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i.e. 'too proud of being so valiant.' Compare also King Lear, III. v. 10, "How malicious is my fortune, that I must repent to be just," i.e. ' of being just.' (For uses of to and the infinitive in place of a preposition and the gerund, see Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar, § 356, p. 256.) 631-642. These lines enumerating the qualities of a true critic are admirable in form and substance.

636. humanly, i.e. 'humanely.' Formerly the adjective humane was not distinguished from human which was written with the final e. 641. converse in the wider sense signified 'familiarity,' 'acquaintance by frequent intercourse'; in the narrower sense, 'familiar talk,' 'conversation.'

642, love to praise, "Blest with...love to praise" means 'blest with the love of bestowing praise.' The expression is harsh and unusual. 645. Stagirite, see note to l. 138, p. 96.

648. the Maeonian star, viz. Homer. Maeonia was another name of Lydia in Asia Minor, and Smyrna, one of the seven cities which claimed to be the birth-place of Homer, was its capital. Hence "Maeonian" signifies 'Homeric' and in that sense is used by Horace (Odes 1. vi. 2), Maeonii carminis ['of Homer's strain'], and by Martial (Epigr. v. x. 8):

"Et sua riserunt secula Maeonidem," ['Homer was laughed at by his own age.']

652. Aristotle may be said to have "conquered nature" in his Physics, and to "preside o'er wit" in his Rhetoric and Poetics. Pope's language implies that the Greek poets, with the exception of Homer, enjoyed a "savage liberty" until Aristotle's laws restrained them. Compare with this, however, the statement contained in lines 98—9: "Just precepts thus from great examples giv'n,

She drew from them what they derived from Heav'n." i.e. the critics derived their laws from observation of the works of the poets.

653-6. Horace's Epistle to the Pisos makes no pretence of expounding what its ambitious title would lead one to expect,— the Art of Poetry. The reader, in quest of a methodical treatise with analyses, definitions, classifications, and other scientific apparatus, is doomed to disappointment when, instead of all this, he finds a friendly letter which begins with a joke, ends with a joke, and contains a jumble of bits of practical advice, as far as possible removed from the judicial utterances of a Professor of Poetry. 'Elegance, not sublimity," says Warton, "was Horace's grand characteristic. He is the

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most popular author of all antiquity; the reason is, because he abounds in images drawn from familiar life, and in remarks that 'come home to men's business and bosoms.' Hence he is more frequently quoted and alluded to than any other poet of antiquity."

662. Roscommon has a similar line, Essay on Translated Verse, 1. 299:

"Thus make the proper use of each extreme,

And write with fury, but correct with fleme."

fle'me, i.e. ' phlegm,' also written flegm, flem, is derived from Gk. pλéyua, 'flame,' 'fire,' 'heat'; from this heat arose a humour, phlegm, which was regarded as the cause of many diseases. In a figurative sense the word denoted 'dullness,' 'apathy,' 'self-restraint.'

663-4. The meaning of the couplet is obscured by the awkward arrangement of the words. What Pope intends to say is that Horace does not suffer more at the hands of wits from their wrong translations than he suffers at the hands of critics from their wrong quotations. What he actually says is that Horace does not suffer more from wrong translations than critics suffer from wrong quotations.

665. Dionysius of Halicarnassus took up his residence at Rome about the year B. C. 30. Several of his treatises on history, rhetoric, or criticism are extant. As a critic his reputation stood high.

667. Titus Petronius, commonly called Petronius Arbiter, was a favourite of the emperor Nero, at whose court he was regarded as elegantiae arbiter, 'umpire on questions of taste.' Though he appears to have been an accomplished voluptuary, he efficiently discharged the duties of the consulship during his year of office. Through the jealousy of a rival, he was accused of treason and committed suicide in A.D. 66.

It is difficult to conjecture Pope's reason for giving him a place alongside of Quintilian and Longinus. Johnson suspects that "Pope had never read Petronius, and mentioned him on the credit of two or three sentences which he had often seen quoted, imagining that where there was so much, there must necessarily be more. Young men, in haste to be renowned, too frequently talk of books which they have scarcely seen.' The work attributed to Petronius is a romance called the Satyricon, in the fourteenth chapter of which Eumolpus discourses on poetry and speaks of Horace's curiosa felicitas, a phrase which is nowadays on the lips of many people who would be puzzled to assign it to its right source.

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669. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, born A.D. 42, was a celebrated teacher of eloquence under the emperor Galba and some of his succes

sors.

The younger Pliny was one of his pupils.

His valuable work

De Institutione Oratoria, in twelve books, has come down to us.

675. Longinus. The Treatise on the Sublime is usually attributed to Cassius Longinus, the Greek secretary of Zenobia, queen of Palmyra. When the emperor Aurelian deprived Zenobia of her dominions, he revenged himself on Longinus by putting him to death, A.D. 273. The authorship of the Treatise is however uncertain, and is ascribed by some authorities to Plutarch, who flourished two centuries earlier, or to one of Plutarch's contemporaries. M. Egger speaks of the work as "the most original Greek essay of its kind since the Rhetoric and Poetics of Aristotle." By the Sublime, Longinus means "a certain loftiness and excellence of language, by which alone the greatest poets and prose-writers have gained eminence. . . . A lofty passage does not convince the reason of the reader, but takes him out of himself. . . . The Sublime, acting with an imperious and irresistible force, sways every reader, whether he will or not." (Longinus, I. 3-4: Havell's Translation with Introduction by Andrew Lang.)

680. In the preface to his Translation of Longinus, Boileau had said, "En parlant du sublime, il est lui-même très sublime."

