The Philosophy of the Enlightenment

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C. Scribner's sons, 1910 - 311 من الصفحات
Catherine the Great considered herself an enlightened ruler. She read the most prominent philosophies of the day, including the writings of Voltaire, and tried to adhere to Enlightenment ideas. She wished to bring Russia up to par with its neighbors not only in a military sense, but also politically, culturally and intellectually. Published in 1910, this volume contains an exploration of the philosophy of the Enlightenment and the very ideals to which Empress Catherine II of Russia subscribed.
 

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الصفحة 97 - For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception.
الصفحة 29 - Our business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our conduct. If we can find out those measures whereby a rational creature, put in that state in which man is in this world, may, and ought to govern his opinions, and actions depending thereon, we need not be troubled that some other things escape our knowledge.
الصفحة 58 - Principles Of Human Knowledge 1. OBJECTS OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.—It is evident to any one who takes a survey of the objects of human knowledge, that they are either IDEAS actually imprinted on the senses; or else such as are perceived by attending to the passions and operations of the mind; or lastly, ideas formed by help of memory and imagination—either compounding, dividing, or barely representing those originally perceived in the aforesaid ways.
الصفحة 47 - Whatsoever the mind perceives in itself, or is the immediate object of perception, thought, or understanding, that I call idea; and the power to produce any idea in our mind, I call quality of the subject wherein that power is.
الصفحة 277 - If the whole of Natural Theology, as some people seem to maintain, resolves itself into one simple, though somewhat ambiguous, at least undefined, proposition, That the cause or causes of order in the universe probably bear some remote analogy to human intelligence...
الصفحة 68 - A Spirit is one simple, undivided, active being — as it perceives ideas it is called the understanding, and as it produces or otherwise operates about them it is called the will.
الصفحة 190 - All quite down from us the descent is by easy steps, and a continued series of things, that in each remove differ very little one from the other. There are fishes that have wings, and are not strangers to the airy region ; and there are some birds that are inhabitants of the water, whose blood is cold as fishes, and their flesh so like in taste, that th.e scrupulous are allowed them on fish-days.
الصفحة 59 - Smelling furnishes me with odours ; the palate with tastes ; and hearing conveys sounds to the mind in all their variety of tone and composition. And as several of these are observed to accompany each, other, they come to be marked by one name, and so to be/ reputed as one thing. Thus, for example, a certain colour,', taste, smell, figure and consistence having been observed to go together, are accounted one distinct thing, signified by the name apple...
الصفحة 67 - To me it is evident, for the reasons you allow of, that sensible things cannot exist otherwise than in a mind or spirit. Whence I conclude, not that they have no real existence, but that, seeing they depend not on my thought, and have an existence distinct from being perceived by me, there must be some other mind wherein they exist. As sure, therefore, as the sensible world really exists, so sure is there an infinite omnipresent spirit, who contains and supports it.
الصفحة 26 - ... found themselves quickly at a stand, by the difficulties that rose on every side. After we had a while puzzled ourselves, without coming any nearer a resolution of those doubts which perplexed us, it came into my thoughts, that we took a wrong course ; and that before we set ourselves upon inquiries of that nature, it was necessary to examine our own abilities, and see what objects our understandings...

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