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solatia tamen: unum facilitas manumittendi, alterum quum permitto servis quoque, quasi testamenta facere, eaque ut legitima custodio. Mandant, rogantque quod visum; pareo ocyùs: Suis dividunt, donant; relinquunt, duntaxat intra domum;" id est, conservis.

Several of the Roman Slaves were much respected and even honoured for their superior abilities. Phædrus had been a Slave, and was freed by Tiberius Cæsar. Terence, the celebrated author of Comedies, had been a Slave, and many others who excelled. Many of them, after they were emancipated, were moreover raised to honours. One Pallas is spoken of, both by Juvenal and Pliny, as having attained senatorial rank; he was voted a large sum of money, for his good conduct, by the emperor and senate. A monument was erected to his memory on the via Tiburtina, with this inscription: "Huic senatus, ob fidem pietatemque erga patronos, ornamenta prætoria decrevit, et sestertium centies quinquagies: cujus honore contentus fuit." Several others, spoken of by the same authors, were enriched, and enjoyed offices under different emperors; as Carus, Licinius, Parthenius, and Latinus, &c. &c. freedmen, or sons of freedmen, by the emperors Claudius, Nero, and Domitian. In the early part of the Commonwealth they were very mildly treated, as Montesquieu tells us : "Les premiers Romains vivoient, travailloient et mangeoient avec leurs esclaves : ils avoient pour eux beaucoup de douceur, et d'équité."

Amongst the ancient Assyrians and Persians, Slaves were often raised to great honours, as we learn from the Bible; for we know that several of the captive Jews, as Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, by Nebuchadnezzer; and Mordecai, by Ahasuerus, were advanced to the highest offices. In Turkey many of the Greeks

now enjoy lucrative offices, and in some eastern courts, of the present day also, many of the Negroes are in offices of trust and authority. These numerous examples of clemency and humanity amongst ancient heathens, and modern Mahometans, put, or ought to put, many of our modern European Christians to the blush.

Even the Piratical Algerines, and Tunisians, now promote those of their captives, who embrace their religion. I myself saw several Italians, at Tunis, emancipated and well provided for, strutting about, and looking as big as Turks themselves. I do not mean to speak in praise of these apostates from our holy faith; but it shews that these semi-barbarous Turks, and barbarous Africans, have some zeal for proselytism, and some humanity for those of their own creed.


Montesquieu observes, that the origin of the right of making Slaves, arose from the contempt which one nation had for the people of another. His words are: “J'aimerois autant dire que le droit de l'esclave vient du mépris qu'une nation conçoit pour une autre, fondé sur la difference des coutumes." He adds, by way of illustration, or proof.


Lopes de Gamar dit, que les Espagnols trouvèrent près de sainte Marthe des paniers où les habitans avoient des denrées; c'étoient des cancres, des limaçons, des cigales, des sauterelles. Les vainqueurs en firent un crime aux vaincus. L'auteur avoue que c'est là dessus qu'on fonda le droit qui rendoit les Américains esclaves

des Espagnols, outre qu'ils fumoient du tabac, et qu'ils ne se faisoient pas la barbe à l'Espagnole."

This seems to be a cogent reason; for the Israelites were allowed to make bond-slaves of other nations, on account of their superiority as God's chosen people. The Greeks likewise enslaved those of other nations, looking upon them as barbarians, while they most commonly spared their own countrymen of another state, though often opposed to each other in war. The Romans had nearly the same ideas, with respect to themselves, and acted nearly in the same manner, to those of other nations, looking upon them as every way inferior. This sovereign contempt of the persons, with a dislike of the colour of the Negroes, appears to have been one great reason for that general, cruel, and inhuman havoc made among them, by the polished Europeans. Montesquieu gives excellent reasons for the Slavery of the blacks also, and I shall therefore, again quote him.

"Si j'avois (says he) à soutenir le droit que nous avons eu de rendre les Nègres esclaves, voici ce que je dirois. Les peuples d'Europe ayant exterminé ceux de l'Amerique, ils ont dû mettre en esclavage ceux de l'Afrique, pour s'en servir à défricher tant de terres. Le sucre seroit trop cher, si l'on ne faisoit travailler la plante qui le produit par des esclaves. Ceux dont il s'agit sont noirs depuis les pieds jusqu'à la tête, et ils ont le nez si écrasé, qu'il est presque impossible de les plaindre. On ne peut se mettre dans l'esprit que Dieu, qui est un être très sage, ait mis une ame, sur-tout une ame bonne, dans un corps tout noir."

Most of the European nations looked upon the Negroes as an inferior race, (too many still do so,) and therefore considered it lawful to steal and transport them,

to compel them to labour in their colonies; they were looked upon as little better than brutes, or merely as a connecting link between the monkey tribe and white men.

Mr. Long, who resided some years in Jamaica, and published the best history of that extensive colony, (at least it is considered the best by the colonists, and very much praised by them, on which account we may conclude that they approve of his sentiments on the Slaves,) this Mr. Long is at great pains to prove that the Negroes are a different race, nay, a different species of the same genus, and therefore very inferior to whites, and not superior to the Oran-Outang, or king of the apes. After ranging far and wide, in the dark and dangerous region of metaphysics, and philosophizing on what God might have done, in the creation of men, as to making them distinct and different, as he did the brutes, and so descending in a graduated link to the brutes themselves, this gentleman then really fancies from the premises of his own warm imagination, that it must be so, and observes, that "An Oran-Outang, in this case, is a human being, quoad his form and organs; but of an inferior species quoad as his intellect: he has in form a much nearer resemblance to the Negro race, than the latter bear to white men: the supposition is well founded then, that the brain and intellectual organs, so far as they are dependent upon mere matter, though similar in texture and modification to those of other men, may in some of the Negro race be so constituted, as not to result to the same effects; for we cannot but allow but the Deity might, if it was his pleasure, diversify his works in this manner, and either withhold the superior principle entirely or in part only, or infuse it into the different classes and races of human creatures, in such

proportions as to form the same gradual climax towards perfection in this human system which is so evidently designed in every other. If such has been the intention of the Almighty, we are then perhaps to regard the Oran-Outang as

The lag of human kind;

Nearest to brutes by God designed.

The Negro race consisting of varieties will then appear rising progressively in the scale of intellect, the further they mount above the Oran-Outang and brute creation. That there are some physical distinctions, in respect of person, I think requires no further demonstration; and that men vary still more in intellect is almost equally evident."

Again, he goes on-" As we recede from Negroland, this blackness gradually decreases, and the wool as gradually changes to lank hair, which at first is a sort of staple, but is found longer the further we advance. We observe the like gradations of the intellectual faculty, from the first rudiments perceived in the monkey kind, to the more advanced stages of it in apes, in the OranOutang, that type of man and the Guinea Negro; and ascending from the varieties of this class, to the lighter casts, until we mark its utmost limit of perfection in the pure white."

His conclusions are by no means correct; for we know that the ancient Egyptians, who were a people of a dark colour, far excelled many other nations who were fairer than themselves; nay, made greater progress in the sciences and fine arts, than many modern white nations have ever made.

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