Notice that the subject he must be supplied κarà σúveσw from whose in the preceding line.

685. felt is an inappropriate verb to be followed by "doom" as its object.

686. Rome. On the pronunciation see note to l. 248.

In A.D. 410, Alaric, king of the West Goths, took and sacked Rome, which had never fallen into the hands of a foreign enemy since its capture by Brennus the Gaul eight centuries before, B. C. 390. In A.D. 476, Romulus, derisively called Augustulus, was dethroned and pensioned off by Odoacer, and the succession of the Western Emperors came to an end. Henceforth the Roman Empire went on at Constantinople, or New Rome, while Italy and the Old Rome were under the sway of the barbarians. The fall of the Western Empire forms a convenient land-mark from which to date the beginning of that period of European history which we call the dark ages. For several generations taste and knowledge had been declining, but the remains of learning were swept away with increase rapidity by the catastrophes which overtook the Roman arms in the fifth century. Whatever knowledge survived during this era was mainly confined to the church, and the church was hostile to all secular learning. Hallam considers that in England and Italy the darkest part of this intellectual night was W. P. E.

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the tenth century; in France and Germany, the seventh and eighth centuries. During the dark ages there was a lack of poetical talent: genius as well as acquired ability was extinct. At the beginning of the twelfth century signs of improvement appeared. Universities were founded and the scholastic philosophy was cultivated. The reader will find a detailed treatment of the subject in the first chapter of Hallam's Introduction to the Literature of Europe.

In the East, however, where the Empire had gone on uninterruptedly without any lasting barbarian conquests, learning had never died out among the laity. Increased intercourse of the men of the West with the Greeks and Saracens promoted the revival of learning and science in the twelfth century. Haroun-al-Raschid, caliph of Bagdad (765809), made his court the centre of arts and letters, and the refuge for men of learning from all parts of the Eastern empire. This literary activity spread to the Moorish kingdom of Spain, and the consequent indebtedness of Europe to the Saracens in the department of science, especially for the introduction of Arabic numerals and our present system of arithmetic, is great.

692. Pope's epigrammatic statement is confirmed by Hallam: "A prepossession against secular learning had taken hold of those ecclesiastics who gave the tone to the rest. It was inculcated in the most extravagant degree by Gregory I. [di. 604], the founder, in a great measure, of the papal supremacy, and the chief authority in the dark ages. It is even found in Alcuin [di. 804], to whom so much is due, and it gave way very gradually in the revival of literature. In some of the monastic foundations, especially in that of Isidore [di. 636], though himself a man of considerable learning, the perusal of heathen authors was prohibited. Fortunately Benedict [di. 543], whose order became most widely diffused, while he enjoined his brethren to read, copy, and collect books, was silent as to their nature, concluding probably that they would be wholly religious. This in course of time became the means of preserving and multiplying classical manuscripts." (Introd. to the Lit. of Europe, Vol. 1. p. 4.)

693. Erasmus (1467—1536), an illegitimate son of Gerard, was born at Rotterdam. He changed his father's name, which in Dutch means 'amiable,' to Désiré, afterwards expanded into Desiderius Erasmus, the Latin and Greek equivalents of Gerard. His parents died when he was a boy, and his guardians, having squandered his property, in order to conceal their breach of trust forced him to enter a monastery. 1486 he assumed the vows, but was fortunately preserved from being

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immured in a convent.

The bishop of Cambray heard of his Latin scholarship, gave him a temporary berth as his private secretary, and afterwards sent him to Paris to pursue his studies. For many years Erasmus led a wandering life on the continent and in England, dependent on the precarious liberality of admirers, and often reduced to awkward straits of impecuniosity. He came to England for the first time in 1497, and formed the acquaintance of Sir Thomas More, Dean Colet, Linacre, and Grocyn. It was at More's house, on the occasion of another visit to this country, that he wrote his book with the humorous title Moriae Encomium, or The Praise of Folly, "his song of triumph over the old world of ignorance and bigotry which was to vanish away before the light and knowledge of the new reign. Folly, in his amusing little book, mounts a pulpit in cap and bells and pelts with her satire the absurdities of the world around her, the superstition of the monk, the pedantry of the grammarian, the dogmatism of the doctors of the schools, the cruelty of the sportsman." (Green, Short History of the English People, pp. 301--2.) In 1506 he obtained from the pope a final release from his monastic vows. At Henry VIII.'s invitation he revisited England in 1510 and taught Greek and theology at Cambridge. He died at Bâle. His literary energy was exhaustless. His greatest work was the publication of the Greek Testament with a new Latin translation in 1516. He also edited the writings of St Jerome, conducted a controversy with Luther, and attacked the monastic orders in his Colloquies.

694. Erasmus was "the glory" of the priesthood by reason of his genius: he was "its shame," or reproach, (1) because of the exposure which he made of ecclesiastical abuses, (2) because of the scandalous virulence with which many persons of influence in the church attacked him, (3) because he threw off the obligation of his monastic vows as soon as he was able to do so.

696. Vandals. This Germanic race appeared first in Middle and Southern Germany. During the first half of the fifth century, the Vandals ravaged Greece, Spain, and North Africa, and in A.D. 455 plundered Rome, doing great damage to her treasures of art and literature.

The couplet contains two metaphors between which there is no consistency. If the Vandals were a torrent to be stemmed, they could not at the same time resemble actors driven off the stage. Observe however that the metaphors are kept separate, not blended in one figure, as they are when Shakespeare says "to take up arms against a sea of troubles." (Hamlet, III. i. 59.)

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