburgh, S. C. Thompson, Middletown, ster, Maryland.

(N.J.

Virginia. (New Jersey. John Trenchani, Fairtown, N.'J. Cattle. Brown & Bassel, Salern, Jeremiah Leaming, Dennis Creek Tracy & Bliss, Lansingburgh, Chaplin & Donovan, Cambridge,

M

New York. Maryland.

Samuel Moore, Stauchstown, l'a. P Crosby, Pottsville, Pa. George W. Mentz, No. 71, Race Van Dyke & Hawley, KinderColt & Donalson, Danville, Pa. street, Philadelphia, Pa.

hook, New York. (N.J. Cushing & Jewett, No. 6, N. How... McGill. Market-st. Frederick Brant Van Blarcom, Patterson, ard-st. Baltimore, Ma. [Pa. City, Maryland.

Van Deventer & Terhune, PrinceW. M. Cooper, Waynesburgh, W. Mentzer, Pottsgrove, Pa. ton, New Jersey. Teter Cambless, New Port, N. J. Joseph Marsh, Perth Amboi, N.J.

W Joseph Carl, Abbottstown, Pa. John M. Cornick, Leeshurgh, Va. Mr. Wallace, Strasburgh, Pa. Clark & Hart, Pekskill, N. Y. J. Markell, Frederick City, Md. Mr. Weems, Dumfries, Va. Ellet Cohu, Manhattan ville, N. Y. L. Milford, Millville, N. j. (N. J.J. Wyeth, Harrisburgh, Pa. D

Madeira & Heritage, Wondstown, White & Bliss No. 128, Broad. Mrs. M. Dickson, Lancaster, Pa. C. H. Miller, Nazareth, Pa. way, City of New York. T. Davison, Trenton, N. J. W. M'Kelvy, Bloomsburgh, Pa. Mr. Winnard, Norristown, Pa. Davis & Force, Pennsylvania

N

R. Warford, Alexandria, N. J. Avenue, Washington City, D.C. J. H. Nash, Richmond, Virginia. Thomas B. Wollman, High-st. F. & A. Douglas, King.st. Alex.

0

Burlington, New Jersey. andria, District of Columbia. Thomas Ogden, Cedarville, N. J. John Willianis, Kingsto, N. J. Roland Diller, New Holland, Pa.G. U. enheimer, 6112 own,Pa. West & Boyd, Greencastle, Pa. Edward D:\is, Churchtown, Pa. Peter Outwater, Rednook, N. Y. 2. Wolf, Swedesborough, N.J. I.T. Doughty, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

P

D. Wimer, Northumberland, Pa. Joseph Delezenne, Singsing, N. Y. Isaac Pugh, S. E. corner of Third Thomas B. Wood, Malaga, N. J. Joha R. Davison, Millstone, N.J. and Race streets, Philadelphia. Asa Wright, Hoboken, N.J. E

N. Palnier & Son, Mount Holly, Wright & Foster, Jamaica, Long Reese Evans, Morgantown, Pa. | New Jersey. [town, N. 3. Island, New York. (N. Y. Ely & Sherman, New Baltimore, 1. B. & R. D. Potter, West Bridge. Benjamin Waggocer, New Paltza New York.

Henry Peck, Schenectady, N. Y. John D. Work, Greencastle, Pa.
F
Mr. Parker, Troy, N. Y (N. Y.

Y
Wiliano L. Fisb, Watertard, N. Y Palmer & Purdy, Whiteplaius, C. Young E. Woodbridge, N. J.

OF THE

SIMPLE AND DIPHTHONGAL VOWELS Referred to, by the figures over the letters, in this Nomenclature.

A. 1. & The long slender English a, as in fåte, pa' per, 2. & The long Italian a, as in får, fl' ther, pa på', mam ma', 3. & The broad German a, as in håll, mall, will, wl' ter. 4. i The short sound of the Italian a, as in bat, nit, mit, mir'rs.

E. 1. & The long e, as in mê, hêre, inc' tre, mé' dium. 2. & The short e, as in mét, lét, sét.

I. 1. i The long diphthongal i, as in plne, e' tle. 2. i The short simple i, as in płn, elt' tle.

0. 1. 8 The long open o, as in nd, ndte, nd' tice. 2. The long close o, as in move, prðve. 3. : The long broad o, as in nür, för, or ; like the broad å. 4. The short broad o, as in not, båt, gåt.

U. 1. i The long diphthongal u, as in elbe, od rate. 2. & The short simple u, as in tób, cib, alp. 3. & The middle or obtuse u, as in bdsh, bani, füll, pdil,

OI. 31 The long broad o, and the long i, as long e, in pölse, adise as abdze.

OI. of The long broad o, and the short i, as in coln, 81.

OU. 8d The long broad o, and the middle obtuse u, as in odånd, thôi, pôduul.

TH.
th The acute or sharp th, as in think, thin.

ΤΗ. .
Tu The grave or flat ni, as in tuine, Tuất.

N. B. The parts of speech are regularly numbered; as 1 for article, 2 for substantive, 3 for adjective, 4 for pronoun, 5 for verb, 6 for adverb, 7 for preposition, 8 for conjunction, 9 for participle, 10 for interjection.

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